• Title/Summary/Keyword: Life Cycle Impact Assessment

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Application of the Life Cycle Assessment Methodology to Rice Cultivation in Relation to Fertilization (시비방법별 벼 재배에 따른 전과정평가 방법을 적용한 환경영향 평가)

  • Shin, Joung-Du;Lim, Dong-Kyu;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Park, Mun-Hee;Koh, Mun-Hwan;Eom, Ki-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2003
  • The suitability of the life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to analyze the environmental impact of rice cultivation with different fertilizing systems is investigated. The arst part of an LCA is an inventory of parameters used and emissions released due to the system under investigation. In the following step, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment the inventory data were analyzed and aggregated in order to finally get one index representing the total environmental burden. For the life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) the Eco-indicator 95 method has been chosen because this is well documented and regularly applied impact assessment method. The resulting index is called Eco-indicator value. The higher the Eco-indicator value the stronger is the total environmental impact of an analyzed fertilizing system. The rice field experiment conducted in middle parts of korea was chosen as an example for the life cycle impact analysis. In this experiment the treatments were consisted of none fertilizer plot (NF), standard fertilizer plot (SF) applied chemical fertilizers based on soil chemical analysis before rice transplanting, and efflux fertilized plot (EF) applied with pig wastes fermented as the same rates of SF plot as basis on total nitrogen content. The obtained Eco-indicator values were clearly different among the treatments in the rice trial. The total Eco-indicator values for SF and EF have been observed 58 and 38% relative to the NF, respectively. For all the treatments the environmental effects of eutrophication contributed most to the total Eco-indicator value. The results appeared that the LCA methodology is basically suitable to assess the environmental impact associated with different fertilizer applications for rice cultivation. A comparative analysis of the fertilizing system's contribution to global warming and eutrophication is possible.

Environmental Impact Evaluation of Virgin Pulp Using Life Cycle Assessment Methodology (LCA기법을 이용한 천연펄프의 환경 영향 평가)

  • 김형진;조병묵;황용우;박광호
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.49-60
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    • 2004
  • Life Cycle Assessment for the pulp, which is mainly used as the raw material of fine paper, base paper for food packaging and paper cup, has been carried out in this study to consider environmental aspects by quantifying the environmental emission and to evaluate its environmental impact potential. The system boundary was selected from cradle to gate stage(raw material acquisition, transportation of raw material and product manufacturing) of the product. Environmental impact was divided into 8 categories considering Korean situation: abiotic resource depletion, global warming, ozone depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidant creation, ecotoxicity and human toxicity. In Life Cycle Impact Assessment(LCIA) methodology phase, Ecopoint, Eco-indicator 95 and Korean eco-indicator were used and the results carried out by each methodology were compared. The results from this study were also compared with those of foreign study to verify the reliability of the results. The results of the study could be utilized as the basic data for Environmental Management System(EMS), Design for Environment(DfE) and Type III eco-labeling in the paper and paper-related industry.

Environmental Impact Evaluation for Glass Bottle Recycle using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA를 이용한 유리병 재활용의 환경영향 평가)

  • Baek, Seung-Hyuk;Kim, Hyung-Jin;Kwon, Young-Shik
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.1067-1074
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    • 2014
  • Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) has been carried out to evaluate the environmental impacts of glass bottle recycle. The LCA consists of four stages such as Goal and Scope Definition, Life Cycle Inventory(LCI) Analysis, Life Cycle Impact Assessment(LCIA), and Interpretation. The LCI analysis showed that the major input materials were water, materials, sand, and crude oil, whereas the major output ones were wastewater, $CO_2$, and non-hazardous wastes. The LCIA was conducted for the six impact categories including 'Abiotic Resource Depletion', 'Acidification', 'Eutrophication', 'Global Warming', 'Ozone Depletion', and 'Photochemical Oxidant Creation'. As for Abiotic Resource Depletion, Acidification, and Photochemical Oxidant Creation, Bunker fuel oil C and LNG were major effects. As for Eutrophication, electricity and Bunker fuel oil C were major effects. As for Global Warming, electricity and LNG were major effects. As for Ozone Depletion, plate glasses were major effects. Among the six categories, the biggest impact potential was found to be Global Warming as 97% of total, but the rest could be negligible.

Life Cycle Impacts of Flexible-fiber Deep-bed Filter Compared to Sand-Filter including Coagulation and Sedimentation in Water Treatment Plant

  • Uh, Soo-Gap;Kim, Ji-Won;Han, Ki-Back;Kim, Chang-Won
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2008
  • Recently a new technology called the flexible-fiber deep-bed filter (FDF) claimed to replace the conventional sand filter including coagulation and sedimentation filter (CSF) processes in the water treatment plant. Therefore the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was applied for evaluating the life cycle impacts of FDF compared with those of CSF. The used LCA softwares were the Simapro 6 and PASS and their life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodologies were the Eco-indicator 99 and the Korean Eco-indicator, respectively. The goal of this LCA was to identify environmental loads of CSF and FDF from raw material to disposal stages. The scopes of the systems have been determined based on the experiences of existing CSF and FDF. The function was to remove suspended solids by filtration and the functional unit was $1\;m^3$/day. Both systems showed that most environmental impacts were occurred during the operation stage. To reduce the environmental impacts the coagulants and electricity consumptions need to be cut down. If the CSF was replaced with the FDF, the environmental impacts would be reduced in most of the impact categories. The LCA results of Korean Eco-indicator and Eco- indicator99 were quite different from each other due to the indwelling differences such as category indicators, impact categories, characterization factors, normalization values and weighting factors. This study showed that the life cycle assessment could be a valuable tool for evaluating the environmental impact of the new technology which was introduced in water treatment process.

Development of the Assessment Framework for the Environmental Impacts in Construction

  • Hong, Tahoon;Ji, Changwoon;Jeong, Kwangbok;Park, Joowan
    • Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2013
  • Environmental problems like global warming have now become important issues that should be considered in all industries, including construction. In South Korea, many studies have been conducted to achieve the government's goals of reduction in environmental impacts. However, the research on buildings has only focused on CO2 emission as a research target despite the fact that other environmental impacts resulting from ozone depletion and acidification should also be considered, in addition to global warming. In this regard, this study attempted to propose assessment criteria and methods to evaluate the environmental performance of the structures from various aspects. The environmental impact category can be divided into global impacts, regional impacts, and local impacts. First, global impacts include global warming, ozone layer depletion, and abiotic resource depletion, while regional impacts include acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical oxidation. In addition, noise and vibration occurring in the building construction phase are defined as local impacts. The evaluation methods on the eight environmental impacts will be proposed after analyzing existing studies, and the methods representing each environmental load as monetary value will be presented. The methods presented in this study will present benefits that can be obtained through green buildings with a clear quantitative assessment on structures. Ultimately, it is expected that if the effects of green buildings are clearly presented through the findings of this study, the greening of structures will be actively expanded.

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) System (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell 시스템의 환경 전과정평가)

    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 2018
  • The environmental impacts of a 1 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system are quantitatively assessed by performing a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study. A PEMFC system produces electricity and heat simultaneously, so an appropriate allocation of associated inputs and outputs is performed between the electricity and heat produced. The environmental impacts of the PEMFC system on the impact categories such as global warming (GW), abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), and eutrophication (EU) are assessed from the life cycle impact assessment. The impact indicator results of the impact assessment on these impact categories are obtained as $3.70E-01kg\;CO_2\;eq./kWh$, 1.86E-03 kg Sb eq./kWh, $4.09E-04kg\;SO_2\;eq./kWh$, and $1.88E-05kg\;PO_4{^{3-}}/kWh$, respectively. For all impact categories studied the most influential stage is the operation stage, which accounts for 98.8%, 98.7%, 70.3%, and 62.3% of the total impact on GW, AD, AC, and EU, respectively. For the impact categories of AD, AC, and EU, most of the environmental impacts during the operation stage is attributed to the production of city gas. However, for the impact category of GW, $CO_2$ emission from the reforming process of city gas is the main reason for the largest contribution of the operation stage to the total impact results.

Comparative Evaluation for Environmental Impact of Rapeseed and Barley Cultivation in Paddy Field for Winter using Life Cycle Assessment (겨울논 유채와 보리 재배시 전과정평가 방법을 이용한 환경영향 비교 평가)

  • Hong, Seung-Gil;Shin, JoungDu;Park, Kwang-Lai;Ahn, Min-Sil;Ok, Yong-Sik;Kim, Jeong-Gyu;Kim, Seok-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2016
  • The application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to assess the environmental impact of rapeseed cultivation in winter fallow after harvesting rice was investigated and compared with barley cultivation in crop rotation system. Data for input materials were collected and analyzed by 1 ton rapeseed and barley as functional unit. For the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) the Eco-indicator 95 method has been chosen because this is well documented and regularly applied impact method. From the comparison of impact categories such as greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, acidification, heavy metals, carcinogens, summer smog, and energy resources for 1 ton of final product, emission potential from rapeseed was higher than that from barley. The range from 65 to 96% of these potential came from chemical fertilizer. On the other hand, eutrophication potential from barley was higher than that from rapeseed, mainly came from utilizing the chemical fertilizer. During the cultivation of barley and rape, environmental burden by heavy metals was evaluated by 0.5 Pt, larger than points from other impact categories. The sum of points from all impact categories in barley and rapeseed was calculated to be 0.78 Pt and 0.82 Pt, respectively. From the sensitivity analysis for barley and rapeseed, scenario 1 (crop responses to fertilization level) showed the environmental burden was continuously increased with the amount of fertilization in barley cultivation, while it was not increased only at the optimum crop responses to fertilization in rapeseed (R3). With these results, rapeseed cultivation in winter fallow paddy contributed to the amounts of environmental burden much more than barley cultivation. It is, however, highly determined that environmental weighted point resulted from evaluating both cultivation was not significantly different.

Estimation of Carbon Emission and Application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Production System (쌀의 생산과정에서 발생하는 탄소배출량 산정을 위한 전과정평가 적용)

  • So, Kyu-Ho;Park, Jung-Ah;Lee, Gil-Zae;Shim, Kyo-Moon;Ryu, Jong-Hee;Roh, Kee-An
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.716-721
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    • 2010
  • LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) carried out to estimate carbon footprint and to establish of LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) database of rice production system. The results of collecting data for establishing LCI D/B showed that organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer input to 4.29E-01 kg $kg^{-1}$ rice and 2.30E-01 kg $kg^{-1}$ rice for rice cultivation. It was the highest value among input for rice cultivation. And direct field emission was 3.23E-02 kg $kg^{-1}$ during rice cropping. The results of LCI analysis focussed on greenhouse gas (GHG) was showed that carbon footprint was 8.70E-01 kg $CO_2$-eq. $kg^{-1}$ rice. Especially for 80% of $CO_2$ in the GHG and 7.02E-01 kg of its $CO_2$-eq. $kg^{-1}$ rice. Of the GHG emission $CH_4$, and $N_2O$ were estimated to be 13% and 5%, respectively. With LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment) for rice cultivation system, it was observed that fertilizer process might be contributed to approximately 80% of GWP (global warming potential).

Environmental Impact Assessment of Buildings based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Methodology (전과정평가(LCA) 방법을 이용한 건축물에 대한 환경영향 평가 방법)

  • Hong, Tae-Hoon;Ji, Chang-Yoon;Jeong, Kwang-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.84-93
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    • 2012
  • Most of the studies on reduction of buildings' environmental burden in the construction industry have been focused on carbon dioxide emission, although there are various kinds of environmental issues such as global warming, acidification, and etc. which are considered by many researchers. Therefore, this study defined and suggested six impact categories and the principles to assess each impact for the assessment of comprehensive environmental impacts of buildings. The six impact categories are abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical oxidation. A case study has been conducted through comparative analysis of two structural design alternatives to confirm the necessity of assessing the six impact categories. That is, the results of global warming potential and the six impacts proposed in this study were compared. By comparing the results of only global warming potential, the second design alternative using 24MPa concrete was chosen as a better alternative, while the first design alternative using 21MPa concrete was resulted as a better alternative when six impact categories were considered. The results mean that the assessment of various environmental impacts is an appropriate and reasonable approach and the comprehensive assessment offers more reliable results of environmental impacts in the building construction.

Assessment of the Potential Environmental Impact of Smart Phone using LCA Methodology (LCA 기법을 활용한 스마트폰의 잠재적 환경영향평가)

  • Heo, Young-chai;Bae, Dae-sik;Oh, Chi-young;Suh, Young-jin;Lee, Kun-mo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.39 no.9
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    • pp.527-533
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    • 2017
  • Environmental concern about smart phone is growing because it has short product life span while having intensive production technology and cost. In this study environmental impact of the smart phone is quantified using the LCA methodology based on the ISO 14040 series standards. The assessment considers potential environmental impacts across the whole life cycle of the smart phone including; pre-manufacturing; manufacturing; distribution; product use; and end-of-life stages. The pre-manufacturing stage is the most dominant life cycle stage causing the highest environmental impacts among all 10 impact categories assessed. The global warming impacts of the smart phone in the pre-manufacturing, distribution, use, manufacturing, and end-of-life stages were 52.6% 23.9%, 15.7%, 7.0%, and 0.8%, respectively. Sensitivity of the life cycle impact assessment results to the system boundary definition and assumptions made were quite high. Three components of the smart phone, PCB, battery, and display module were identified as the key components causing majority of the potential environmental impact in the pre-manufacturing stage. As such the slim and light-weight design and the use of environmental friendly materials are important design factors for reducing the environmental impact of the smart phone.