• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lumbricus

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The Effects of Lumbricus Pharmacopuncture on the Lipid Lowering, Anti-oxidative Activity and Concentration of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Rat Fed High Fat Diet (구인약침(蚯蚓藥鍼)이 비만쥐의 지질강하능, 항산화능, 전염증성 Cytokines 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Kang;Park, Hee-Soo
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : This study was designed to investigate effects of Lumbricus pharmacopuncture (LP) on the lipid lowering, anti-oxidative activity and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines in rat fed high fat diet. Methods : Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed high fat diet for 8 weeks and experimental groups were divided into 4 groups as follows : Control, Lumbricus Jungwan ($CV_{12}$) pharmacopuncture (T I), Lumbricus Joksamni ($ST_{36}$) pharmacopuncture (T II), Lumbricus Jungwan ($CV_{12}$) and Joksamni ($ST_{36}$) pharmacopuncture (T III). Results : The levels of plasma FFA, TG, total cholesterol, LDL-C, TBARS, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ and liver total cholesterol, TG, TBARS, SOD, catalase, IL-6 in more than one LP group were significantly lower than those of Control groups. The level of IL-10 in one of LP groups was significantly higher than that of Control group. Conclusions : As the results were shown, LP treatment have considerable effects on lipid lowering, anti-oxidative activity and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines in rat fed high fat diet.

Development of test method for the evaluation of pesticide acute toxicity using earthworm(Lumbricus rubellus) (붉은지렁이 (Lumbricus rubellus)를 이용한 농약의 급성독성 시험법 개발)

  • Park, Yeon-Ki;Park, Kyeong-Hoon;Kim, Byung-Seok;Kyung, Kee-Sung;Shin, Jin-Sup;Oh, Byung-Youl
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.56-60
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    • 2000
  • A study was performed to determine the maintenance conditions of the earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, for the acute toxicity test. To fine out climatic and soil conditions, the earthworms were maintained in artificial soil consisting of sand, clay mineral and peat at different levels of conditions for 14 days. Lumbricus rubellus led to an increase of biomass at temperature $22{\pm}2^{\circ}C$, soil pH $7.0{\pm}1$ and moisture 40%. And four fungicides were tested for acute toxicities to Lumbricus rubellus, according to the optimum condition. The test earthworms were exposed to each pesticide with various concentration gradients. After 14 days, the number of surviving earthworms and their weight alteration during the test period was determined. The 14-day $LC_{50}$ values for the Lumbricus rubellus, of carbendazim, benomyl, thiophanate-methyl and thiabendazole were determined to be 59, 53, 64 and 36 mg/ kg soil dry weight, respectively.

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Purification and Characterization of TSA from Lumbricus terrestris (지렁이(Lumbricus terrestris)로부터 Thiol-Specific Antioxidant protein(TSA)의 분리 및 정제에 관한 연구)

  • Kwak, Byung-Koo;Kim, Il-Han;Cha, Mee-Kyung
    • The Journal of Natural Sciences
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.55-65
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    • 2004
  • A thiol-specific antioxidant(TSA) protein was purified from Earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris by DEAE-Cellulose, Phenl sepharose, Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration and HPLC S-300 Column Chromatography. This protein showed a thiol-specific antioxidant activity against inactivation of glutamine synthetase by a metal-catalysed oxidation system capable of generation reaction oxygen species. The molecular mass of the protein was determinated to be 51-kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophores. Taken together, the purified TSA protein could be a new member of TSA family.

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Characteristics of the Hemolytic Factor in the Body Fluid from Redworm, Lumbricus rubellus (지렁이 (Redworm*: Lumbricus ruellus) 체액내 용혈인자의 특성)

  • 손영종;이정우장정순
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.20-30
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    • 1991
  • 지렁이(L. rubelIus) 체액내의 적혈구용혈능깍 단백질분해능을 확인하였다. 지렁이의 체액 0. 33 $\mu$l속에 있는 용혈인자는 9 $\times$ 1011 rat RBCs를 2분만에 완전히 용혈시켰으며, 다른 포유류들의 적혈구에도 약간의 차이는 있으나 비슷한 용혈능을 보였고, 이 용혈인자는 지렁이의 혈구가 아닌 몸체조직에서 분비되는 것으로 생각되었다. 용혈인자는 pH 6.5-7.5사이에서 활성이 가장 강하였고, 63'c로 30분 열처리할 경우 활성이 완전히 없어졌으며, 2-mercaptoethanol은 용혈인자의 활성을 증가시켰다. 이 인자의 활성도는 여러가지의 당류, LPS, cholesterol, prosphatidyl Choline, Ch10ropromazine, Sphin90myelin 및 FG2+, Fe3+, CU2+, ZR2+ 등의 금속이온에 의하여 활성이 저해되었다. 한편 지렁이 체액내의 단백질 분해인자는 BSA와 19G를 여러 조각으로 분해시켰으며 이 분해인자는 PMSF및 TLCK에 의하여 활성이 억제되지 않았다. 지렁이의 체강에는 용혈소를 분비하는 박테리아들이 존재하였으나 이들 박테리아들의 용혈소는 지렁이의 용혈인자와는 전기영동이동도에서 차이가 있었다.

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Effects of Lumbricus Extract on Cerebral Ischemia and Cells in Rats (구인(蚯蚓) 추출물이 흰쥐의 뇌허혈과 세포에 미치는 효과)

  • Yu, Deok-Seon;Yeom, Seung-Ryong;Kwon, Young-Dal;Song, Yung-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : This study was designed to investigate the effects of Lumbricus extract(LE) on the regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in ischemic rats, further to determine the mechanism of action of LE, and the effects that LE inhibits lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) activity in brain cells. Methods and materials : This study, ischemic rats were divided into total four group: control group(n=6), experimental group I (LE treated group)(n=6), experimental group II(LE treated group after pretreatment with indomethacin)(n=6), experimental group III(LE treated group after pretreatment with methylene blue)(n=6). And the measurement that LE inhibits LDH activity in the damage to brain cells to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid(NMDA). The changes of rCBF were determinated by laser-doppler flowmetry(LDF), and LDH activity was determinated by microplate reader in vitro. Results : 1. The rCBF was significantly improved by LE(10 mg/kg, i.p.) during the period of cerebral reperfusion, compared with the control group. 2. The rCBF was significantly increased by LE after pretreatment with indomethacin(1 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, during the period of cerebral reperfusion, compared with the LE group, and rCBF was accelerated by LE after pretreatment with methylene blue($10{\mu}g/kg$, i.p.) an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase during the period of cerebral reperfusion, compared with the control group. 3. LE significantly inhibited LDH activity in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions : From the above results, these were suggested that Lumbricus had anti-ischemia action in connection with cyclooxygenase and might prevent the brain cells death through inhibited LDH activity.

An Anticoagulant/Fibrinolytic Protease from Lumbricus rubellus

  • Jeon, Ok-Hee;Moon, Woong-Joon;Kim, Doo-Sik
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.138-142
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    • 1995
  • An anticoagulant/fibrinolytic protease was purified to homogeneity from the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. The protein was a single chain glycoprotein of 32 kDa that exhibited strong proteolytic activity on human thrombin and fibrin clots. Proteolytic degradation of these plasma proteins by the purified enzyme occurred at a neutral pH range. Among several human plasma proteins tested as possible substrates for the protease reaction, the 32 kDa enzyme specifically hydrolyzed both thrombin and fibrin polymers without affecting other proteins, such as serum albumin, immunoglobulin, and hemoglobin. Treatment of the purified enzyme at neutral pH with either phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride or soybean trypsin inhibitor resulted in a loss of catalytic activity. The enzyme hydrolyzed the chromogenic substrate H-D-Phe-L-Pipecolyl-L-Arg-p-nitroanilide with a $K_m$ value of 1.1 ${\mu}M$ at a neutral pH. These results suggest that the anticoagulant/fibrinolytic enzyme from Lumbricus rubellus is a member of the serine protease family having a trypsin-like active site, and one of the potential clevage sites for the enzyme is the carbonyl side of arginine residues in polypeptide chains.

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Evaluation of the in vivo Antithrombotic, Anticoagulant and Fibrinolytic Activities of Lumbricus rubellus Earthworm Powder

  • Hahn, Bum-Soo;Jo, You-Young;Yang, Kyung-Youl;Wu, Song-Ji;Pyo, Mi-Kyung;Yunchoi, Hye-Sook;Kim, Yeong-Shik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 1997
  • A saline suspension of Lumbricus rubellus earthworm powder (EWP) was administered to rats (1 g/kg/day) orally for 15 days to evaluate an oral effectiveness for thrombotic disorders. Blood was drawn at 2-day interval after the administration. Several parameters for antithrombotic, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activities were measured, including platelet aggregation, clotting time, plasmin activity and the levels of FDP (fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products), D-dimer, and t-PA antigen. It did not affect platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen but anticoagulant activity (aPTT and TT) was gradually increased to two-folds for the first 5 days of administration and back to normal. Fibrinolytic activity of euglobulin fraction was highest on the 11 th day after the administration. The level of FDP was elevated to be comparable to the positve control$ (5-10 {\mu}g/ml)$ after 9-day treatment. Oral administration of the EWP could also reduce the formation of venous thrombus induced with viper venom. Complete blood count (CBC) profiles were within normal ranges except for a slight increase in white blood cells after the oral administration for 15 days. These results suggested that the EWP may be valuable for the prevention and/or treatment of thrombotic diseases.

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characteristics of Peroxidase from the Earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus and Degradation of Phenoxyherbicides (지렁이 Peroxidase의 특성 및 페녹시계 제초제의 분해)

  • 이미영;김윤경
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 1998
  • Peroxidase has been isolated to apparent homogeneity from earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephacryl S-2000 gel filtration, CM-cellulose cation exchange chromatography and native-PAGE elution. Some of its enzymatic characteristics were examined. The optimum pH for gruaiacol oxidation of earthworm peroxidase was determined to be 6.0, and the $K_{m}$ values against guaiacol and $H_2O_2$ were 1.25 mM and 3.4mM, respectively. When various compounds were tested as the possible substrates of the enzyme, o-dianisidine was used as the substrate. However, earthworm peroxidase could not oxidize esculetin and ferulic acid as substrates, suggesting the different characteristics of the enzyme from plant peroxidases. The optimum pH for veratryl alcohol and $H_2O_2$ oxidation was determined to be 2.5 when lignin peroxidation activity was examined. The $K_{m}$ values for veratryl alcohol and $H_2O_2$ were 0.02 mM and 0.13 mM, respectively. Furthermore, the earthworm peroxidase could oxidize phenoxyherbicides such as 2,4-D, 2,4-DP and MCPA as substrates. The optimum pHs for 2,4-D, 2,4-DP and MCPA were determined to be 4.0, 2.0 and 2.0, respectively. The most available substrate was 2,4-DP, followed by MCPA and 2,4-D when their peroxidation activities were compared.

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Molecular Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of a Fibrinolytic Serine-protease Gene from the Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

  • Cho, Il-Hwan;Choi, Eui-Sung;Lee, Hyung-Hoan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.574-581
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    • 2004
  • The full-length cDNA of the lumbrokinase fraction 6 (F6) protease gene of Lumbricus rubellus was amplified using an mRNA template, sequenced and expressed in E. coli cells. The F6 protease gene consisted of pro- and mature sequences by gene sequence analysis, and the protease was translated and modified into active mature polypeptide by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the F6 protease. The pro-region of F6 protease consisted of the 44 residues from methionine-1 to lysine-44, and the mature polypeptide sequence (239 amino acid residues and one stop codon; 720 bp) started from isoleucine-45 and continued to the terminal residue. F6 protease gene clones having pro-mature sequence and mature sequence produced inclusion bodies in E. coli cells. When inclusion bodies were orally administrated rats, generated thrombus weight in the rat' venous was reduced by approximately 60% versus controls. When the inclusion bodies were solubilized in pepsin and/or trypsin solutions, the solubilized enzymes showed hemolytic activity in vitro. It was concluded the F6 protease has hemolytic activity, and that it is composed of pro- and mature regions.

Pharmaceutical Characteristics of Korean Lumbricus rubellus Lumbrokinase (한국산 지렁이[Lumbricus rubellus]에서 분리한 Lumbrokinase의 약리학적 특성)

  • 조일환;이철규;임헌길;이형환
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.274-283
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    • 2004
  • Six lumbrokinase (LK) fractions from Lumbricus rubellus lysates were purified by a series of column chromatographies. The molecular weights of the six LK fractions appeared to range from 24.6 to 33.1 kDa. In the experimental model of rat venous thrombosis, the thrombus weight and PAI activity decreased significantly when the LK was administered orally. However, the activities of APTT, PT and plasmin showed a significant increase. The aggregation of rat platelets pretreated with various LK doses was inhibited by thrombin, and the MDA generation decreased. The rat thoracic aorta and mesentric arteries contracted with phenylephrine relaxed due to the treatment of the LK fractions. These results suggest that the fibrinolytic effects of LK were mediated not only by proteolytic activity, but also by the inhibition of platelet agregation and the relaxation of blood vessels. It is concluded that the LK may be useful as a hemolytic agent for treatment of fibrin clot.