• Title, Summary, Keyword: Low Impact Development (LID)

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Effect of Regional Climate Change Projected by RCP Scenarios on the Efficiency of Low Impact Development Applications (RCP 시나리오에 따른 지역의 기후변화가 저영향개발 기법 효과에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Ji-Hong;Kim, Tae-Dong;Choi, Donghyuk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Urban Environment
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.409-417
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    • 2018
  • This study elicited the necessity of considering regional climate change on Low Impact Development (LID) application by evaluating its effect on LID efficiency. The relationship between climate change factors and LID efficiency was evaluated with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) showing the increase of annual precipitation and representative evapotranspiration. Simply lowering lawn surface (LID3), a practical option to increase retention and infiltration effect, demonstrated hydrological improvement above two conventional options, bioretention with green roof (LID1) and bioretention only (LID2). High runoff reductions of applied options at RCP 4.5, supposing taking efforts for mitigating green house gases, revealed that climate change countermeasures were preferable to LID efficiencies. The increase of precipitation had more influence in hydrological change than that of reference evapotranspiration.

LIDMOD Development for Evaluating Low Impact Development and Its Applicability to Total Maximum Daily Loads (지속가능한 도시개발을 위한 LID평가모델(LIDMOD)개발과 수질오염총량제에 대한 적용성 평가)

  • Jeon, Ji-Hong;Choi, Dong Hyuk;Kim, Tae Dong
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.58-68
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    • 2009
  • Low impact development (LID) technique is relatively new concept to reduce surface runoff and pollutant loading from land cover by attempting to match predevelopment condition with various integrated management practices (IMPs). In this study, computational model for designing and evaluating LID, named LIDMOD, was developed based on SCS-CN method and applied at Andong bus terminal to evaluate LID applicapability and design retention/detention area for volume or peak flow control. LIDMOD simulated with 21 years simulation period that yearly surface runoff by post-development without LID was significantly higher than that with LID showing about 2.8 times and LID could reduce efficiently yearly surface runoff with 75% reduction of increased runoff by conventional post development. LIDMOD designed detention area for volume/peak flow control with 20.2% of total area by hybrid design. LID can also efficiently reduce pollutant load from land cover. Pollutant loads from post-development without LID was much higher than those from pre-development with showing 37 times for BOD, 2 times for TN, and 9 times for TP. Pollutant loads from post-development with LID represented about 57% of those without LID. Increasing groundwater recharge reducing cooling and heating fee, creating green refuge at building area can be considered as additional benefits of LID. At the point of reducing runoff and pollutant load, LID might be important technique for Korean TMDL and LIDMOD can be useful tool to calculate unit load for the case of LID application.

An Analysis of the water balance of Low Impact Development Techniques According to the Rainfall Types (강우 유형에 따른 저영향개발 기법별 물수지 분석)

  • Yoo, Sohyun;Lee, Dongkun;Kim, Hyomin;Cho, Youngchul
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.163-174
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    • 2015
  • Urbanization caused various environmental problems like destruction of natural water cycle and increased urban flood. To solve these problems, LID(Low Impact Development) deserves attention. The main objective of LID is to restore the water circulation to the state before the development. In the previous studies about the LID, the runoff reduction effect is mainly discussed and the effects of each techniques of LID depending on rainfall types have not fully investigated. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of LID using the quantitative simulation of rainwater runoff as well as an amount of infiltration according to the rainfall and LID techniques. To evaluate the water circulation of LID on the development area, new land development areas of Hanam in South Korea is decided as the study site. In this research, hydrological model named STORM is used for the simulation of water balance associated with LID. Rainfall types are separated into two categories based on the rainfall intensity. And simulated LID techniques are green roof, permeable pavement and swale. Results of this research indicate that LID is effective on improvement of water balance in case of the low intensity rainfall event rather than the extreme event. The most effective LID technique is permeable pavement in case of the low intensity rainfall event and swale is effective in case of the high intensity rainfall event. The results of this study could be used as a reference when the spatial plan is made considering the water circulation.

Decision Support System for Determination of Types and Locations of Low Impact Development Practices

  • Abdulai, Patricia Jitta;Song, Jae Yeol;Chung, Eun-Sung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.181-181
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    • 2017
  • Low impact development (LID) practices has become important to mitigate the damage from natural disasters in urban areas. Thereby many hydrological simulation models can simulate the hydrological impact of LID practices. However, commonly used models are not able to provide specific information to most users such as where LIDs should be placed and what kind of LID should be designed. In this study, a decision support system which can be used with the EPA's SWMM was developed for the determination of LID types and locations of LID practices, named Water Management Prioritization Module (WMPM), was applied to a urbanized university campus. Eight sub-catchments were selected as feasible candidate areas for the planning of LID practices. Pre-designated infiltration trenches and permeable pavements were applied to each selected sub-catchments, followed by peak and total runoffs comparison between before/after planning of LIDs. Moreover, TOPSIS, one of a multi-criteria decision analysis method was used in the procedure of selecting target sub-catchment areas and final prioritization of LID types and locations. As a result, sub-catchments S4 with permeable pavements and S16 with infiltration trenches has shown the most decrease in total and peak runoffs, respectively. Therefore, WMPM was found to be effective in determining the best alternative among various scenarios generated and simulated.

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Key Factors Influencing Low Impact Development Adoption by Local Governments (지방정부의 저영향개발 적용에 영향을 주는 요인 연구)

  • Jeong, Moonsun;Koebel, C. Theodore;Bryant, M. Margaret
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.119-133
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    • 2015
  • The paper reports on exploratory research into the factors influencing adoption of low impact development (LID) regulations by local government. The research uses ten case studies ranging from low to high level adoption of LID in Virginia. Based on the theory of diffusion of innovations, perceived characteristics of LID, characteristics of the adopting local government, motivations of the adopter, and the surrounding organizational context of the adopter are chosen for the key factors influencing on LID adoption. By reviewing the local governments regulations related to stormwater management, meeting minutes, reports and documents, and in-depth interviews, the evaluation of the key factors and the local LID adoption was conducted. As a result, adopters with a high level of LID adoption at the time of the study were heavily influenced by champions of LID within local government and communities. In contrast, moderate level adopters and low-level adopters emphasized the importance of external forces like state regulatory mandates and the need for clear models to implement.

Analysis of Runoff Reduction Efficiency and Characteristic for Test-bed of Low Impact Development Techniques on Sidewalk : for Permeable Block, Vertical Infiltration Pipe, Storage Tank (보도 공간을 활용한 저영향개발 기법 테스트베드의 특성 및 유출저감 효율 분석 : 투수블록, 수직침투관, 빗물저류조를 대상으로)

  • Lee, Daehee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.79-89
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of Low Impact Development(LID) techniques in LID test-bed and to analyze runoff reduction efficiency of that techniques. The K research institute with a test-bed for LID technique was selected as a study area and a stormwater management target was set to manage water quality and quantity of runoff. The Permeable Block, Vertical Infiltration Pipe(VIP) and Storage Tank were selected and their characteristics were analyzed. Eight scenarios were created from the selected LID facilities and SWMM-LID runoff simulation was carried out. The optimization method of the LID techniques is suggested by analyzing the stormwater runoff characteristics for each scenario. As a result of SWMM-LID runoff simulations, the peak flow was reduced by up to 64.4 % and the total runoff was reduced by up to 35.2 %. In addition, it is effective to apply the permeable block and VIP to the area where the ratio of sidewalk is large, and it is considered that the application of the storage tank is effective in reducing the runoff in the area where the ratio of sidewalk is small.

Restoration of Water Cycle by a Rainwater Management System Applied to Low Impact Development (LID) (저영향개발 (LID)을 적용한 빗물 관리 시스템에 의한 물 순환 복원)

  • Lee, Dong Chan
    • Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.130-133
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    • 2016
  • The increase in impervious surfaces due to urban development has caused a groundwater drawdown through the reduction of underground infiltration, flood disaster due to increased rainfall runoff and environmental pollution in higher pollutant concentrations of first flush rainwater. As an alternative to these problems, the needs of low impact development (LID) techniques is increasing in urban areas. In this study, the restoration efficiency of water cycle was assessed at a residential site development applied with the LID rainwater management system. The results of monitoring the water cycling showed that the efficiency of water cycle of LID rainwater management system was improved 41% more than that of conventional methods.

A Study on the Water Cycle Improvement Plan of Low Impact Development (저영향개발 기법의 물순환 개선 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Byungsung;Lim, Seokhwa;Lee, Sangjin;Baek, Jongseok;Kim, Jaemoon
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2020
  • Recently, since impervious areas have increased due to urban development, the water cycle system of urban watersheds has been destructed. Hence, researches on LID (Low Impact Development) technique have been conducted to solve such problems environmentally. In order to verify suitability with the scale and arrangement of LID technique, the runoff reduction effect of the LID technique should be analyzed per small watershed unit. In this study, pre-post difference of the runoff by applying the LID was estimated using the rational method and rainwater treatment capacity equation. As a result, the runoff before and after the application of LID were estimated as 22,533.5 ㎥ and 14,992.1 ㎥, respectively. In addition, rainfall-runoff simulations were carried out using SWMM to evaluate the efficiency of the LID technique. The SWMM simulation results showed that the runoff before and after the application of LID were 21,174 ㎥ and 15,664 ㎥, respectively. Based on the results of the two methods, the scale and arrangement of the LID technique were revised in order to maximize the effect of the water cycle improvement. Rainfall-runoff simulations were carried out using the SWMM with the revised LID techniques. As a result, despite 34.8 % reduction of pervious pavement area, the rate of runoff reduction increased by 2.1 %. These results indicate that designing the scale and arrangement of LID technique, while considering the total amount of inflow entering into each LID techniques, is essential to effectively achieve the goals of runoff reduction in urban development.

LIDMOD3 Development for Design and Evaluation of Low Impact Development (저영향개발기법 설계 및 평가를 위한 LIDMOD3 개발)

  • Jeon, Ji-Hong;Seo, Seong-Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.382-390
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    • 2018
  • In this study, the LIDMOD3 was developed to design and evaluate low impact development (LIDMOD). In the same fashion, the LIDMOD3 employs a curve number (NRCS-CN) method to estimate the surface runoff, infiltration and event mean concentration as applicable to pollutant loads which are based on a daily time step. In these terms, the LIDMOD3 can consider a hydrologic soil group for each land use type LID-BMP, and the applied removal efficiency of the surface runoff and pollutant loads by virtue of the stored capacity, which was calculated by analyzing the recorded water balance. As a result of Model development, the LIDMOD3 is based on an Excel spread sheet and consists of 8 sheets of information data, including: General information, Annual precipitation, Land use, Drainage area, LID-BMPs, Cals-cap, Parameters, and the Results. In addition, the LIDMOD3 can estimate the annual hydrology and annual pollutant loads including surface runoff and infiltration, the LID efficiency of the estimated surface runoff for a design rainfall event, and an analysis of the peak flow and time to peak using a unit hydrolograph for pre-development, post-development without LID, and as calculated with LID. As a result of the model application as applied to an apartment, the LIDMOD3 can estimate LID-BMPs considering a well spatical distributed hydroloic soil group as realized on land use and with the LID-BMPs. Essentially, the LIDMOD3 is a screen level and simple model which is easy to use because it is an Excel based model, as are most parameters in the database. This system can be expected to be widely used at the LID site to collect data within various programmable model parameters for the processing of a detail LID model simulation.

Analysis of Runoff Reduction with LID Adoption using the SWMM (SWMM을 이용한 춘천 거두 1지구의 LID 개념 적용으로 인한 유출 감소 특성 분석)

  • Park, Junho;Yoo, Yonggu;Park, Youngkon;Yoon, Heetaek;KIm, Jonggun;Park, Younshik;Jeon, Ji-Hong;Lim, Kyoung Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.806-816
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    • 2008
  • In recent years, increases in impervious areas with rapid urbanization and land use changes are causing numerous hydrologic and environmental problems. In this study Low Impact Development (LID) was applied to investigate changes in runoff and peak runoff with LID plans. SWMM 5.0 was used to simulate LID Integrated Management Practices (IMPs) at study area. The SWMM estimated total runoff volume with conventional land use planning is (82.3%, 46.44 mm), (99%, 73.16 mm) greater than total runoff before urbanization, while total runoff with LID is (11.1%, 46.44 mm), (49%, 73.16 mm) greater than those before urbanization. With the LID adoption in land use planning, pervious area increases by 49.8% compared with that from the conventional urban land use planning, resulting in (32.7%, 46.44 mm), (23.6%, 73.16 mm) decrease in total runoff, and (32.6%, 46.44 mm), (18.5%, 73.16 mm) decreases in peak rate runoff. The results obtained from this study indicate that peak rate runoff, time to peak, and total runoff can be reduced with the LID in urban land use planning because the LID secures pervious areas with various LID IMPs. The SWMM simulated result using design storm data and the US EPA suggested CN values for various LID IMPs implies that how environment-friendly urban land use planning with the LID adoption is important for sustainable development at urbanizing watershed.