• Title, Summary, Keyword: Liver of Rat and Chicken

Search Result 4, Processing Time 0.051 seconds

Effects of Dietary Protein and Threonine Supply on In vitro Liver Threonine Dehydrogenase Activity and Threonine Efficiency in Rat and Chicken

  • Lee, C.W.;Oh, Y.J.;Son, Y.S.;An, W.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.24 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1417-1424
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to assess the relation between threonine (Thr) oxidation rate and threonine efficiency on rat and chicken fed with graded levels of protein and threonine. The increase in threonine content from 0.28 to 0.72% in a diet containing 12.0% crude protein (CP) caused a gradual increase in threonine dehydrogenase (TDG) activity in rat liver. Similar, but more pronounced results were observed after 18.0% CP in the diet. Both protein levels in combination with the highest level of threonine supplementation increased liver TDG activity significantly, indicating enhanced threonine catabolism. Parameters of efficiency of threonine utilization calculated from parallel nitrogen balance studies decreased significantly and indicated threonine oversupply after a maximum of threonine supplementation. At the lower levels of threonine addition the efficiency of threonine utilization was not significantly changed. In the chicken liver up to 0.60% true digestible threonine (dThr) in the 18.5% CP diet produced no effect on the TDG activity. However, TDG activity in the liver was elevated by the diet containing 22.5% CP (0.60% dThr) and the efficiency of threonine utilization decreased, indicating the end of threonine limiting range. In conclusion, the in vitro TDG activity in the liver of rat and growing chicken has an indicator function for the dietary supply of threonine.

Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Chicken Δ-6 Desaturase

  • Kang, Xiangtao;Bai, Yichun;Sun, Guirong;Huang, Yanqun;Chen, Qixin;Han, Ruili;Li, Guoxi;Li, Fadi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.116-121
    • /
    • 2010
  • Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) promote the development of brain and vision of the fetus, relieve inflammation, inhibit oral dysplasia of rumor cell, decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease and regulate arrhythmia. ${\Delta}-6$ desaturase is the rate-limited enzyme in the desaturation process. This study reports the cloning, characterization and tissue expression of a ${\Delta}-6$ desaturase gene in the chicken. PCR primers were designed based on the predicted sequence of chicken ${\Delta}-6$ desaturase (accession number: XM421053) and used to isolate a cDNA fragment of 1,323 bp from chicken liver. Based on the 1,323 bp fragment an EST (BI390105) was obtained by BLAST. The EST and 5'nd of the 1,323 bp fragment were partially overlapped. Gene specific primers derived from the EST were used for amplification of the 5'nd. Another gene-specific primer derived from the 1,323 bp fragment was used for amplification of the 3'nd by 3'ACE. Then the three overlapping cDNA sequences obtained were assembled with DNAMAN software and a full-length ${\Delta}-6$ desaturase of 2,153 bp was obtained. The full-length cDNA contained an ORF of 1,335 bp with a 5'ntranslated region of 147 nucleotides followed by an ATG initiation codon. Stop codon TGA was at position 1,481-1,483 bp. The deduced amino acids shared an homology above 77% with bovine, mice, orangutan, rat and human. The protein sequence had three histidine-rich regions HDFGH (HisI region), HFQHH (HisII region) and HH (HisIII region), a cytochrome $b_{5}$-like domain containing a heme-binding motif and two transmembrane domains. Sequence analysis of the chicken genomic DNA revealed that the coding sequence of chicken ${\Delta}-6$ desaturase included 12 exons and 11 introns. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the ${\Delta}-6$ desaturase expression levels were in turn liver, spleen, pancreas, lung, breast muscle, heart, and abdominal fat. The expression of ${\Delta}-6$ desaturase in liver was significantly higher than that in breast muscle (p<0.01). The expression of ${\Delta}-6$ desaturase in lung was significantly higher than that in abdominal fat (p<0.01). This is the first clone of chicken ${\Delta}-6$ desaturase.

Effect of Supplementation of Korean Native Chicken Egg Fed with Citrus Peel on Profiles in Sprague-Dawley Rats (감귤 껍질을 급여한 토종닭 계란이 흰쥐의 혈액 성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Yoon-Hee;Yang, Jong-Beom;Jung, In-Chul
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.579-584
    • /
    • 2009
  • In this experiment, three different diets were produced to investigate the effects of Jeju native chicken eggs fed with citrus peel on the profiles of rats. The first diet did not contain any eggs (TS), the second diet contained 10% eggs and no citrus peels (T0), and the third diet contained 10% chicken egg with citrus peels (T1). These diets were provided to 11-week-old male rats for four weeks. The weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were not significantly different between the three treatment groups, TS, T0, and T1. The weight of the liver was significantly higher in T0 and T1 than TS (p<0.05), but the weights of the kidney and epididymal fat pad were not significantly different between the TS, T0, and T1 groups. The total lipid, phospholipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol did not significantly difference among the TS, T0, and T1 groups. The HDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol/ total cholesterol of T1 were the highest among the groups, and the atherogenic index of T1 was the lowest among the groups (p<0.05). The total protein of TS was significantly lower in T0 and T1, and the albumin of T1 was the highest among the groups (p<0.05). The albumin/globulin ratio of TS was significantly higher in T0 and T1, but the creatinine of T0 was significantly higher in T0 and T1 (p<0.05). The blood sugar and blood pigment were not significantly different between the TS, T0, and T1 groups. The $\gamma$-GTP of T1 was the lowest among the groups (p<0.05), but the ALT, AST and ALP did not show significant difference among the TS, T0, and T1 groups.

  • PDF

Effects of Dietary Fats and Oils On the Growth and Serum Cholesterol Content of Rats and Chicks (섭취(攝取) 지방(脂肪)의 종류(種類)가 흰쥐와 병아리의 성장(成長) 및 혈청(血淸) Cholesterol 함량(含量)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Kiw-Rye;Han, In-Kyu
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.59-67
    • /
    • 1976
  • A series of experiment was carried out to study the effect of commonly used dietary fat or oils on the growth, feed efficiency, nutrient utilizability, nitrogen retention and serum cholesterol of rats and chicks fed various fat or oils at the level of 10% during 12 weeks of experimentation. Fat and oils used in this experiment were also analyzed for the composition of some fatty acids. The main observations made are as follows: 1. All groups received fat or oils gained more body weight than unsupplemented control group except chicks fed fish oil and rapeseed oil although no statistical significance was found between treatments. It was found that body weight gain achieved by the rats fed soybean oil, rapeseed oil, animal fat or corn oil was much greater than other group and that achieved by the chicks fed corn oil and animal fat was greater than other vegetable oil groups, although no statistical significance was found among treatments. 2. Feed intake data indicated that corn oil group of both rats and chicks consumed considerably more feed than other groups. Whereas feed intake of fish oil groups was the lowest among the experimental animals indicating that fish oil might contain unfavorable compound that depresses the palatability. In feed efficiency, soybean oil group of rats and corn oil group of chicks were significantly better than other experimental groups. In general, addition of fat or oils in the diet improved feed effeciency of diet. 3. Nutrient utiIizabiIity and nitrogen retention data showed that fat in the experimental diet containing 10% fat or oils was absorbed better than crude fat in control diet. It was also found that there was no significant difference in nitrogen retention among treatment. 4. Liver fat content of rapeseed oil group was much higher than that of control group and other group. It was also noticed that feeding more polyunsaturated fatty acids resulted in higher content of Iiver fat. 5. Present data indicated that serum cholesterol content of rapeseed oil and sesame oil group of rat was the higher than that of control group. Serum cholesterol content of animal fat group of chicks was higher than other group. It was interesting to note that serum cholesterol content of chicken was higher than that of rats?regardless of the kind of oils received. 6. Analytical data revealed that fatty acid composition of vegetable oil was composed mainly of oleic acid and linoleic acid, whereas animal fat and fish oil were composed of saturated fatty acid such as, myristic and palmitic acid. It should be mentionted that the perilla oil contained a very large amount of linolenic acid (58.4%) comparing with that in order vegetable oils. Little arachidonic acid was detected in vegetable oil, whereas none in animal fat and. fish oil.

  • PDF