• Title, Summary, Keyword: Linkage Disequilibrium

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Detection of QTL for Carcass Quality on Chromosome 6 by Exploiting Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium in Hanwoo

  • Lee, J.H.;Li, Y.;Kim, J.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to improve mapping power and resolution for the QTL influencing carcass quality in Hanwoo, which was previously detected on the bovine chromosome (BTA) 6. A sample of 427 steers were chosen, which were the progeny from 45 Korean proven sires in the Hanwoo Improvement Center, Seosan, Korea. The samples were genotyped with the set of 2,535 SNPs on BTA6 that were imbedded in the Illumina bovine 50 k chip. A linkage disequilibrium variance component mapping (LDVCM) method, which exploited both linkage between sires and their steers and population-wide linkage disequilibrium, was applied to detect QTL for four carcass quality traits. Fifteen QTL were detected at 0.1% comparison-wise level, for which five, three, five, and two QTL were associated with carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA), and marbling score (Marb), respectively. The number of QTL was greater compared with our previous results, in which twelve QTL for carcass quality were detected on the BTA6 in the same population by applying other linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches. One QTL for LMA was detected on the distal region (110,285,672 to 110,633,096 bp) with the most significant evidence for linkage (p< $10^{-5}$). Another QTL that was detected on the proximal region (33,596,515 to 33,897,434 bp) was pleiotrophic, i.e. influencing CWT, BFT, and LMA. Our results suggest that the LDVCM is a good alternative method for QTL fine-mapping in detection and characterization of QTL.

Accurate Estimation of Effective Population Size in the Korean Dairy Cattle Based on Linkage Disequilibrium Corrected by Genomic Relationship Matrix

  • Shin, Dong-Hyun;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Park, Kyoung-Do;Lee, Hyun-Jeong;Kim, Heebal
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1672-1679
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    • 2013
  • Linkage disequilibrium between markers or genetic variants underlying interesting traits affects many genomic methodologies. In many genomic methodologies, the effective population size ($N_e$) is important to assess the genetic diversity of animal populations. In this study, dairy cattle were genotyped using the Illumina BoviveHD Genotyping BeadChips for over 777,000 SNPs located across all autosomes, mitochondria and sex chromosomes, and 70,000 autosomal SNPs were selected randomly for the final analysis. We characterized more accurate linkage disequilibrium in a sample of 96 dairy cattle producing milk in Korea. Estimated linkage disequilibrium was relatively high between closely linked markers (>0.6 at 10 kb) and decreased with increasing distance. Using formulae that related the expected linkage disequilibrium to $N_e$, and assuming a constant actual population size, $N_e$ was estimated to be approximately 122 in this population. Historical $N_e$, calculated assuming linear population growth, was suggestive of a rapid increase $N_e$ over the past 10 generations, and increased slowly thereafter. Additionally, we corrected the genomic relationship structure per chromosome in calculating $r^2$ and estimated $N_e$. The observed $N_e$ based on $r^2$ corrected by genomics relationship structure can be rationalized using current knowledge of the history of the dairy cattle breeds producing milk in Korea.

Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

  • Li, Yi;Kim, Jong-Joo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.926-935
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    • 2015
  • The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a $BayesC{\pi}$ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) Mapping and Tagging SNP Selection of C-Fos Induced Growth Factor (Figf) Gene in Korean Population

  • Kim, Sook;Yoo, Yeon-Kyung;Jang, Hye-Yoon;Shin, Eun-Soon;Cho, Eun-Young;Kim, Eu-Gene;NamKung, Jung-Hyun;Yang, Jun-Mo;Lee, Jong-Eun
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.7-10
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    • 2006
  • We performed comprehensive SNP validation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of the c-fos induced growth factor (Figf) gene in Korean population. Out of 32 SNPs, only 9 SNPs were polymorphic in Korean population. Validated SNPs formed a single extended haplotype block with strong LD through the entire length of the gene. Tagging SNP analysis picked only 2 SNPs to represent most of the genetic variation information of the Figf gene. Our results demonstrate the utility of LD block and tagging SNP analysis for an efficient way of performing a candidate gene based association study.

An Alternative Way of Constructing Ancestral Graphs Using Marker Allele Ages from Population Linkage Disequilibrium Information

  • Park, Lee-Young
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2009
  • An alternative way of constructing ancestral graphs, which is different from the coalescent-based approach, is proposed using population linkage disequilibrium (LD) data. The main difference from the existing method is the construction of the ancestral graphs based on variants instead of individual sequences. Therefore, the key of the proposed method is to use the order of allele ages in the graphs. Distinct from the previous age-estimation methods, allele ages are estimated from full haplotype information by examining the number of generations from the initial complete LD to the current decayed state for each two variants depending on the direction of LD decay between variants. Using a simple algorithmic procedure, an ancestral graph can be derived from the expected allele ages and current LD decay status. This method is different in many ways from previous methods, and, with further improvement, it might be a good replacement for the current approaches.

Prospects of Application of Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping for Crop Improvement in Wild Silkworm (Antheraea mylitta Drury)

  • Vijayan, Kunjupillai;Singh, Ravindra Nath;Saratchandra, Beera
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2010
  • The wild silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a polyphagous silk producing insect that feeds on Terminalia arjuna, T. tomentosa and Shorea robusta and is distributed in the forest belts in different states of India. Phenotypically distinct populations of the A. mylitta are called "eco-race" or "ecotypes". Genetic improvement of this wild silkworm has not progressed much due to lack of adequate information on the factors that control the expression of most of the economically important traits. Considering the amazing technological advances taking place in molecular biology, it is envisaged that it is now possible to take greater control on these intractable traits if a combination of genetic, molecular and bioinformatics tools are used. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping is one such approach that has extensively been used in both animal and plant system to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for a number of economically important traits. LD mapping has a number of advantages over conventional biparental linkage mapping. Therefore, LD mapping is considered more efficient for gene discovery to meet the challenge of connecting sequence diversity with heritable phenotypic differences. However, care must be taken to avoid detection of spurious associations which may occur due to population structure and variety interrelationships. In this review, we discuss how LD mapping is suitable for the dissection of complex traits in wild silkworms (Antheraea mylitta).

Detection of QTL on Bovine X Chromosome by Exploiting Linkage Disequilibrium

  • Kim, Jong-Joo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.617-623
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    • 2008
  • A fine-mapping method exploiting linkage disequilibrium was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) on the X chromosome affecting milk production, body conformation and productivity traits. The pedigree comprised 22 paternal half-sib families of Black-and-White Holstein bulls in the Netherlands in a grand-daughter design for a total of 955 sons. Twenty-five microsatellite markers were genotyped to construct a linkage map on the chromosome X spanning 170 Haldane cM with an average inter-marker distance of 7.1 cM. A covariance matrix including elements about identical-by-descent probabilities between haplotypes regarding QTL allele effects was incorporated into the animal model, and a restricted maximum-likelihood method was applied for the presence of QTL using the LDVCM program. Significance thresholds were obtained by permuting haplotypes to phenotypes and by using a false discovery rate procedure. Seven QTL responsible for conformation types (teat length, rump width, rear leg set, angularity and fore udder attachment), behavior (temperament) and a mixture of production and health (durable prestation) were detected at the suggestive level. Some QTL affecting teat length, rump width, durable prestation and rear leg set had small numbers of haplotype clusters, which may indicate good classification of alleles for causal genes or markers that are tightly associated with the causal mutation. However, higher maker density is required to better refine the QTL position and to better characterize functionally distinct haplotypes which will provide information to find causal genes for the traits.

Comparison of linkage disequilibrium levels in Iranian indigenous cattle using whole genome SNPs data

  • Karimi, Karim;Koshkoiyeh, Ali Esmailizadeh;Gondro, Cedric
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.57 no.12
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    • pp.47.1-47.10
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    • 2015
  • Background: Knowledge of linkage disequilibrium (LD) levels among different populations can be used to detect genetic diversity and to investigate the historical changes in population sizes. Availability of large numbers of SNP through new sequencing technologies has provided opportunities for extensive researches in quantifying LD patterns in cattle breeds. The aim of this study was to compare the extent of linkage disequilibrium among Iranian cattle breeds using high density SNP genotyping data. Results: A total of 70 samples, representing seven Iranian indigenous cattle breeds, were genotyped for 777962 SNPs. The average values of LD based on the $r^2$ criterion were computed by grouping all syntenic SNP pairwises for intermarker distances from 0 Kb up to 1 Mb using three distance sets. Average $r^2$ above 0.3 was observed at distances less than 30 Kb for Sistani and Kermani, 20 Kb for Najdi, Taleshi, Kurdi and Sarabi, and 10 Kb for Mazandarani. The LD levels were considerably different among the Iranian cattle breeds and the difference in LD extent was more detectable between the studied breeds at longer distances. Lower level of LD was observed for Mazandarani breed as compared to other breeds indicating larger ancestral population size in this breed. Kermani breed continued to have more slowly LD decay than all of the other breeds after 3 Kb distances. More slowly LD decay was observed in Kurdi and Sarabi breeds at larger distances (>100 Kb) showing that population decline has been more intense in more recent generations for these populations. Conclusions: A wide genetic diversity and different historical background were well reflected in the LD levels among Iranian cattle breeds. More LD fluctuation was observed in the shorter distances (less than 10 Kb) in different cattle populations. Despite of the sample size effects, High LD levels found in this study were in accordance with the presence of inbreeding and population decline in Iranian cattle breeds.

Estimation of Haplotype Proportions in Single Necleotide Polymorphism Group Using EM Algorithm (EM 알고리듬을 이용한 단일염기변이 (SNP;SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM)군의 일배체형 (HAPLOTYPE) 비율 추정)

  • 김선우;김종원;이경아
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 2003
  • Haplotype analysis in SNP is very useful for the study of complex genetic disease due to low cost and high efficiency comparing to individual analysis of each SNP, and is functionally important in biological view. But, the gametic phase of haplotypes is usually unknown in SNP group, and it is difficult to predict haplotype proportions. In this study, haplotype proportions were estimated using EM algorithm from diploid data of SNP group in solid tumor group and normal group. From these results, linkage disequilibrium among SNPs was analyzed.

Application of Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Detect QTL for Carcass Quality on Chromosome 6 Using a High Density SNP Map in Hanwoo

  • Lia, Y.;Lee, J.H.;Lee, Y.M.;Kim, J.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.457-462
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to detect QTL for carcass quality on bovine chromosome (BTA) 6 using a high density SNP map in a Hanwoo population. The data set comprised 45 sires and their 427 Hanwoo steers that were born between spring of 2005 and fall of 2007. The steers that were used for progeny testing in the Hanwoo Improvement Center in Seosan, Korea, were genotyped with the 2,535SNPs on BTA6 that were embedded in the Illumina bovine SNP 50K chip. Four different linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping models were applied to detect significant SNPs for carcass quality traits; the fixed model with a single marker, the random model with a single marker, the random model with haplotype effects using two adjacent markers, and the random model at hidden state. A total of twelve QTL were detected, for which four, one, three and four SNPs were detected on BTA6 under the respective models (p<0.001). Among the detected QTL, four, two, five and one QTL were associated with carcass weight, backfat thickness, longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score, respectively (p<0.001). Our results suggest that the use of multiple LD mapping approaches may be beneficial in increasing power to detect QTL given a limited sample size and magnitude of QTL effect.