• Title, Summary, Keyword: Locomotor activity

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Effects of Ginseng Total Saponin on Caffeine-induced Stimulation of Locomotor Activity and the Related Brain Catecholamine Contents in Mice (인삼사포닌이 생쥐에 있어서 카페인으로 유도된 보행활동과 뇌 카테콜아민 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Hack Seang Kim;Seo
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.399-403
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    • 1990
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ginseng total sapoin (GTS) on locomotor activity that had been increased by caffeine. Catecholamines, noradrenaline and dopamine, possible mediators for the locomotor activity, were measllred in the mouse whole brain, cortex and the re- mainder. The locomotor activity was measured in circlllar activity cages equipped with six light sources and photocells. The catecholamine contents in the mollse brain were determined by HPLC-fluorescence detection. GTS (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the increased locomotor activity by caffeine (25 mg/kg) dose-devendently. Caffeine increased the norevinephrint and dopamine in mouse whole brain and cortex dose-dependently. GTS reduced the norevinevhrine in the remainder, and reduced the dopamine in the cortex which had been increased by caffeine.

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Reliability and validity of free software for the analysis of locomotor activity in mice

  • Hong, Yoo Rha;Moon, Eunsoo
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2018
  • Background: Kinovea software that tracking semi-automatically the motion in video screen has been used to study motion-related tasks in several studies. However, the validation of this software in open field test to assess locomotor activity have not been studied yet. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of this software in analyzing locomotor activities. Methods: Thirty male Institute Cancer Research mice were subjected in this study. The results examined by this software and the classical method were compared. Test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability were analyzed with Pearson's correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The validity of this software was analyzed with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: This software showed good test-retest reliability (ICC=0.997, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.975-0.994, p<0.001). This software also showed good inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.987, 95% CI=0.973-0.994, p<0.001). Furthermore, in three analyses for the validity of this software, there were significant correlations between two methods (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.928-0.972, p<0.001). In addition, this software showed good reliability and validity in the analysis locomotor activity according to time interval. Conclusion: This study showed that this software in analyzing drug-induced locomotor activity has good reliability and validity. This software can be effectively used in animal study using the analysis of locomotor activity.

Behaviorpharmacological Studies of Standardized Ginseng Extract G115 on the Central Dopaminergic Activity(I) (표준화된 인삼추출물 G115의 중추도파민신경계에 대한 행동약리학적 연구(I))

  • 김용호;김선장
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 1992
  • Central dopaminergic activity of standardized ginseng extract G115 was investigated in comparison with those induced by haloperidol in rats. The effects of G115 on the locomotor activity and, stereotyped behavior induced by apomorphine, which interacts directly with dopamine receptor were observed. Apomorphine(2 mg/kg) significantly decreased locomotor activity, whereas it showed a markdly increased incidence of stereotyped behavior. Standardized ginseng extract G115(100 mg/kg) and haloperidol(1 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in locomotor activity but not induced stereotyped hehavior. Locomotor activity induced by apomorphine was markdly decreased by haloperidol(1 mg/kg), but that was significantly increased by standardized ginseng extract G115(50 mg/kg). Stereotyped behavior induced by apomorphine was completely supressed haloperidol(1 mg/kg), but was not changed by standardized ginseng extract G115. These results suggest that standardized ginseng extract G115 plays an important role in central dopaminergic activity, and haloperidol and standardized ginseng extract G115 seem to have a different action in behavior.

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Study of acupuncture stimulation on experimental osteopenia

  • Kanai, Shigeyuki;Taniguchi, Norimasa;Kanda, Kayo;Higashino, Hideaki
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2006
  • In order to study the effect of acupuncture stimulation on bone mineral density (BMD), using the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, we assessed the degree of osteopenia by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured the level of locomotor activity using a metabolism measuring system, and performed histological studies of bone tissue. Twenty-four female Wistar rats (8 weeks old, 160 - 180 g)were divided into three groups. Rats in the OVX-A group underwent ovariectomy followed by acupuncture stimulation. The OVX rats in the Vehicle control group were not treated with acupuncture as a control. The rats in the control group received neither ovariectomy nor acupuncture. Acupuncture stimulation for 12 weeks in the OVX-A group inhibited the reduction in BMD of the femoral bones caused by ovariectomy. Moreover, in the two OVX groups, there was no clear difference in the level of locomotor activity between the active and resting phases prior to acupuncture stimulation in each rat, and the pattern of locomotor activity was irregular. After acupuncture stimulation of the OVX-A rats, the pattern of locomotor activity became diphasic with clear active and resting phases, as was observed in the Control group. On histological studies, the continuity of trabecular bone was maintained more favorably and bone mass was higher in the OVX-A group than in the vehicle control group. These results suggest that the increased locomotor activity that had been induced by acupuncture stimulation increased the BMD.

Study of moxibustion stimulation in the ovariectomized rat model

  • Kanai, Shigeyuki;Taniguchi, Norimasa;Kanda, Kayo;Matsuhata, Izuru
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2005
  • In order to examine the effectiveness of moxibustion stimulation for climacteric disturbance, we administered moxibustion stimulation to ovariectomized (OVX) rats, and compared the tail surface temperature, laboratory parameters, and the level of locomotor activity with those of untreated rats. Twenty-four female Wistar rats (8 weeks old, 160 - 180 g) were divided into three groups. The rats in the OVX-M group underwent moxibustion stimulation after ovariectomy. The rats in the OVX-C group underwent ovariectomy but did not receive moxibustion stimulation. The rats in the Normal group received neither ovariectomy nor moxibustion stimulation. The level of locomotor activity was determined by a metabolism measuring system. The tail surface temperature was significantly lower in the OVX rats before moxibustion stimulation than in the Normal group. In the OVX rats before moxibustion stimulation, there was no clear difference in the level of locomotor activity between the active and resting phases, and the pattern of locomotor activity was irregular. After moxibustion stimulation, the tail surface temperature of the OVX-M group did not significantly differ from that of the Normal group, and the pattern of locomotor activity of the OVX-M group became diphasic with clear active and resting phases, similar to that observed in the Normal group. These results demonstrate that moxibustion stimulation is effective for the treatment of climacteric disturbance.

The Role of Dopaminergic Fibers on the Action of Psychotropic Drugs in 6-OHDA-treated Rats (6-OHDA 파괴 후 수종의 향정신약물의 작용에 대한 중추도파민 신경계의 역할)

  • 이순철;유관희
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 1993
  • We have examined the functional role of central dopaminergic processes on the behavioral pharmacological effects induced by psychotropics and red ginseng saponins of normal rats and compared with that of brain damaged rats. Desipramine and clomipramine produced, a significant depression of the locomotor activity in normal rats, but in brain damaged rats, they did not have any effect throughout the experimental period of 4 hours. Total saponin (50~200 mg/kg), PT (25~50 mg/kg), PD (25~50 mg/kg), $Rg_1$(12.5~25 mg/kg), $Rb_1$ (12.5~50 mg/kg) did not change, and high concentrations of PT (100 mg/kg), PD (100 mg/kg) and $Rg_1$ (50 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in the locomotor activity of one hour after administration but total saponin (100 mg/kg), PD (25~50 mg/kg), Rgl (12.5 mg/kg), $Rb_1$ (12.5 mg/kg) markedly increased the locomotor activity of four hour after administration in normal rats. On the other hand, total saponin (50 mg/kg), PT (100 mg/kg) and PD (100 mg/kg) Produced a prominent stimulation of the locomotor activity in brain damaged rats. These results suggest that the inhibition of the locomotor activity induced by antidepressants was not affected by the sensitivity of cerebral DA system, whereas red ginseng saponin showed antifatigue effect and also the stimulation of the locomotor activity induced by red ginseng saponin was mediated by the inhibition of cerebral DA system. These psychotropic action of red ginseng saponins could be responsible for the beneficial effects on conditions of fatigue and decreased alertness.

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Analysis of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Rhythms in the Process of Daily Torpor in Djungarian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)

  • Tsurumi, Toshiko;Masuda, Atsuko;Oishi, Tadashi
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.252-254
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    • 2002
  • Djungarian hamsters show distinct seasonal rhythms in several physiological parameters. One of them is daily torpor that occurs in winter with decreased body temperature (about 1O-20$^{\circ}$C) during daytime. Daily torpor is induced by short-day photoperiod, food restriction and castration. But the mechanism to induce daily torpor has not been clarified. In the present study, we tried to clarify the process of daily torpor induction in detail. Adult male hamsters were kept in long photoperiod and high temperature (LP-HT) before the experiment and, thereafter, the animals were transferred to short photoperiod and low temperature (SP-LT), and they were kept in this condition for about six months. The daily rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature were recorded every three-minutes by using the Minimitter telemetry system. Locomotor activity and body temperature showed very closely synchronized rhythms. All animals under LP-HT showed daily rhythms with higher locomotor activity and body temperature in nighttime than in daytime. Under SP-LT, there were two types of animals with and without showing daily torpor. Thus, they have individual differences in the response to SP -LT.

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Evaluation on the Abuse Liability of Ephedrine Using Rats (흰쥐를 이용한 에페드린의 약물남용가능성 평가)

  • 류승렬;김혜진;홍진태;이종권;이선희;이병무;김부영
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.682-688
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    • 1999
  • Abuse liability of ephedrine was investigated by measurement of locomotor activity and self-administration in Sprague-Dawley rats. Locomotor activity was determined in rats treated with 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg ephedrine for 14 days. Self-administration by ephedrine (0.23, 1 and 2.3 mg/kg) was examined in food-trained rats. We also examined effect of dopamine receptor antagonist (spiperone, $30{\;}\mu\textrm{g}/kg$) on the ephedrine-induced response of self-administration. Body weight was not statistically difference between control and ephedrine treatment group, but locomotor activity was dose-dependently increased. Self-administration for ephedrine was decreased in the early response (day 1 and 2) but the response was increased by higher dose of ephedrine. Self-administration was decreased by dopamine receptor antagonist (spiperone). These data showed that ephedrine increased locomotor activity and induced response of self-administration, and the effects of ephedrine were partially related to the dopaminergic system, which suggest the ephedrine may have abuse liability.

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The Effects of Nalbuphine on the Spontaneous locomotor activity and Primary Humoral Immune response in mice.

  • Yun, Hee-Eun;Kwak, Young-Hee;Pyo, Myoung-Yun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.108-108
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    • 1997
  • The effects of nalbuphine.HCI on the spontaneous locomotor activity and primary humoral immune response were investigated in ICR mice. Nalbuphine was intraperitoneally administered with the dose of 130, 260, 360 mg/kg in mice. The locomotor activity such as distance traveled was observed for 90min at 10min intervals. Nalbuphine showed the biphasic dose-response relationship on the spontaneous locomotor activity. IgM plaque forming cells(PFC) in splenocytes and IgM level in antiserum were significantly decreased depending on the dose of nalbuphine when nalbuphine was administered after the immunization, but slightly increased only at the low dose in the case of nabuphine administration after the immunization(SRBC).

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Demand-feeding and Locomotor Circadian Rhythms in the Red sea bream, Pagrus major

  • Choe Yong-Gwon;Choi Jae-Eun;Roh Duk-Whan;Choi Cheol-Young
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.130-137
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    • 2001
  • In the present study, the locomotor and feeding activities of single red sea bream, Pagrus major were simultaneously investigated to examine the existence of such dual behaviour. Seven red sea bream of 13cm body length on average were placed individually in 35L tanks equipped with an infrared sensor and a newly developed demand-feeding device. Fish were exposed to a light: dark 12: 12h cycle and constant darkness (DD) to study endogenous rhythmicity. Under LD 12: 12 h, the daily pattern of behaviour differed between individual fish; some red sea bream were diurnal and others were nocturnal. Futhermore, some of them displayed an extraordinary flexibility in phasing because they were dark active but light feeding, and vice versa. Under DD, red sea bream showed free-running rhythms for locomotor activity and feeding. These results indicate that the type of phasing of locomotor activity did not necessarily decide the feeding phase; much of this is explained by the fact that red sea bream were demand-fed. Flexibility in phasing and a certain degree of independence between locomotor and feeding activities could be seen as an adaptative response of the highly adaptable circadian rhythms of fish.

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