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A Study on a Fuzzy Controller for the Electronic Braking Force Distribution System (전자식 차량 제동력 배분 시스템을 위한 퍼지제어기의 연구)

  • 김승대;김훈모
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.220-229
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    • 2000
  • In the brake systems a proportioning valve which reduces the brake pressure at each wheel cylinder for anti-locking of rear wheels is closely related with the safety of vehicles. But, it is impossible for a present proportioning valve to exactly control brake pressure because mechanically it is an open loop control system. So, in this paper we describe a electronic brake pressure distribution system using a fuzzy controller in order to exactly control brake pressure using a close loop control system. The object of electronic brake pressure distribution system is to change an cut-in pressure and an valve slop of proportioning valve in order to obtain better good performance of brake system than with mechanical system.

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Performance Assessment of a Lithium-Polymer Battery for HEV Utilizing Pack-Level Battery Hardware-in-the-Loop-Simulation System

  • Han, Sekyung;Lim, Jawhwan
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.1431-1438
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    • 2013
  • A pack-level battery hardware-in-the-loop simulation (B-HILS) platform is implemented. It consists of dynamic vehicle models using PSAT and multiple control interfaces including real-time 3D driving and GPS mode. In real-time 3D driving mode, user can drive a virtual vehicle using actual drive equipment such as steering wheel and accelerator to generate the cycle profile of the battery. In GPS mode, actual road traffic and terrain effects can be simulated using GPS data while the trajectory is displayed on Google map. In the latter part of the paper, several performance tests of an actual lithium-polymer battery pack are carried out utilizing the developed system. All experiments are conducted as parts of actual development process of a commercial battery pack adopting 2nd generation Prius as a target vehicle model. Through the experiments, the low temperature performance and fuel efficiency of the battery are quantitatively investigated in comparison with the original nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) pack of the Prius.

Development of Brake Controller for fixed-wing aircraft using hardware In-the-Loop Simulation

  • Lee, Ki-Chang;Jeon, Jeong-Woo;Hwang, Don-Ha;Kim, Yong-Joo
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.535-538
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    • 2005
  • Today, most fixed-wing aircrafts are equipped with the antiskid brake system. It can modulate braking moments in the wheels optimally, when an aircraft is landing. So it can reduce landing distance and increase safeties. The antiskid brake system for an aircraft are mainly composed of braking moment modulators (hydraulic control valves) and brake control unit. In this paper, a Mark IV type - fully digital - brake controller is studied. For the development of its control algorithms, a 5-DOF (Degree of Freedom) aircraft landing model is composed in the form of matlab/simulink model at first. Then, braking moment control algorithms using wheel decelerations and slips are made. The developed algorithms are tested in software simulations using state-flow toolboxes in matlab/simulink model. Also, a real-time simulation systems are made, which use hydraulic brake systems of a real aircraft, pressure control valves and its controller as hardware components of HIL(Hardware In-the-Loop) simulation. Algorithms tested in software simulations are coded into the controller and the real-time landing simulations are made in very severe road conditions. The real-time simulation results are presented.

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Fatigue Performance of Bridge Decks using Half-Depth Precast Panel with Loop Joint (루프이음 반단면 프리캐스트 패널을 이용한 교량 바닥판의 피로성능)

  • Chung, Chul Hun;Lim, Seung Jun;Kim, Hyun Jun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.30 no.1A
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2010
  • The panels are used as a composite part of the completed deck. They replace the main bottom transverse deck reinforcement and also serve as a form surface for the cast-in-place concrete upper layer that contains the top of deck reinforcement. However, in order to apply the precast panels to bridges properly, it is necessary to fully understand the structural characteristics of joint in precast panels. Particularly, since the bridge deck is under repeated loads such as traffic loads, fatigue behavior and characteristics of joint should be investigated. In this paper, fatigue tests of composite deck with shear ties and loop joints were conducted. The fatigue tests were conducted with an application of repeated loading and wheel loading. Test results were analyzed to examine the current design code for fatigue of reinforcement bar and serviceability under repeated loading.

Development of Energy Regeneration Algorithm using Electro-Hydraulic Braking Module for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (회생제동 전자제어 유압모듈을 이용한 하이브리드 차량의 에너지 회수 알고리즘 개발)

  • Yeo, H.;Kim, H.S.;Hwang, S.H.
    • Transactions of The Korea Fluid Power Systems Society
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, an energy regeneration algorithm is proposed to make the maximum use of the regenerative braking energy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) equipped with a continuous variable transmission(CVT). The regenerative algorithm is developed by considering the battery state of charge(SOC), vehicle velocity and motor capacity. The hydraulic module consists of a reducing valve and a power unit to supply the front wheel brake pressure according to the control algorithm. In order to evaluate the performance of the regenerative braking algorithm and the hydraulic module, a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) is performed. In the HILS system, the brake system consists of four wheel brakes and the hydraulic module. Dynamic characteristics of the HEV are simulated using an HEV simulator. In the HEV simulator, each element of the HEV powertrain such as internal combustion engine, motor, battery and CVT is modelled using MATLAB/$Simulink^{(R)}$. In the HILS, a driver operates the brake pedal with his or her foot while the vehicle speed is displayed on the monitor in real time. It is found from the HILS that the regenerative braking algorithm and the hydraulic module suggested in this paper provide a satisfactory braking performance in tracking the driving schedule and maintaining the battery state of charge.

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Dynamic Control Allocation for Shaping Spacecraft Attitude Control Command

  • Choi, Yoon-Hyuk;Bang, Hyo-Choong
    • International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.10-20
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    • 2007
  • For spacecraft attitude control, reaction wheel (RW) steering laws with more than three wheels for three-axis attitude control can be derived by using a control allocation (CA) approach.1-2 The CA technique deals with a problem of distributing a given control demand to available sets of actuators.3-4 There are many references for CA with applications to aerospace systems. For spacecraft, the control torque command for three body-fixed reference frames can be constructed by a combination of multiple wheels, usually four-wheel pyramid sets. Multi-wheel configurations can be exploited to satisfy a body-axis control torque requirement while satisfying objectives such as minimum control energy.1-2 In general, the reaction wheel steering laws determine required torque command for each wheel in the form of matrix pseudo-inverse. In general, the attitude control command is generated in the form of a feedback control. The spacecraft body angular rate measured by gyros is used to estimate angular displacement also.⁵ Combination of the body angular rate and attitude parameters such as quaternion and MRPs(Modified Rodrigues Parameters) is typically used in synthesizing the control command which should be produced by RWs.¹ The attitude sensor signals are usually corrupted by noise; gyros tend to contain errors such as drift and random noise. The attitude determination system can estimate such errors, and provide best true signals for feedback control.⁶ Even if the attitude determination system, for instance, sophisticated algorithm such as the EKF(Extended Kalman Filter) algorithm⁶, can eliminate the errors efficiently, it is quite probable that the control command still contains noise sources. The noise and/or other high frequency components in the control command would cause the wheel speed to change in an undesirable manner. The closed-loop system, governed by the feedback control law, is also directly affected by the noise due to imperfect sensor characteristics. The noise components in the sensor signal should be mitigated so that the control command is isolated from the noise effect. This can be done by adding a filter to the sensor output or preventing rapid change in the control command. Dynamic control allocation(DCA), recently studied by Härkegård, is to distribute the control command in the sense of dynamics⁴: the allocation is made over a certain time interval, not a fixed time instant. The dynamic behavior of the control command is taken into account in the course of distributing the control command. Not only the control command requirement, but also variation of the control command over a sampling interval is included in the performance criterion to be optimized. The result is a control command in the form of a finite difference equation over the given time interval.⁴ It results in a filter dynamics by taking the previous control command into account for the synthesis of current control command. Stability of the proposed dynamic control allocation (CA) approach was proved to ensure the control command is bounded at the steady-state. In this study, we extended the results presented in Ref. 4 by adding a two-step dynamic CA term in deriving the control allocation law. Also, the strict equality constraint, between the virtual and actual control inputs, is relaxed in order to construct control command with a smooth profile. The proposed DCA technique is applied to a spacecraft attitude control problem. The sensor noise and/or irregular signals, which are existent in most of spacecraft attitude sensors, can be handled effectively by the proposed approach.

Development of the Virtual Driving Environment for the AWS ECU Test Platform of the Bi-modal Tram (저상굴절 궤도차량의 AWS ECU 테스트 플랫폼을 위한 가상 주행환경 개발)

  • Choi, Seong-Hoon;Park, Tea-Won;Lee, Soo-Ho;Moon, Kyung-Ho
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.283-290
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    • 2007
  • A bi-modal tram has been developed to offer an advanced transportation service compared with existing vehicles. The All-Wheel-Steering system is applied to the bi-modal tram to satisfy the required steering performance because the bi-modal tram has extended length and articulated mechanism. An ECU for the steering system is essential to steer wheels on 2nd and 3rd axles by the specific AWS algorithm with the prescribed driving condition. The Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation(HILS) system is planned for the purpose of evaluating the steering system of the bi-modal tram. There are kinematic links with the hydraulic actuator to steer wheels on each 2nd and 3rd axles and also same steering mechanism as the actual vehicle is in the HILS system. Controlling the movement of hydraulic actuator which reflects the lateral steering reaction force on each wheel is the key to realize the HILS system, but the reaction force is continuously changed according to various driving conditions. Therefore, the simulation through the multi-body dynamics model is used to obtain the required forces.

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Analysis of Diagnosis and Failsafe Algorithm Using Transmission Simulator (변속기 시뮬레이터를 이용한 진단 및 안전작동 알고리즘 분석)

  • Jung, Gyuhong
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.89-97
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    • 2014
  • As the digital control technologies in automotive industry have advanced, electronic control units(ECUs) play a key-role to improve system performance. Transmission control unit(TCU) is a shifting controller for automatic transmission of which major functions are to determine the shift and manage the shifting process considering the various sensor signal on transmission and driver's commands. As with any ECU in vehicle, TCU performs complex algorithms such as shift control, diagnostic and failsafe functions. However, firmware design analysis is hardly possible by the reverse engineering due to code protection. Transmission simulator is a hardware-in-the-loop simulator which enables TCU to work in normal mode by simulating the electrical signal of TCU interface. In this research, diagnosis and failsafe algorithm implemented on commercialized TCU is analyzed by using the transmission simulator that is developed for wheel loader construction vehicle. This paper gives various experimental results on the proportional solenoid current trajectories for different operating modes, error detection criterion and limphome mode gears for all the possible cases of clutch malfunction. The derived results for conventional TCU can be applied to the development of inherent TCU algorithms and the transmission simulator can also be utilized for the test of TCU to be developed.

Performance Test and Characteristics Analysis of a Spherical Reaction Wheel (구체 반작용휠 구동기의 성능 시험 및 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Dae-Kwan;Yoon, Hyung-Joo;Kim, Yong-Bok;Kang, Woo-Yong;Choi, Hong-Taek
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.183-187
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    • 2012
  • In the present study, a feasibility study on an innovative satellite attitude control actuator is performed. The actuator is specially designed to generate the reaction torque in an arbitrary axis, so that a satellite attitude can be controlled by using itself. It consists of a spherical flywheel and electromagnets for levitation and rotation control of the ball. As the earlier study, a rotating performance test on the spherical actuator is conducted in a single rotating axis and vertical levitation condition. From the test results, it can be confirmed that the maximum speed and torque of the innovative device are 7,200rpm and 0.7Nm, respectively. Using torque-voltage characteristics of the spherical motor, an open-loop control (V/f constant control) is performed, and the test results show excellent control performance in acceleration and deceleration phases.

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Improved Wheelset Speed Implementation of a Brake HILS System for a Railway Vehicle (철도차량 제동 HILS 시스템의 개선된 윤축속력 구현)

  • Lee, Dong-chan;Kang, Chul-Goo
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.881-887
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    • 2015
  • The hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) of a railway vehicle is crucial for overcoming the limitation of field tests of a railway vehicle. A brake HILS system for a railway vehicle was previously not able to test the performance of a speed-sensing system of a railway vehicle, since wheelset speeds were generated only by computer simulations. In this paper, we present a novel wheelset speed implementation of a brake HILS system for a railway vehicle. Four wheelset speeds of a brake HILS system for a car of a railway vehicle are implemented using four small-sized servomotors, whereas the speed sensors and pole wheels used in the brake HILS system are the actual ones of the railway vehicle. According to the simulated speeds of four wheelsets in the dynamic equations of motion, four servomotors generate wheel speeds in real time, and then the measured wheelset speeds are fed back to the computer simulation model. Moreover, in this paper, we improve the performance of wheelset speed measurement via the T method instead of the M method presently used in the field. The performances of wheelset speed implementation and speed-sensor operation are demonstrated by experimental works using a HILS system.