• Title, Summary, Keyword: Live Animal Screening Test

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Application of ELISA for the Detection of Penicillin Antibiotic Residues in Live Animal

  • Lee, H.J.;Lee, M.H.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1604-1608
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    • 2000
  • Penicillin antibiotics such as penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin have been widely used in the pig industry to control salmonellosis, bacterial pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. Extensive use of antibiotics in veterinary clinics has resulted in tissue residues and bacterial resistance. To prevent unwanted drug residues entering the human food chain, extensive control measures have been established by both government authorities and industries. The demands for reliable, simple, sensitive, rapid and low-cost methods for residue analysis of foods are increasing. In this study, we established a rapid prediction test for the detection of pigs with unacceptable tissue residues of penicillins. The recommended therapeutic doses of three penicillins, penillin G (withdrawal time, 7 days), ampicillin (withdrawal time, 7 days) and amoxicillin (withdrawal time, 14 days), were administered to three groups of 20 pigs each. Blood was sampled before drug administration and during the withdrawal period. The concentration of penicillins in plasma, determined by a semi-quantitative ELISA, were compared to that of internal standard, 4 ppb, which corresponded to the Maximum Residue Limit in milk. The absorbance ratio of internal standard to sample (B/Bs) was employed as an index to determine whether drug residues in pig tissues were negative or positive. That is, a B/Bs ratio less than 1 was considered residue positive, and larger than 1 negative. All 60 plasma samples from pigs were negative to three penicillins at pretreatment. Penicillin G could be detected in the plasma of the treated pigs until day 4 post-treatment and ampicillin until day 2, whereas amoxicillin could be detected until day 10 of its withdrawal period. The present study showed that the semi-quantitative ELISA could be easily adapted to detect residues of penicillin antibiotics (penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin) in live pigs.

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Amitraz in Sprague-Dawley Rats

  • Lim, Jeong-Hyeon;Kim, Sung-Hwan;Kim, Kang-Hyeon;Park, Na-Hyeong;Shin, In-Sik;Moon, Chang-Jong;Park, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Ho;Kim, Jong-Choon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2010
  • The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of amitraz on reproductive and developmental parameters in rats. The test chemical was administered via the drinking water containing 0, 40, 120, and 360 ppm to male rats from 2 weeks before mating to the end of 14-day mating period and to females from 2 weeks before mating, throughout mating, gestation and up to lactational day 4. During the study period, clinical signs, body weights, food intake, organ weights, reproductive and littering findings, necropsy findings, sperm parameters, and histopathology were examined. At 360 ppm, decreases in the body weight gain, food consumption, and the number of live pups and an increase in the post-implantation loss were observed. In addition, decreases in the seminal vesicle weight and sperm motility were found in males. At 120 ppm, a decrease in the food consumption was found transiently in both males and females, but no reproductive and developmental toxicity was observed in both sexes. There were no signs of either general or reproductive and developmental toxicity in the 40 ppm group. Based on these results, it was concluded that the repeated oral administration of amitraz to rats resulted in a decrease in the food consumption at 120 ppm and decreases in the seminal vesicle weight, sperm motility, and the number of live pups and an increase in the post-implantation loss at 360 ppm in rats. Under these experimental conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of amitraz for general and reproduction/developmental toxicity was believed to be 120 ppm, and the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) of amitraz was believed to be 40 ppm in rats.

Application of ELISA for the Detection of Oxytetracycline Residue in Live Animals

  • Lee, H.J.;Lee, M.H.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1775-1778
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    • 2000
  • Oxytetracycline has been widely used in the cattle industry to control pneumonia, shipping fever, foot rot, bacterial enteritis, and uterine infections. Extensive use of antibiotics in veterinary clinics has resulted in residues in tissue and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. To prevent unwanted drug residues from entering the human food chain, extensive control measures have been established by both government authorities and industries. The demands for reliable, simple, sensitive, rapid and low-cost methods for residue analysis of foods are increasing. In this study, we established a rapid test for tissue residues of oxytetracycline in cattle. The recommended therapeutic dose of oxytetracycline (withdrawal time, 14 days) was administered to 10 cattle. Blood samples were collected from each cow before drug administration and during the withdrawal period. The concentration of oxytetracycline in plasma, determined by a semi-quantitative ELISA, was compared to that of the internal standard, 10 ppb. The absorbance ratio of internal standard to sample (B/Bs) was employed as an index to determine whether the residues in cattle tissues were negative or positive. That is, a B/Bs ratio less than 1 was considered as residue positive and that greater than 1 as negative. Based on this criterion, all plasma samples from cattle were negative to oxytetracycline at pre-treatment. Oxytetracycline could be detected in the plasma treated cattle until day 14 post-treatment. The present study showed that the semi-quantitative ELISA could be easily adapted in predicting tissue residues for oxytetracycline in live cattle.

Application of ELISA for the Detection of Sulfamethazine Residue in Live Cattle

  • Lee, H.J.;Lee, M.H.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.378-381
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    • 2001
  • Sulfamethazine has been widely used in swine for prevention or treatment of infections. Recently, the safety of the drug to consumers has been questioned because of carcinogenic effects. To prevent unwanted drug residues entering the human food chain, both government authorities and industries have established extensive control measures. The demands for reliable, simple, sensitive, rapid and low-cost methods for residue analysis of foods are increasing nowadays. In this study, we established a rapid prediction test for the detection of cattle with violative tissue residues of sulfamethazine. The recommended therapeutic dose of sulfamethazine (withdrawal time, 15 days) was administered to each of 10 cattle. Blood was sampled before drug administration and during the withdrawal period. The concentration of sulfamethazine in plasma, determined by a semi-quantitative ELISA, was compared to that of an internal standard (10 ppb). The absorbance ratio of internal standard to sample (B/Bs) was employed as an index to determine whether drug residues in cattle tissues were negative or positive. That is, a B/Bs ratio less than 1 was considered residue positive and if larger than 1 was considered negative. All 10 plasma samples from non-treated cattle showed negative to sulfamethazine. Sulfamethazine was detected in plasmas of treated cattle until Day 7 of withdrawal period. The present study showed that the semi-quantitative ELISA could be easily adapted in predicting residues of sulfamethazine in live cattle.

Sanitation and Tissue Residue Problems in High Quality Pork - Review -

  • Lee, M.H.;Ryu, P.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.233-243
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    • 1999
  • Food safety or sanitation are terms broadly applicable to procedures designed to ensure that food quality is high and free of factors which may adversely affect human health. These factors include zoonotic diseases and acute and chronic effects of ingesting natural and human-made xenobiotics. Use of drugs in animal production for the treatment and control of animal diseases, to promote growth rate, and to improve feed conversion efficiency has expanded year by year, thus increasing the possibilities for occurrences in animal products of residues harmful to humans. Governmental agencies have made efforts to control or prevent residue problems. The Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is charged with the responsibility of establishing tolerances for veterinary drugs, pesticides, and mycotoxins and other non-pharmaceutical substances. The Department of Veterinary Service is responsible for establishing guidelines regarding withdrawal times of drugs, approval of drugs, their uses, and sanitation enforcement of livestock products. The authors describe the toxicological basis for the establishment of tolerance levels for xenobiotics and the pharmacokinetic basis for establishing withdrawal time for veterinary drugs. The regulatory tolerance levels of chemicals in pork and swine feed, Korean regulations on the use of feed additives, rapid residue test methods, the National Residue Program, and the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank are discussed. Rapid EIA methods that are under development for the screening of live animals are described These methods predict tissue residues from an examination of blood samples taken from pigs before they are slaughtered.