• Title, Summary, Keyword: Low salt fermented anchovy

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Studies on the Processing of Rapid- and Low Salt-Fermented Liquefaction of Anchovy(Engrulis japonica) (I) -Changes in Free Amino Acids during Fermentation and Quality Indices- (저식염 속성 멸치 발효액화물 가공에 관한 연구(I) -숙성 중 유리아미노산 변화 및 품질지표-)

  • Kang, Tae-Jung;Cho, Kyu-Ok;Park, Choon-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.197-213
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    • 2002
  • In order to establish the processing condition of rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction of anchovy (Engrulis japonica), effect of temperature on crude enzyme activity of anchovy viscera, pretreatment conditions, and the minimum content of adding NaCl were investigated. The minimum limitation of NaCl content for anchovy liquefaction was 10%. Sample A(water adding, heating, adding 10% NaCl): chopped whole anchovy adding 20% water and then heating for 9 hrs at $50^{\circ}C$ and then adding 10% NaCl and then fermented at room temperature$(8-29^{\circ}C)$ for 180 days. Sample B(water adding, heating, adding 13% NaCl): chopped whole anchovy adding 20% water and then heating for 9 hrs at $50^{\circ}C$ and then adding 13% NaCl and then fermented at room temperature for 180 days. Sample C(adding 13% NaCl): chopped whole anchovy and then adding 13% NaCl and then fermented at room temperature for 180 days. Sample D(adding 17% NaCl): whole anchovy adding 17% NaCl and then fermented at room temperature for 180 days. The content of free amino acids such as aspartic acid, serine and threonine fluctuated severely according to the pretreatment methods. Possibly they might be recommend quality indices of standardization for salt-fermented liquefaction of anchovy. As for the relation between fermentation period(X) and individual free amino acid(Y), five kinds of free amino acids such as glutamic acid, valine, glycine, lysine, and alanine showed highly significant in their coefficient of determination in most of samples. They might be recommend as quality indices for salt-fermented liquefaction of anchovy during fermentation. The difference of taste between products of the rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction and the traditional salt-fermented liquefaction were caused by their composition of the free amino acids ratios, in which were umami, sweet, and bitter taste in the extracts of anchovy during fermentation. The appropriate fermentation period of the sample A was shorten 30 days than the sample B and 60 days than the samples C and 90 days than the sample D in the processing of anchovy.

Studies on the Processing of Rapid- and low Salt-Fermented Liquefaction of Anchovy(Engrulis japonica) (II) - Changes in the Amino Acids from Oligopeptides during Fermentation - (저식염 속성 멸치 발효액화물 가공에 관한 연구(II) - 숙성 중 oligopeptide 아미노산 함량변화 -)

  • Kang, Tae-Jung;Cho, Kyu-Ok;Park, Choon-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.363-376
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    • 2002
  • In order to establish the processing conditions for salt-fermented liquefaction of anchovy(Engrulis japonica), changes in the amino acid composition from oligopeptides during fermentation periods were analyzed. Experimental sample A: chopped whole anchovy, adding 20% water, heating at $50^{\circ}C$ for 9 hrs and then adding 10% NaCl. Sample B: chopped whole anchovy, adding 20% water, heating at $50^{\circ}C$ for 9 hrs and then adding 13% NaCl. Sample C: chopped whole anchovy adding 13% NaCl. Sample D: whole anchovy adding 17% NaCl. The total amino acids from oligopeptides in fermented liquefaction of anchovy increased in early fermentation period and reached highest level, and then they declined irregularly during fermentation. Their maximum amounts were just after heating at $50^{\circ}C$ for 9 hrs in sample A, after 15 days in sample B, and after 60 days in samples C and D. The fermented liquefaction of anchovy extracts were rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, lysine and valine. However, the contents of most amino acids fluctuated by the experimental specimens and fermenting periods. Among them glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid which was occupied $0.6{\sim}27.7%$(average 24.0%) in the content of total amino acids from oligopeptides. The contribution of the amino acid composition from oligopeptides to extractive nitrogen was occupying average 20.8 and 17.5% in rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction(sample A, B and C) and traditional fermented liquefaction(sample D), respectively.

Studies on the Processing of Accelerated Low Salt-Fermented Anchovy Paste by Adding Koji (Koji를 이용한 저식염 멸치젓의 속성제조에 관한 연구)

  • 차용준;김은정;주동식
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.348-352
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    • 1994
  • The adding effect of Koji, made by Aspergillus oryzae, in low salt-fermented anchovy paste was studied to reduced fermentation time and to enhance flavor quality as a commercial feasibility in seafood industry. The content of volatile basic nitrogen increased slowly during fermentation , whereas that of amino nitrogen was the highest in 30 days of low salt-fermented anchovy made with Koji. Protease and lipase activity in anchovy paste, which made with or without Koji, were high amount in 30 and 20 days of fermentation, respectively. A number of proteolytic bacteria was high level in 13 days and then slowly decreased afterward.

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Studios on the Processing of Low Salt Fermented Sea Foods 6. Taste Compounds of Low Salt Fermented Anchovy and Yellow Corvenia (저식염 수산발효식품의 가공에 관한 연구 6. 저식염 멸치젓 및 조기젓의 정미성분)

  • CHA Yong-Jun;LEE Eung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.325-332
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    • 1985
  • As a series of study for processing low salt fermented fish, this work was undertaken to investigate taste compounds of low sodium salt fermented anchovy and yellow corvenia comparing with conventional fermented fish ($20\%$ of salt contents) during the fermentation of 120 days at $25{\pm}3^{\circ}C$. The major amino acids in fermented anchovy at 60 day fermentation were lysine, alanine, leucine, valine, isoleucine, histidine, threonine and glycine, while those in fermented yellow corvenia at 90 day fermentation were lysine, leucine, alanine, valine, threonine, isoleucine, glutamic acid and methionine. These amino acids held $57\%$ of the total extractive nitrogen content for fermented anchovy and $41\%$ for fermented yellow corvenia, respectively. It was supposed from the results that principal taste compounds both for fermented anchovy and fermented yellow corvenia were free amino acids, and that nucleotides and their related compounds as well as total creatinine also played an assistant role. And also there was little difference between taste compounds of low salt fermented fish and those of conventional fermented fish irrespective of fish species.

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Studies on the processing of rapid fermented anchovy prepared with low salt contents by adapted microorganism. -3. Processing of low salt fermented anchovy with proteolytic bacteria and quality stability during storage- (미생물을 이용한 저식염 멸치젓의 속성발효에 관한 연구 -3. 단백질분해세균을 이용한 저식염 멸치젓의 제조 및 저장중의 품질 안정성-)

  • Cha, Yong-Jun;Lee, Kang-Hee;Lee, Eung-Ho;Kim, Jin-Soo;Joo, Dong-Sik
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.330-336
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    • 1990
  • In order to Process rapid fermented anchovy with low salt contents, processing condition of rapid fermented anchovy by proteolytic bacteria, and its chemical composition and quality stability during storage were examined. Culture was performed(pH 7.0, $40^{\circ}C$, 45strokes/min) for 15hrs after the addition of 1% of NaCl, 1% of sodium erythorbate and 20m1 of B. licheniformis p-5 cultures($3.2{\times}10^4cells/ml$) to 100g of raw anchovy, and then low salt fermented anchovy as final product was made by adding of several(3% of NaCl, 4% of KCI, 4% of ethyl alcohol(w/v), 0.5% of ginger, 0.5% of garlic powder) for stability and flavor enhancement. During 60days of storage, histamine contents was adequate in a food sanitation aspect, and microflora decreased sharply while volatile basic nitrogen increased slowly. Free amino acids are the major part in unique fermented anchovy taste. The volatile fatty acids is the most important component in the anchovy's flavor. From the results of experiments, it was supposed that rapid fermented anchovy processed with proteolytic bacteria was suitable.

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Studies on the Processing of Rapid- and low Salt-Fermented Liquefaction of Anchovy(Engrulis japonica)(III) - Changes in ATP-related compounds, TMAO, TMA, Creatine, and Creatinine during Fermentation - (저식염 속성 멸치 발효액화물 가공에 관한 연구(III) - 숙성 중 ATP관련화합물, TMAO, TMA, creatine 및 creatinine 함량변화 -)

  • Park, Choon-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.482-495
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    • 2002
  • Changes in ATP and related compounds, TMAO, TMA, creatine and creatinine were analyzed to establish the processing conditions for rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction of anchovy(Engrulis japonica) extracts during fermentation. Experimental sample A: chopped whole anchovy, adding 20% water, heating at $50^{\circ}C$ for 9 hrs and then adding 10% NaCl. Sample B: chopped whole anchovy, adding 20% water, heating at $50^{\circ}C$ for 9 hrs and then adding 13% NaCl. Sample C: chopped whole anchovy adding 13% NaCl. Sample D: whole anchovy adding 17% NaCl. ATP, ADP, AMP and IMP were broken down during fermentation period, while inosine and hypoxanthine or hypoxanthine were detected in each fermented liquefaction of anchovy. However the amounts of them were varied from collection to collection according to the pretreatment methods. Possibly ATP and their related compounds will not make a great contribution to the umami taste in fermented liquefaction of anchovy. The contents of TMAO were decreased during fermentation period, ranging from 3 to 15 mg/100g in the fermented liquefaction of anchovy after 180 days. The TMA contents were increased slowly during fermentation period, ranging from 60 to 114 mg/100g in the 180 days specimens, however their contents were varied from sample to sample. The contents of creatine and creatinine were increased during early fermentation period, and then they were decreased in the last period. As for distribution of nitrogen in the anchovy extracts, the contribution of creatine and creatinine to the extractive nitrogen was occupying 6.8, 5.7, 4.6 and 5.7% in the experimental sample A, B, C and D, respectively. The contribution of ATP and related compounds to the extractive nitrogen was occupying 2.1, 2.4, 2.2 and 2.7% in the experimental sample A, B, C and D, respectively. The contribution of TMAO and TMA to the extractive nitrogen was very low as they are occupying $0.7{\sim}1.2%$ in the four experimental samples.

Studies on the Processing of Low Salt Fermented Sea Foods 7. Changes in Volatile Compounds and Fatty Acid Composition during the Fermentation of Anchovy Prepared with Low Sodium Contents (저식염 수산발효식품의 가공에 관한 연구 7. 저식염 멸치젓 숙성중의 휘발성성분 및 지방산조성의 변화)

  • CHA Yong-Jun;LEE Eung-Ho;KIM Hee-Yun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.511-518
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    • 1985
  • As one of the sensory factors for characterizing food quality, volatile compounds have been particularly contributed to sensory evaluation of fermented sea foods in Korea. But no chemical investigation of the volatile compounds of fermented anchovy as one of the most favored fermented sea food products has been reported. Accordinglry, for a series study of processing of low salt fermented sea foods, changes in volatile compounds and fatty acid composition of fermented anchovy with low salt contents ($4\%$ of salt contents) were experimented fermentation comparing with conventional fermented anchovy ($20\%$ of salt contents). Total lipid of raw anchovy was composed of $77.6\%$ of neutral lipid, $22.1\%$ of phospholipid and $0.3\%$ of glycolipid. And polyenoic acid was held $39.8\%$ of fatty acid composition of total lipid and the major fatty acids in those were $C_{22:6},\;C_{20:5}$. During the fermentation of anchovy saturated fatty acid ($C_{16:0},\;C_{18:0},\;C_{l4:0}$) and monoenoic acid ($C_{16:1},\;C_{18:1}$) increased while polyenoic acid ($C_{22:6},\;C_{20:5}$) decreased greatly. Thirty-eight kinds of volatile component from the whole volatile compounds obtained from fermented anchovy after 90 days fermentation were identified, and composed of some alcohols (8 kinds), carbonyl compounds (9 kinds), hydrocarbons (8 kinds) and fatty acids (8 kinds). During fermentation 8 kinds of volatile acids, 5 kinds of amines, 9 kinds of carbonyl compounds were also detected. Those volatile acids such as acetic acid, isovaleric acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid were the major portion of total volatile fatty acids of 60 days fermented anchovy prepared with low salt contents. On the other hand, carbonyl compounds such as ethanal, 3-methyl butanal, hexanal, 2-methyl propanal were the major ones, while TMA held the most part of volatile amines in fermented anchovy with low salt contents after 60 days. Conclusively, there was little difference in composition of volatile components, but merely a little difference in content of those between low salt fermented anchovy and conventional fermented ones.

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Studies on the Microflora and Enzyme Activity in Processing of Accelerated Low Salt-Fermented Anchovy by adding koji (코오지를 이용한 속성 저식염 멸치젓의 미생물상과 효소활성)

  • 백승화;임미선;김동한
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.392-397
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    • 1996
  • To produce low salt fermented anchovy by an accelerated method with Asp. oryzae and Bacillus sp. koji, enzyme activity and variation of microflora during the 60 day fermentation were examined. Bacterial counts changed a little during the fermentation with the highest on day 40 for proteolytic and anaerobic bacteria and on day 20 for aerobic bacteria. Proteolytic, lipolytic, aerobic, and anaerobic bacteria counts were higher in the Bacillus sp. koji added anchovy paste than in others. The protease and lipase activities reached the highest point on day 20 and 30, respectively, and decreased gradually afterwards. The protease activity was higher in Asp. oryzae koji than in bacillus sp. koji, but the lipase activity was to the contrary.

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Desalting Processing and Quality Characteristics of Salt-Fermented Anchovy Sauce Using a Spirit (주정을 이용한 멸치액젓의 탈염공정 및 품질특성)

  • Jang, Mi-Soon;Park, Hee-Yeon;Nam, Ki-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.893-900
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    • 2012
  • To establish a new manufacturing process of low-salted fermented anchovy sauce, commercial fermented anchovy sauce with 23% NaCl was desalted using a spirit. The proximate composition, total nitrogen, amino nitrogen, Escherichia coli, and total and free amino acid contents were analyzed to evaluate the quality characteristics of commercial salted fermented anchovy sauce (CFAS) and low-salt fermented anchovy sauce by desalting processing (LFAS). The salinity of saltwater and fermented anchovy sauce decreased with an increase in the spirit added to 23% NaCl saltwater and 23% NaCl commercial fermented anchovy sauce. The total nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents were higher in LFAS than in CFAS. The major amino acids that were commonly found in CFAS and LFAS were glutamic acid, alanine, lysine and leucine. Basic data were provided for commodification research on low-salt fermented anchovy sauce, which is very important for the diet of humans.

Studies on the Processing of Low Salt Fermented. Sea Foods 5. Processing Conditions of Low Salt Fermented Anchovy and Yellow Corvenia (저식염수산발효식품의 가공에 관한 연구 5. 저식염멸치젓 및 조기젓의 가공조건)

  • CHA Yong-Jun;LEE Eung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.206-213
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    • 1985
  • Since a long time ago, more than thirty kinds of fermented fish product have traditionally been favored and consumed in Korea. In general, they fermented with $20\%$ of sodium chloride. However, it has been currently known that sodium chloride is one of causative ingredient for adult diseases. For that reason, reduced sodium salt diet is recently recommended in developed countries. This study was attempted to process low sodium salt fermented fish using anchovy, Engraulis japonica, and yellow corvenia, Psedosciaena manchurica, as raw materials with partially replacing the sodium salt with potassium chloride. The most favorable taste for fermented anchovy and yellow corvenia were revealed at 60 and 90 days fermentation, respectively. Judging from sensory evaluation with variance of analysis and orthogonal contrast method, little difference of taste were found when sodium salt was replaced with KCl even by $50\%$ as compared with conventional fermented fish. Taste for low salt fermented anchovy and yellow corvenia were the most favorable when they were prepared with $4\%$ salt, $4\%$ KCl, $6\%$ sorbitol, $0.5\%$ lactic acid and $4\%$ alcohol extract of red pepper as preservatives and flavor enhancers.

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