• Title/Summary/Keyword: Low normal stress

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Anisotropic Shear Strength of Artificially Fractured Rock Joints Under Low Normal Stress (낮은 수직응력 하에서 인공 절리면의 전단 이방성에 관한 연구)

  • 곽정열;이상은;임한욱
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.169-179
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    • 2003
  • Anisotropic shear strength of rock joints is studied based on the artificially fractured specimens using experimental and analytical methods. Series of direct shear tests are performed to obtain the strength, stiffness and friction angle of joints under various low normal stresses and shearing directions. The results of shear strength and stiffness show anisotropic value according to shearing direction under low normal stress specially less than 2.45 MPa. But, the effect of joint roughness on strength decreases with increasing normal stress. To estimate more effectively the peak shear strength under low normal stress, the modified Barton's equation is suggested.

Prediction of Tensile Strength of Wet Sand (I) : Theory (습윤 모래에서 인장강도의 예측 (I) : 이론)

  • Kim, Tae-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 2008
  • At low normal stress levels tensile strength of sand varies with either saturation or suction of soil in an up-and-down manner with a peak tensile strength that can occur at any degree of saturation. A theory that accurately predicts tensile strength of wet sand is presented. A closed form expression for tensile strength unifies tensile strength characteristics in all three water retention regimes: pendular, funicular, and capillary. Three parameters are employed in the theory; namely, the Internal friction angle (at low normal stress) ${\phi}_t$, the inverse value of the air-entry pressure ${\alpha}$, and the pore size spectrum parameter n. It is shown that the magnitude of peak tensile strength is dominantly controlled by the ${\alpha}$ parameter. The saturation at which peak tensile strength occurs only depends on the pore size spectrum parameter n.

Shear Strength and Deformation Behavior of Rock Joint with Roughness (절리면의 거칠기에 따른 암석 절리의 전단강도 및 변형거동에 관한 연구)

  • 이상돈;강준호;이정인
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.261-273
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    • 1994
  • Direct shear tests were carried out on the rock joints and artificial discontinuities to investigate the influence of joint roughness on the shear strength and deformation behaviour. Single direct shear testing apparatus used in experiment was designed and manufactured. Its capacity is 200 tons of shear load, 20 tons of normal load and 50$\textrm{cm}^2$ of maximum shear area. Test samples were cement mortar with artificial discontinuity and sandstone with natural joint. Peak shear strength was increased as joint roughness or normal stress was increased, especially, linearly increased with roughness angle in cement mortar. If joint roughness angle was constant at low normal stress, shear strength was not affected by width and height of joint roughness in cement mortar. Peak shear strengths obtained from tests were larger than the values calculated by Barton's equation, and shear stiffness was increased with joint roughness coefficient.

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Development of Strain-softening Modeling for Interfaces between Geosynthetics (토목섬유 interface의 변형율 연화 모델 개발)

  • Seo, Min-Woo;Park, Jun-Boum;Park, Inn-Joon;Cho, Nam-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.57-68
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    • 2003
  • Strain-softening model is developed to characterize the interface behavior of geomembrane with geotextile and geosynthetic clay liner(GCL). The model proposed in this research is calibrated by using data from direct shear tests conducted on smooth and textured geomembrane. The research is divided into two regions, pre-peak and post-peak, to take into account of strain-softening effect. Although slight difference between measured and back calculated data is observed under high normal stress, good agreements, in general, are found from back calculations. Especially, good consistency is observed in the case of low normal stress. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the proposed model can be a reasonable constitutive law to figure out the behavior of strain-softening between interfaces of geomembrane. In addition, DSC(Disturbed State Concept) model is also presented for further application in geosynthetic interfaces.

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The Effect of Cement Milk Grouting on the Deformation Behavior of Artifcial Rock Joints (시멘트현탁액 주입에 의한 신선한 암석절리의 역학적 특성 변화)

  • 김태혁;이정인
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.180-195
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    • 2000
  • Grouting has been practiced as a reliable technique to improve the mechanical properties of rock mass. But, the study of ground improvement by greeting is rare especially in jointed rock mass. In this study, joint compression test and direct shear test were performed on pure rock joint and cement milk grouted rock joint to examine the grouting effect on the property of rock joint. In the pure rock joint compression test, joint closure varied non-linearly with normal stress. But after cement milk grouting, the normal deformation characteristics of the joint was linear at the low normal stress level. As normal stress increased. deformation of the sample rapidly increased due to the stress concentration at the joint asperities. Peak shear strength of the grouted joint in low normal stress was higher than that of non-grouted joint due to the cohesion, decreased exponetially as the grout thickness increased. Thus after cement milk grouting, the failure envelope modified to a curve that has cohesion due to grout material hydration with decreased friction angle. Shear stiffness and peak dilation angle of the grouted joint decreased as the grout thickness increased. The peak shear strength from the direct shear test on grouted rock joint was represented by an empirical equation as a fuction of grout thickness and roughness mean amplitude.

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An experimental study of scale effect on the shear behavior of rock joints

  • Lee Tae-Jin;Lee Sang-Geun;Lee Chung-In;Hwang Dae-Jin
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.156-161
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    • 2003
  • Mechanical behavior of rock joints usually can be characterized by small-scale laboratory shear tests due to economical and technical limitations, but their applicability to the behaviour of rock mass has been always questioned by a number of researchers because of scale effect. Though there have been several researches regarding the scale effect, it has been a controversial problem how to apply the result of small-scale laboratory shear test directly to field design from different conclusions among researchers. In order to grasp the trend of scale effect of shear behavior, a series of direct shear tests on replicas of natural rock joint surfaces made of gypsum cement with different size and roughness were conducted and analyzed. Result showed that as the size of the specimen increased, average peak shear displacement increased, but average shear stiffness and average peak dilation angle decreased. As for the dependency of scale on shear strength, the degree of scale effect was dependent on normal stress and roughness of rock joint. For the condition of low normal stress and high roughness, decrease of average peak shear strength with increasing size of joint was evident.

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Evaluation of interface shear strength between geosynthetics using three kinds of testing methods (다양한 시험법에 의한 토목섬유 사이의 접촉 전단 강도 평가)

  • Seo, Min-Woo;Park, Jun-Boum;Park, Inn-Jun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.356-363
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    • 2004
  • In this research, the shear behavior of four different interfaces consisting of 4 types of geosynthetics was examined, and both static and dynamic tests for the geosynthetic interface were conducted. The monotonic shear experiments were performed by using an inclined board apparatus and large direct shear device. The interface shear strength obtained from the inclined board tests were compared with those calculated from large direct shear tests. The comparison results indicated that direct shear tests are likely to overestimate the shear strength in low normal stress range where direct shear tests were not performed. Curved failure envelopes were also obtained for interface cases where two static shear tests were conducted. By comparing the friction angles measured from three tests, i.e. direct shear, inclined board, and shaking table tests, it was found that the friction angle might be different depending on the test method and normal stresses applied in this research. Therefore, it was concluded that the testing method should be determined carefully by considering the type of loads and the normal stress expected in the field.

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Prediction of Tensile Strength of Wet Sand (II) : Validation (습윤 모래에서 인장강도의 예측 (II) : 검증)

  • Kim, Tae-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2008
  • At low normal stress levels, tensile strength of sand characteristically varies with either saturation or suction of soil in an up-and-down manner with a peak tensile strength that can occur at any degree of saturation. A theory that accurately predicts tensile strength of wet sand was presented in the previous study. In this study, the results of uniaxial tensile, suction-saturation and direct shear tests obtained from three sands (Esperance sand from Seattle, Washington, clean sand from Perth, Australia, and Ottawa sand) are used to validate the proposed theory. The closed form expression of the proposed theory can predict well the experimental data obtained from these sands in terms of the variation patterns of tensile strength over the entire saturation regimes, the magnitude of the tensile strength, its peak value, and the corresponding degree of saturation when the peak strength occurs.

Comparisons on the Interface Shear Strength of Geosynthetics Evaluated by Using Various Kinds of Testing Methods (다양한 시험법에 의해 산정된 토목섬유 사이의 접촉면 전단강도 비교)

  • Seo, Min-Woo;Oh, Myoung-Hak;Yoon, Hyun-Suk;Park, Jun-Boum
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.26 no.2C
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 2006
  • The shear behavior of four different interfaces consisting of four types of geosynthetics was investigated, and both static and dynamic test for the geosynthetic interfaces were conducted. The monotonic shear experiments were performed by using an inclined board apparatus and large direct shear device. The interface shear strength obtained from the inclined board test was compared with calculated values from large direct shear tests. The comparison results indicated that direct shear tests show high possibility to over-predict the shear strength in the low normal stress range where direct shear tests are not performed. Curved failure envelopes were also obtained for interface cases where two static shear tests were conducted. By comparing the friction angles measured from three tests, i.e. direct shear, inclined board, and shaking table test, it was found that the friction angle might be different depending on the test method and normal stresses applied in the research. Therefore, it was concluded that the testing method should be determined carefully by considering the type of loads and the normal stress expected in the field with using the geosynthetic materials installed in the site.

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The Effect of Displacement Rate on Shear Characteristics of Geotextile-involved Ceosynthetic Interfaces (지오텍스타일이 포함된 토목섬유 경계면의 전단특성에 대한 변위속도 효과)

  • 김진만
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2003
  • In spite of its potential importance in the assessment of geosynthetic-related dynamic problems, no serious attempt has yet been made to investigate a probable dependence of dynamic friction resistance of the geosynthetic interface on shear displacement rate. Hence, an experimental study of geosynthetics was carried out on a shaking table, and the relationship between dynamic friction resistance and shear displacement rate of geosynthetic interfaces was investigated. A cyclic, displacement rate-controlled experimental setup was used. The subsequent multiple rate tests showed that interfaces that involve geotextiles have such unique shearing characteristics that shear strengths tend to increase with displacement rate. In contrast, once submerged with water, the shear strength appears to be no longer dependent on the displacement rate, partly due to lubrication effect of water trapped inside the interface. The results of the experimental study can be used in the seismic safety assessment of a landfill cover and slope where the geosynthetic materials are exposed to a relatively low normal stress.