• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lysine

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Bioefficacy of Lysine from L-lysine Sulfate and L-lysine⋅HCl for 10 to 20 kg Pigs

  • Liu, M.;Qiao, S.Y.;Wang, X.;You, J.M.;Piao, X.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.1580-1586
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    • 2007
  • The objective of this study was to compare the bioefficacy of L-lysine sulfate relative to L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl for 10 to 20 kg pigs. Two experiments were conducted to determine the bioefficacy of the two sources of lysine using daily gain, feed conversion, plasma urea nitrogen and nitrogen retention as the response criteria. In experiment 1, 168 crossbred barrows ($Landrace{\times}Large$ White), weaned at $28{\pm}3$ d ($9.07{\pm}0.78$kg body weight), were allotted to one of seven dietary treatments in a $2{\times}3$ (two lysine $sources{\times}three $ lysine levels) factorial arrangement of treatments with an added negative control treatment group. The basal diet was based on corn, peanut meal and soybean meal and provided 0.67% lysine. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3% lysine equivalents supplied from either L-lysine sulfate or L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl. Each treatment was fed to six pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. The trial lasted 21 days. The relative bioefficacy value of lysine in L-lysine sulfate using daily gain, feed conversion and plasma urea nitrogen as response criteria was 1.01, 1.05 and 1.04 of the lysine in L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl, respectively. In experiment 2, 42 crossbred ($Landrace{\times}Large$ White) pigs ($16.03{\pm}1.58$ kg body weight) were housed in stainless steel metabolism cages for 10 d and fed the seven diets used in the nitrogen-balance trial. The relative bioefficacy value of L-lysine sulfate was estimated to be 0.95 as effective as L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl for nitrogen retention on an equimolar basis. The t-test analysis revealed that bioefficacy of lysine in L-lysine sulfate was not significantly different from lysine in L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl, which was set at 1.00. In conclusion, L-lysine sulfate can be used instead of L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl to fortify lysine-deficient diets fed to 10 to 20 kg pigs.

STUDIES ON POTASSIUM-LYSINE INTERRELATIONSHIPS IN BROILER CHICKS 2. EFFECT OF POTASSIUM-LYSINE INTERRELATIONSHIPS ON BLOOD PARAMETER, SERUM AND BONE COMPOSITION

  • Shin, H.Y.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.145-150
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    • 1992
  • To determine the effect of dietary potassium and lysine levels on blood parameters, serum and bone composition, 360 male broiler chicks of 3 days of age were used in a completely randomized $3{\times}3$ factorial experiment for 6 weeks. Experimental diets contained three supplemented levels of dietary potassium (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2%) and three supplemented levels of dietary lysine (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4%). Dietary levels of potassium and lysine did not influence blood pH, $pCO_2$, $pO_2$, $HCO_3$ and total $CO_2$ and interaction between potassium and lysine was not shown (p > 0.05). Serum lysine and arginine contents were significantly different by the levels of dietary lysine (p < 0.05). Lysine-arginine antagonism was observed in high lysine diet. But increasing dietary potassium did not alleviated the lysine-arginine antagonism. Serum sodium, potassium and chloride were not affected by dietary potassium and lysine levels (p > 0.05). Femur weight, length and P contents were affected by the levels of dietary lysine (p < 0.01). But no difference was observed in femur ash and Ca contents (p > 0.05). Interaction between potassium and lysine was shown in ash and P contents (p < 0.01).

Comparison of Synthetic Lysine Sources on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention in Weaning Pigs

  • Ju, W.S.;Yun, M.S.;Jang, Y.D.;Choi, H.B.;Chang, J.S.;Lee, H.B.;Oh, H.K.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 2008
  • We compared the effects of supplementing $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ to L-lysine HCl on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in weaning pigs. A total of 96 crossbred pigs, weaned at $21{\pm}3$ days of age and with an average initial body weight (BW) $6.23{\pm}0.01kg$, were given one of 4 treatments, which translated into 6 replicates of 4 pigs in each pen. The animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments according to a randomized completely block design (RCBD) as follows: 1) control-no synthetic lysine, lysine deficient (0.80% total lysine); 2) L-C (= 0.2% L-lysine HCl); 3) K-L-S (= 0.332% $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$, A company); 4) C-L-S (= 0.332% $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$, B company). Diets were formulated with corn, soy bean meal, and corn gluten meal as the major ingredients, and all nutrients except the lysine met or exceeded NRC requirements (1998). The lysine content of supplemented synthetic lysine was the same in all treatment groups except the control. No clinical health problems associated with the dietary treatments were observed. During the entire experimental period, body weight, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G:F ratio) increased (p<0.01) in pigs fed the experimental diets supplemented with L-lysine??HCl or $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ produced by A company, irrespective of the two synthetic lysine sources. Although the supplementation of $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ produced by B company tended to improve the ADG and G:F ratio, significant differences were not seen among all treatments and tended to be lower than the L-C (L-lysine HCl) and K-L-S ($L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ groups using the product from A company). The digestibility of crude protein (CP) was increased by the supplementation of synthetic lysine (p<0.05), irrespective of the L-lysine source (L-C, K-L-S, C-L-S). The results of this study showed that ADG, G:F ratio, and CP digestibility improved when $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ or L-lysine HCl was supplemented into the weaning pigs' diet. There was a clear difference in efficacy between the two $lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ products based upon the growth performance of weaning pigs. Consequently, the bioavailability of $lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ products should be evaluated before supplementation of synthetic lysine in swine diets.

EFFECTS OF LYSINE AND SODIUM ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE, BONE PARAMETER, SERUM COMPOSITION AND LYSINE-ARGININE ANTAGONISM IN BROILER CHICKS

  • Yun, C.H.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.;Park, B.C.;Lee, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.353-360
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    • 1991
  • An experiment with completely randomized design was performed to investigate the effects of lysine and supplemented sodium on growth performance, nutrients utilization, acid-base balance and lysine arginine antagonism in broiler chicks. The experiment was carried out with 3 levels of dietary lysine (0.6, 1.2 and 1.8%) and 3 levels of sodium(0.4, 0.8 and 1.2%) for an experimental period of 7 weeks. Body weight gain of 1.2% lysine group was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of low or high lysine group. The highest feed consumption was obtained at 1.2% lysine and 0.4% sodium supplemented level (ML-1.2) and the lowest at LL-1.2. The best feed efficiency was obtained at ML-0.8 level and the worst at LL-1.2 level. Mortalities of high (1.8%) and low (0.6%) lysine groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than medium lysine (1.2%) group. Among the sodium levels, the mortality at 1.2% sodium supplemented level was significantly (p<0.01) different by the levels of dietary lysine. Lysine-arginine antagonism was observed in high lysine diet. Among the lysine levels, the lowest none weight and length were shown in low lysine group. Interactions between lysine and sodium were significantly (p<0.05) shown in femur weight. The levels of sodium and lysine affected significantly (p<0.01) the utilization of nitrogen, ether extract, total carbohydrate and energy.

Influence of the Lysine to Protein Ratio in Practical Diets on the Efficiency of Nitrogen Use in Growing Pigs

  • Lee, K.U.;Boyd, R.D.;Austic, R.E.;Ross, D.A.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.718-724
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    • 1998
  • Twelve gilts were used to investigate the effect of lysine to protein ratio (5.2 g lysine/100 g CP vs. 6.7 g lysine/100 g CP) in practical diets on nitrogen retention and the efficiency of utilization in growing pigs. Treatments involved 2 levels of dietary lysine (5.2 or 6.7 g/100 g CP) and 3 levels of dietary crude protein (11, 14 and 17% in diet). Nitrogen retention was greatest when pigs were fed the control diet containing 17% protein. Nitrogen retention progressively increased as dietary protein increased (p < 0.01), but it was not affected by lysine concentration (g/100 g CP). Apparent biological value (ABV, nitrogen retained/apparently digestible nitrogen) was estimated to be ~50% at the maximum nitrogen retention. ABV was not affected by lysine concentration, but declined (p < 0.05) as the dietary protein level increased. The efficiency of intake N used for maximum nitrogen retention was approximately 44%. One gram of lysine supported approximately 9 to 10 g apparent protein accretion (nitrogen retention ${\times}$ 6.25/lysine intake) in pigs fed control diets. The efficiency of lysine utilization for protein accretion was lower in pigs fed high-lysine diets (6.7 g lysine/l00 g CP) so that 1 g of lysine accounted for 7 to 8 g of protein accretion in these pigs (p < 0.01). The lysine required to support maximum nitrogen retention in pigs fed high-lysine diets was higher than that in pigs fed control diets, which suggests that lysine was over-fortified relative to crude protein, since practical diets can not be formulated without excess of some amino acids. In summary the concentration of 5.2 g total lysine/100 g CP in diet is more appropriate for corn-soybean diets than the commonly suggested the content of 6.7 g total lysine/100 g CP.

Lysine Requirement of Piglets

  • Jin, C.F.;Kim, J.H.;Cho, W.T.;Kwon, K.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 1998
  • The experiment was conducted with 120 barrows weaned at 21 days of age to estimate their lysine requirement weaned at 21 days of age when other important amino acids were fortified to get optimal ratio to lysine. The treatments were 1.15% (control), 1.25%, 1.35%, 1.45%, 1.55%, 1.65% total lysine in the diet. Based on the growth performance total lysine requirement of 21-day old pigs appears to be 1.45%. The lowest digestibilities of dry matter and crude fat were found in pigs fed 1.15% total lysine diet and the highest were found in pigs fed 1.65% total lysine diet with no significant differences among treatments. Nitrogen digestibility increased as the total lysine level increased up to 1.35% (p < 0.05) and remained relatively constant beyond 1.35%. However, the best nitrogen digestibility was observed in pigs fed 1.45% total dietary lysine. Gross energy, crude ash and phosphorus digestibilities did not differ due to the increase in total lysine level. The amounts of excreted dry matter and nitrogen differed significantly by the increase in lysine level up to 1.35% (p < 0.05), while phosphorus excretion was not influenced by the lysine level. Dry matter and nitrogen excretion were reduced by 13.6% and 18.4%, respectively, when 1.45% lysine was offered to the pigs compared to the those fed on 1.15% lysine diet. The amino acid digestibilities increased as the total lysine level increased up to 1.45% (p < 0.05), and remained constant beyond 1.45%. The lysine requirement for the pigs weighing 6 to 14 kg seems to be higher than the previous estimates and in order to reduce pollutant excretion the accurate nutrient requirement should be set and applied to the animal.

STUDIES ON POTASSIUM-LYSINE INTERRELATIONSHIPS IN BROILER CHICKS 1. EFFECT OF POTASSIUM-LYSINE INTERRELATIONSHIPS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND NUTRIENT UTILIZABILITY

  • Shin, H.Y.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.139-144
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    • 1992
  • In order to study the effects of dietary potassium and lysine levels on growth performance and nutrient utilizability in broiler chicks, an experiment was conducted in $3{\times}3$ factorial arrangement with three levels of dietary potassium (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2%) and three supplemented levels of dietary lysine (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4%). A total number of 360 male broiler chicks was used for 6 weeks. Birds fed optimum lysine (1.2%) diets had the highest body weight gain and feed efficiency, followed by those fed low lysine (0.6%) and high lysine (2.4%) diets (p < 0.01). But levels of dietary potassium had no effects on the body weight gain and feed efficiency. Interaction between potassium and lysine was not shown (p > 0.05). High level of lysine resulted in higher mortality than that of optimum or low level of lysine (p < 0.01). The levels of supplemented lysine affected utilizability of ether extract, total carbohydrate, and nitrogen retention (p < 0.01). But supplemented potassium levels did not affect nutrient utilizability and interaction between potassium and lysine was not shown (p > 0.05).

EFFECTS OF LYSINE LEVEL AND NA+K-CI RATIO ON LUSINE-ARGININE ANTAGONISM, BLOOD pH, BLOOD ACID-BASE PARAMETERS AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE IN BROILER CHICKS

  • Kim, H.W.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 1989
  • To determine the effect of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio and lysine level on blood pH, blood acid-base parameters, lysine-arginine antagonism and growth performance, four hundred and thirty two chicks of 3 days age were used in a completely randomized $3{\times}3$ factorial experiment. Variables contained three levels of lysine (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6%) and dietary electrolyte (100, 200 and 300 mEq/kg). Birds fed 200 mEq/kg and electrolyte had the best growth rate and feed efficiency, followed by those fed 300 mEq/kg and 100 mEq/kg electrolyte. It is proposed that high levels of dietary electrolyte may improve the growth of chicks fed diets containing excess lysine by increasing lysine catabolism. High or low levels of lysine and dietary electrolyte resulted in higher mortality than those of optimum level (1.2%) of lysine and 200 mEq/kg of electrolyte balance. When the electrolyte level was increased, the pH, $pCO_2$, base excess, $HCO_3{^-}$ and total $CO_2$ of blood plasma were increased. The utilization of nutrients was changed when the electrolyte and lysine were manipulated. Plasma chloride tended to be greater in chicks receiving high chloride diet and was the highest in chicks fed the high lysine diet. Plasma sodium and potassium were unaffected by dietary lysine. Diet containing high lysine decreased the level of arginine and excess dietary electrolyte increased arginine level in plasma. It may be concluded that cation supplementation tended to alleviate the lysine-arginine antagonism but chloride exacerbated. Tibia bone length and ash contents were significantly affected by electrolyte balance and lysine level.

Enhancement of L-lysine Productivity by Strain Improvement and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions in Corynebacterium glutamicum (Corynebacterium glutamicum 균주 개량 및 발효 공정 최적화에 의한 L-lysine 생산성 증진)

  • Seo, Jin-Mi;Hyun, Hyung-Hwan
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2006
  • In order to minimize the reduction of lysine productivity by accumulation of lysine and byproducts in the end of fed-batch fermentations, a salt-tolerant mutant C14-49-3-15-7-3-20, which could grow at high concentrations of NaCl was isolated through mutagenesis from the Corynebacterium glutamicum mother strain I. In the evaluation of L-lysine productivity by fed-batch fermentations using a 5 L jar fermenter, the salt-tolerant mutant strain C14-49-3-15-7-3-20 produced 130.6 g/L of L-lysine with a 48.6% of yield. The mother strain I produced L-lysine concentration only 104.9 g/L with a yield 41.8%, implying the improvement of L-lysine productivity by introduction of salt-tolerance character.

The Effect of Korean Soysauce and Soypaste Making on Soybean Proteion Quality -Part III. Changes in the Lysine Availability- (재래식 간장 및 된장 제조가 대두단백질의 영양가에 미치는 영향 -제3보 Lysine 가용도의 변화-)

  • Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 1976
  • The changes in lysine availability during soybean fermentation were determined by the chemical analysis method as well as the biological methods with rat. The FDNB-reactive lysine determined by the difference (TLMI) method indicated that cooking and Meju fermentation reduced the lysine availability of soybean, but the subsequent ripening restored the availability to the same level of the raw soybean. On the other hand, the Biological Value, NPU, NER and the Relative lysine availability of the rat experiments showed a general decrease in the lysine availability of soybean during the ripening process as well as Meju fermentation.

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