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The View of Disease and the View of Body in Zubi Shiyi Mai Jiujing ($\ll$족비십일맥구경$\gg$의 질병관과 신체관)

  • Ryu, Ki Hyun;Shin, Min Kyu;Kim, Su Jung;Hong, Moo Chang
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : This study was aimed to investigate the view of disease and the view of body in Zubi Shiyi Mai Jiujing. Methods : With Zubi Shiyi Mai Juijing which was excavated from Mawangdui Han Dynasty tomb, we compared this document to other three documents excavated from Mawangdui. Results : 1. Zubi Shiyi Mai Jiujing is the oldest document about meridian pulse system excavated. 2. Zubi Shiyi Mai Jiujing sorted disease to Yang bing and san Yin bing. Yang bing is Zu san yang mai's disease and San yin bing is Zu san yin mai's disease. Zu san yang mai's diseases are mostly pain and swelling. 3. Zu san yin mai's diseases are zu shao yin mai which is realated to pulsation and respiration, Zu tai yin mai which is realated to stomach and digestion, Zu jue yin mai which is related to excretion. 4. The most important symptom in Zubi Shiyi Maizu san yin mai is Fan xin. It is realated to Zubi Shiyi Mai thinking Zu shao yin mai important about concept of body. Because in Zubi Shiyi MaiZu tai yin mai and Zu jue yin mai does'nt come up to abdominal cavity so Zu shao yin mai is the only meridian which comes into body cavity. Conclusions : Zu san yin mai is related to heart and fan xin by Zu shao yin mai. In this perspective Zu shao yin mai is important in view of body of Zubi Shiyi Mai Jiujing.

잇사매와 함사매의 名稱

  • 김진구
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.220-224
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    • 1999
  • This study is concerned with the names of is sa mai(잇사매) and ham sa mai(함사매). Origins and meanings of these terms were traced and examined. Some significant findings can be summarized as follows : Korean word is sa mai(잇사매) was a compound word. Korean character is (잇) is derived from Chinese character i, and sa mai(사매) in Korean means sleeves 神 in Chinese character. The character ham in Ham sa mai(함사매) is its origin in Chinese : Korean character ham was Korean pronounciation of the Chinese character, han. ham sa mai is a compound word of ham(함) (Korean), (han ) (Chinese) and sa mai(사매) sleeves(Korean). Thus, first characters of is(잇) in is sa mai(잇사매) and ham(함) in ham sa mai(함사매) are originated from Chinese, where as the word sa mai in the end of is sa mai and ham sa mai is pure Korean. Both character i and ham(han, Chinese) in Chinese means a jaw. Thus, both is sa mai(잇사매) and ham sa mai(함사매) means “jawed sleeves”. That is long and wide round sleeves with narraw wrists.

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A study on organization of ‘Ling Shu.Jing Mai’ ("영추(靈樞).경맥(經脈)"의 구성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Hyun-Kook;Kim, Ki-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.159-167
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    • 2005
  • By comparing ‘Jing Mai(${\ulcorner}$經脈${\lrcorner}$)’ and ‘Jin Fu(${\ulcorner}$禁服${\lrcorner}$)’, we are able to see that ‘Jing Mai’ has adopted many of its aspects from ‘Jin Fu’, which also enables us to conclude that ‘Jing Mai’ was made after 'Jin Fu', with the 'Ren Ying Cun Kou Mai Fa(人迎寸口脈法)‘ being considered important. 'Jing Mai' was made relatively late, during the last days of 'Xi Han(西漢)' or early days of 'Dong Han(東漢)'. Also 'Jing Mai' was written after 'Ying Qi(${\ulcorner}$營氣${\lrcorner}$)’. ‘12 Jing Mai’ in ‘Jing Mai’ is based mainly on 'Yin Yang Shi Yi Mai Jiu Jing(${\ulcorner}$陰陽十一脈灸經${\lrcorner}$)‘ and has also referred to other meridian theories, modifying it again by theories of 'Jin Fu' and 'Ying Qi', forming the 'Jing Mai Lian Huan(經脈連環)' part. The major change in '12 Jing Mai' is that '6 Yang Jing(6陽經)' enters the abdominal and thoracic cavity, directly relating to 'Liu Fu(六腑)'. 'Ben Jing(本經)'s connection to 'Ben Zang' is referred to as 'Shu(屬)' and connection to 'Ben Zang(本臟)' is referred to as 'Lou(絡)', clarifying 'Biao Li Guan Xi(表裏關系)' inside and outslde and 'Zang Fu Xiang He(臟腑相合)' congruency. Looking at the pathological condition view of ‘Jing Mai’, the writer of 'Jing Mai Pian' has renewed it and has erased repeated symptoms of 'Suo Seng Bing(所生病)' that appears in 'Shi Dong Bing(是動病)'. If the wrong adoption of theories of previous generations are corrected and parts which do not comply with the text's original meaning and parts that posterities added are deleted, the ancient acupuncture theory preserved in this book is still a precious treasure.

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The reserch of Kim hong-kyung's view of extra meridians -With the connection yin yang wei qiao mai With four trigram constitution theory- (김홍경의 기경팔맥관(奇經八脈觀)에 관한 연구(硏究) - 음양유교맥(陰陽維蹻脈)과 사상체질(四象體質)의 상관성을 중심으로 -)

  • Jung, Hae-Myeong;Yun, Chang-Yeol
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2014
  • Subject : Kim hong-kyung(金洪卿)'s view of eight extra meridians Object : Kim hong-kyung has not only deeply studied Saam acupuncture but also the function and characteristics of extra meridian at the same time. Especially, he has tried the study to connect yin yang wei qiao mai(陰陽維蹻脈) with Lee je-ma(李濟馬)'s four trigram constitution theory, therefore the author felt the need to make public the theory and started reserch on the theory. Method : I researched the physiological properties of extra meridians through the past eastern medical literature, I reported on the types of people to show well the properties of extra meridians gathering Kum-oh's verbal explanation when I had classes from him. Result : Kum-oh Kim hong-kyung defined meridians as passways of consciousness and feeling, he interpreted 12 meridians and extra meridians with the view of mind, which has very important meanings in the history of acupuncture in the point of first trial to interpret meridians from this view. He explained Ren mai(任脈) and Du mai(督脈) are meridians which show clearly properties of yin-yang to appear trusts of affirmation and distrusts of denial in the mind, as Ren(任) means entrusting and Du(督) means supervising in English. He explained Chong mai(衝脈) is the meridian representing impulsive man that has a meaning of impulse as being suggested the name of Chong mai, because Chong mai is borrowed from Foot shao yin kidney meridian(足少陰腎經). Dai mai(帶脈) is the meridian representing the characteristics of woman that has a meaning of binding as being suggested from the name of Dai mai which acts when people have something on their flank or they are pregnant, because Dai mai borrowed from Foot shao yang gall bladder meridian. He thought that four trigram divided from yin and yang is innate trigram, so Yang wei mai(陽維脈), Yin wei mai(陰維脈), Yang qiao mai(陽蹻脈), Yin qiao mai(陰蹻脈) among extra meridians have connections with Tai-yang ren(太陽人), Tai-yin ren(太陰人), Shao-yin ren(少陰人), Shao-yang ren(少陽人) of Four trigram constitution theory respectively which was created by Lee je-ma. He explained yang means opponents and wei(維) means binding. Yang wei mai is the meridian to be active when opponents bind or intervene in you, also the meridian is well active to the people who easily criticize others who are rude, to the people who well refuse restraints from organization. Because he explained yin means me and wei(維) means binding. Yin wei mai is the meridian to be active when I bind and intervene in opponents. He also state that the meridian is easily active to the people who have a tendency to gather people and make party apparatus by nature. He explained Yang qiao mai is the meridian to be active in the situation that people are waiting for others to bridge gap because yang means opponents and qiao(蹻) which has a meaning of standing on one's tiptoes means bridging gap between people. He also state the meridian is easily active to Shao yin ren who has a tendency to be passive, to easily settle down and not to move by nature. He explained Yin qiao mai is the meridian to be active in the situation that I bridge gap between me and others to make friends, because yin means me and qiao(蹻) which has a meaning of standing on one's tiptoes means bridging gap between me and others. He also state the meridian is easily active to Shao yang ren who is active in every business and who has remarkable ability to make friends. Conclusion : Kim hong-kyung stated the physiological properties of extra meridians as below. Ren mai is the meridian representing positive confidence which is easily active when people have a mind to trust others, Du mai is the meridian representing negative distrust which is easily active when people have doubts. Chong mai is the meridian representing the characteristics of man that has impulsive characteristics. Dai mai is the meridian representing the characteristics of woman to be easily active when she is pregnant. Yang wei mai has close connections with Tai-yang ren who has a tendency to refuse restraints from others and to criticize on opponent's remarks and behaviors that are wrong. Yin wei mai has close connections with Tai-yin ren, as the meridian is active in the situation that people enjoy restraining and intervening in others. Yang qiao mai has close connections with Shao yin ren, as the meridian is active to the people who are negative and passive by nature. Yin qiao mai has close connections with Shao yang yin who has a strong tendency to make friends easily by nature.

The using of megavoltage computed tomography in image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: a case report

  • Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit;Janla-or, Suwapim;Wanwilairat, Somsak;Chakrabandhu, Somvilai;Klunklin, Pitchayaponne;Onchan, Wimrak;Supawongwattana, Bongkot;Galalae, Razvan M.;Chitapanarux, Imjai
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.155-159
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    • 2015
  • We present a case of cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. In radiation therapy part, the combination of the whole pelvic helical tomotherapy plus image-guided brachytherapy with megavoltage computed tomography of helical tomotherapy was performed. We propose this therapeutic approach could be considered in a curative setting in some problematic situation as our institution.

Topographic Phase Correction of MAl (Multiple Aperture SAR Interferometry) Interferogram (MAI (Multiple Aperture SAR Interferometry) 간섭도의 지형위상보정)

  • Jung, Hyung-Sup;Lu, Zhong
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.171-180
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    • 2011
  • MAI (multiple aperture SAR interferometry) method has been recently developed to improve the measurement accuracy of along-track surface deformation. By means of split-beam SAR processing, this novel technique produces forward- and backward-looking interferograms, which are combined to generate an MAI interferogram. The along-track surface deformation can then be derived from the MAI interferogram. The achieved accuracy of the along-track surface deformation is approximately 8 cm for interferograms with a coherence of 0.6. It is commonly recognized that the topographic phase on an MAI interferogram can be ignored. However, in this paper, we have generated an MAI interferogram from an ALOS P ALSAR interferometric pair spanning the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and shown that the topographic phase distortion on the MAI interferogram can reach to about $3.45{\times}10^{-4}$ rad./m. This distortion corresponds to an along-track surface deformation of about 98 cm. We have proposed an efficient method to remove the topographic phase distortion. After correcting the distortion, the topographic phase distortion on the MAI interferogram is reduced to about $7.82{\times}10^{-6}$ rad./m. This means that the proposed method can effectively remove the topographic distortion on the MAI interferogram to improve along-track surface deformation measurement.

Molecular Phylogenetics of Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) Originated from Freshwater Fish from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

  • Wongsawad, Chalobol;Wongsawad, Pheravut;Sukontason, Kom;Maneepitaksanti, Worawit;Nantarat, Nattawadee
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.55 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to investigate the morphology and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Centrocestus formosanus originating from 5 species of freshwater fish, i.e., Esomus metallicus, Puntius brevis, Anabas testudineus, Parambassis siamensis, and Carassius auratus, in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and phylogeny based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) were performed. The results showed similar morphologies of adult C. formosanus from day 5 after infection in chicks. C. formosanus originated from 4 species of freshwater fish had the same number of circumoral spines on the oral sucker, except for those from C. auratus which revealed 34 circumoral spines. The phylogenetic tree obtained from SRAP profile and the combination of ITS2 and CO1 sequence showed similar results that were correlated with the number of circumoral spines in adult worms. Genetic variability of C. formosanus also occurred in different species of freshwater fish hosts. However, more details of adult worm morphologies and more sensitive genetic markers are needed to confirm the species validity of C. formosanus with 34 circumoral spines originating from C. auratus in the future.

Forensically Important Blow Flies Chrysomya pinguis, C. villeneuvi, and Lucilia porphyrina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Case of Human Remains in Thailand

  • Monum, Tawatchai;Sukontason, Kabkaew L.;Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk;Sukontason, Kom;Samerjai, Chutharat;Limsopatham, Kwankamol;Suwannayod, Suttida;Klong-klaew, Tunwadee;Wannasan, Anchalee
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.55 no.1
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2017
  • This is the first study to report Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) and Lucilia porphyrina (Walker) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as forensically important blow fly species from human cadavers in Thailand, in addition to Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) already known in Thailand. In 2016, a fully decomposed body of an unknown adult male was discovered in a high mountainous forest during winter in Chiang Mai province. The remains were infested heavily with thousands of blow fly larvae feeding simultaneously on them. Morphological identification of adults reared from the larvae, and molecular analysis based on sequencing of 1,247 bp partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) of the larvae and puparia, confirmed the above mentioned 3 species. The approving forensic fly evidence by molecular approach was described for the first time in Thailand. Moreover, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the CO1 was performed to compare the relatedness of the species, thereby affirming the accuracy of identification. As species of entomofauna varies among cases in different geographic and climatic circumstances, C. pinguis and L. porphyrina were added to the list of Thai forensic entomology caseworks, including colonizers of human remains in open, high mountainous areas during winter. Further research should focus on these 3 species, for which no developmental data are currently available.

The association of rectal equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) to late rectal toxicity in locally advanced cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University

  • Tharavichtikul, Ekkasit;Meungwong, Pooriwat;Chitapanarux, Taned;Chakrabandhu, Somvilai;Klunklin, Pitchayaponne;Onchan, Wimrak;Wanwilairat, Somsak;Traisathit, Patrinee;Galalae, Razvan;Chitapanarux, Imjai
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To evaluate association between equivalent dose in 2 Gy (EQD2) to rectal point dose and gastrointestinal toxicity from whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study was designed for the patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, treated by radical radiotherapy from 2004 to 2009 and were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy. The cumulative doses of WPRT and ICBT to the maximally rectal point were calculated to the EQD2 and evaluated the association of toxicities. Results: Thirty-nine patients were evaluated for late rectal toxicity. The mean cumulative dose in term of EQD2 to rectum was 64.2 Gy. Grade 1 toxicities were the most common findings. According to endoscopic exam, the most common toxicities were congested mucosa (36 patients) and telangiectasia (32 patients). In evaluation between rectal dose in EQD2 and toxicities, no association of cumulative rectal dose to rectal toxicity, except the association of cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy to late effects of normal tissue (LENT-SOMA) scale ${\geq}$ grade 2 (p = 0.022; odds ratio, 5.312; 95% confidence interval, 1.269-22.244). Conclusion: The cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy have association with ${\geq}$ grade 2 LENT-SOMA scale.