• Title, Summary, Keyword: Level of Interaction

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The Effects of Interaction with an Object and with an Adult on Young Children's Cognitive Level (도구 및 성인과의 상호작용이 유아의 인지수준에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Soeun;Song, Ji-Young
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.71-85
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    • 2002
  • This study examined the effects of different interaction styles, that is, interaction with an object and interaction with an adult, on young children's cognitive level. Subjects were 150 5-year-old children. The task required children to predict the working of a mathematical balance beam. Seven cognitive levels were identified based on the logic of prediction. Data were analyzed by t-test, F-test, Duncan Test and Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Test. Results showed that both interaction styles caused improvement in children's cognitive level, but when interaction with an adult was divided into two categories, i.e., interaction with the higher group and interaction with the lower group, the latter experienced decline in cognitive level. Regardless of sex, interactions within the Zone of Proximal Development and with the object were found to be effective methods for children's cognitive improvement.

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A Study on Interaction Pattern, Learning Attitude, Task Performance by Meta-cognitive Level in Web-Based Learning (웹 기반 학습자의 메타인지수준별 학습활동분석 -간호학 대학원 학생을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Sun-Ock;Suh, Min-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.323-331
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: Level of meta-cognition of students has been regarded as one of the crucial factors on web-based learning. This study aimed to describe interaction type in small group discussion of the nursing graduate students and to investigate learning consequences and interaction types in group discussion on meta-cognition level. Method: Twenty six graduate nursing students attending the class on-line at the K university in Seoul were included in the study. We measured their meta-cognition level and learning attitude. We also scored their individual and group reports as well as analyzed interaction type by reviewing the dialogue of the group discussion. Results: The participants showed low frequency of exploratory interaction and high frequency of integrative interaction in the cognitive interaction category. They showed frequent modification interaction in the meta-cognitive interaction category. Interestingly, the students with lower level of meta-cognition achieved significantly greater scores in the individual assignments. High functioning group consisting of the students with high meta-cognitive level produced greater group report. Conclusion: A new strategy is needed to encourage in-depth interaction in a group discussion of nursing students. Meta-cognitive level of the students should be considered to form a small group for discussion in order to improve group activities.

The Moderating Effect of the Physical Environmental-level Between Infant Teachers' Positive Play Beliefs and Teacher-infant Interaction (영아교사의 긍정적 놀이신념이 영아와의 상호작용에 미치는 영향에서 물리적 환경수준의 중재효과)

  • Lee, Mijin;Lee, Wanjung
    • Korean Journal of Childcare and Education
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.41-57
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderate effect of the physical environmental-level between infant teachers' positive play beliefs and teacher-infant interaction. Methods: The subjects of this study were 483 teachers in charge of one-year-old and two-year-old infants in child care centers located in metropolitan areas. The data were collected by asking the teachers to respond to a questionnaire and the data collected were analyzed through correlation and hierarchical multi- regression analysis. Results: First, the positive play beliefs of the infant teacher, the physical environment level, and the teacher-infant interaction showed significant proportional correlations. Second, the physical environment level moderated the influence of the teacher's positive play beliefs on teacher-infant interaction. In particular, results showed that functional interior space configuration, outdoor playground composition and facilities among the sub-variables of the physical environment level had a moderating effect. Conclusion/Implications: The results of this study show that teachers with positive play beliefs have positive teacher-infant interaction when there is sufficient space available for infants and teachers. This indicates that the human and physical environments of child care centers can promote teacher-child interaction.

Patterns of Fazther-Infant Play Interaction : A Pilot Study (아버지와 영아의 놀이 상호작용 양상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Young Hee
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.31-44
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    • 1998
  • In our time the parent's role is changing from sexually differentiated to androgynous pattern. Mother's interction with infant includes caring and father's interaction especially have play. Father and mother share the caring and play because they have complementary nature. Infants have a tendency to show more positive responses to their fathers than mothers in play situations. For that reason we can help the promotion of father's interaction with his infant through ascertaining patterns of father-infant play interaction. This study was to find out patterns of father-infant play interaction in order to improve the Interaction between father and infant. Data was video-taped from 6 fathers and infants who were healthy and first-timed and 7-11 weeks old in their houses. I used Father-Infant Play Interaction Scale that was applied to father instead of mother as a care-giver. The scale was checked up by experts in this field for content validity and the reliability was 0.95 in this study. The results were as follows : 1. Father's play behaviors were the patterns of responses about infant's cue. The mean score was 33.16(SD, 9.11), This means they come up to the standard level of responses about infant's cue. 2. Infant's play behaviors were the patterns of responses about father's cue. The mean score was 7.00(SD,3.10). This means they get the higher level of responses about father's cue. 3. The patterns of simultaneous responses occured together between father and infant. The mean score was 9.58 (SD, 3.96). This means they reach the standard level of simultaneous responses between father and infant. 4. The patterns of interactional behaviors occured interpersonally between father and infant. The mean score was 49.75(SD, 15.80). This means they interact on the standard level of play interaction. In view of the results father's play interaction seems to reveal an average level and play patterns are similar to mother's. In order to ascertain definitely patterns of father-infant play interaction we need further research which has more subjects and variables to have important effects.

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The Effects of Teacher Efficacy and Level of Professionalism of Child-care Teachers on Interaction of Teachers and Children (보육교사의 교사효능감 및 전문성 수준이 교사-유아 상호작용에 미치는 영향)

  • Kweon, Mi Seong;Moon, Hyuk Jun
    • Korean Journal of Childcare and Education
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.277-296
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    • 2013
  • The current study examined the effects of teacher efficacy, and level of professionalism in the subject of interaction of teachers and children. The data collected in this study shows the following results. First, teachers over thirty years-old tend to show a higher level of teacher efficacy, level of professionalism and interaction of teachers and children compare to teachers who are under thirty. In categories, such as teacher efficacy and level of professionalism, accreditation experience caused significant difference. The group of teachers who had more than two times of accreditation experience show higher teacher efficacy than the group of teachers that had no experience, and the previous groups' level of professionalism was higher than the rest. Second, teacher efficacy has positive correlation in level of professional- ism and interaction of teachers and children. Level of professionalism of childcare teachers has positive correlation with interaction of teachers and children. Third, when examining the relative effect of socio-demographic variables, teacher efficacy and level of professionalism on interaction of teachers and children, mature teachers have more influence on verbal interaction of teachers and children; the teachers who have longer career have more influence on behavioral interaction of teachers and children. By and large, teachers who are older and have higher teacher efficacy and level of professionalism gain more influence on overall interaction of teachers and children.

Children's Negotiation Levels with their Age and Gender (아동의 연령과 성별에 따른 협상수준)

  • Koo, Hyunah;Chung, Daeryun
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.27-39
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    • 2004
  • This study was to find out children's Negotiation Levels(NLs) according to their age and gender. The subjects for this study were 143 children of 7, 9, 12 years. Two children dyads participated in the experimental play situation with Rokenbok Electronic Toy Systems. The NLs in children's interactive dialogue & actions were scored with Stone, Robinson & Taylor(1980)'s 'Negotiation of Task Completion Coding Manual'. They were coded into Level 0(no interaction), Level l(one way interaction), Level 2(reciprocally interaction), Level 3(mutual or cooperative interaction). The results were as follows; 1) 12-year-old children negotiated with higher level than 7-and 9-year old children 2) Boys' NLs average were higher than girls'. These results imply that 1) the fluctuation of NLs in childhood, especially around 10 years, should be interpreted carefully, 2) various measuring kits for negotiation should be developed considering children's characteristics, such as age, gender etc.

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The Characteristics of Verbal Interaction according to Leader's Personality in Small Group Activities of Thinking Science (Thinking Science 활동에서 리더의 성격에 따른 모둠내 언어적 상호 작용 특징)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyun;Choi, Byung-Soon;Shin, Ae-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.364-377
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the within-group verbal interaction according to leader's personality in Thinking Science activities. For this study, 2 homogeneous small groups by cognitive level selected from one class of sixth grader. Each group was comprised of four students. Leaders of two groups selected from the results of NEO personality assessment and teacher's observation. One who got high scores in extraversion and agreeableness is named a sociable leader, the other who got low scores in extraversion and agreeableness is named a taciturn leader. Verbal interactions during small group activities were audio/video taped and students' interactions were classified into on-task and off-task. On-task included cognitive aspect and affective aspect. Interactions of cognitive aspect were divided into low and high level, also interactions of affective aspect were divided into positive and negative interaction. The results of this study showed that the verbal interactions in the sociable leader group were more activated than those in the taciturn leader group. Also, interaction level of the sociable leader group in cognitive aspect was higher than those of the taciturn leader group. In affective aspect, interaction pattern of the sociable leader group was similar to those of the taciturn leader group. The characteristics of leader's interaction are as follow. The rates of cognitive aspect in the sociable and the taciturn leaders' interactions were much higher than those of affective aspect. This tendency was especially remarkable in the taciturn leader's interactions. However, interaction level of the sociable leader in cognitive aspect was higher than those of the taciturn leader. In affective aspect, positive interaction rate of the sociable leader and the taciturn leader were higher than negative interaction rate.

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Application of a fixed Eulerian mesh-based scheme based on the level set function generated by virtual nodes to large-deformation fluid-structure interaction

  • Hashimoto, Gaku;Ono, Kenji;Okuda, Hiroshi
    • Interaction and multiscale mechanics
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.287-318
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    • 2012
  • We apply a partitioned-solution (iterative-staggered) coupling method based on a fixed Eulerian mesh with the level set function to a large-deformation fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem where a large-deformable thin structure moves in a high-speed flow field, as an airbag does during deployment. This method combines advanced fluid and structure solvers-specifically, the constrained interpolation profile finite element method (CIP-FEM) for fluid Eulerian mesh and large-deformable structural elements for Lagrangian structural mesh. We express the large-deformable interface as a zero isosurface by the level set function, and introduce virtual nodes with level sets and structural normal velocities to generate the level set function according to the large-deformable interfacial geometry and enforce the kinematic condition at the interface. The virtual nodes are located in the direction normal to the structural mesh. It is confirmed that application of the method to unfolded airbag deployment simulation shows the adequacy of the method.

The Relationship among Toddler's Symbolic Play Level, Mother's Responsiveness and Verbal Interaction (만 2세 영아의 상징놀이 수준과 어머니의 반응성 및 언어유형 간의 관계)

  • Choi, Yeonsoo;Kim, Myoungsoon;Pae, Sunyoung
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.83-98
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among toddler's symbolic play level, mother's responsiveness and verbal interaction. The subjects were 56 pairs of 24-29 months old toddlers and their mothers. The toddler's symbolic play level was classified using categories by Gowen(1995). The mother's verbal interaction was coded during a 10-minute-free play session with her toddler using Caldera, Huston, and O'Brien's(1989) categories. PICCOLO(The Parenting Interactions with Child Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes) by Roggman, Cook, Innocenti, Jump, Norman, & Christiansen(2009) was used to investigate the mother's responsiveness. While the mothers played with their toddlers during a 10-minute-free play session, their interaction were videotaped. The data were analyzed by means, t-test, and correlations. The results of the study were as follows: First, the mean levels of the toddler's symbolic play were in level 3, 'the pretending others'. Also girls spent more symbolic play time with mothers than boys. Second, mothers' responsiveness was generally high in free play with their toddlers. Mothers frequently used 'questions' 'comments' and 'fantasy statements'. Mothers with girls used more 'questions' than mothers with boys. Third, there was a significant relationship among toddler's symbolic play level, mother's responsiveness and verbal interaction. Maternal responsiveness and 'fantasy statements' were positively related with the mean level, and the frequency of play. The 'questions' and 'answers' were also related with symbolic play level and frequency. But 'praise' was negatively related with symbolic play frequency. In conclusion, this study suggested that toddler's symbolic play level was related with mother's responsiveness and verbal interaction during free play.

A Study on Classification of Home Management Behavior and It's Related Variables of Urban Housewives (도시주부의 가정관리행동 유형분류와 그 관련변인에 관한 연구)

  • 이정우
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.223-239
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of this study is to classify the home management behaviors of urban housewives and to find out variables which influence them. Following are the results. 1. The home management behavior of urban housewives are classified into six types. Thouse expense and convenience oriented type, using the information and family centered type, tradition and steady oriented type, improving life type, conservative and thrifty type and the self-faithfulness and change adaption type. 2. Follows are the variables which have influenced on home management behaviors of urban housewives. \circled1 The level of education of housewives, perceived level of economical resources, income and evaluation level of life have influenced on expense and convenience oriented type. \circled2 The duration of marriage, the level of education of husband, the satisfaction of housework and communication interaction have influenced on using the information and family centered type. \circled3 The satisfaction of housework, the perceived level of economical resources, the level of education of husband and the age of housewives have influenced on the tradition and steady oriented type. \circled4 The perceived level of family resources and the communication interaction have influenced on the improving life type. \circled5 The communication interaction and the income have influenced on conservative and thrifty type. \circled6 The perceived level of economical resources, the satisfication of housework, the communication interaction, the level of education of housewives, the age of housewives and the number of children have influenced on the self-faithfulness and change-adaption type.

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