• Title, Summary, Keyword: MAP2

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Effects of Gas Composition in the Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Shelf-life of Longissimus dorsi of Korean Native Black Pigs-Duroc Crossbred during Refrigerated Storage

  • Muhlisin, Muhlisin;Panjono, Panjono;Kim, Dong Soo;Song, Yeong Rae;Lee, Sung-Jin;Lee, Jeong Koo;Lee, Sung Ki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.1157-1163
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to observe the effects of gas composition in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the shelf-life of Longissimus dorsi of Korean Native Black Pigs-Duroc Crossbred ($KNP{\times}D$) during refrigerated storage. Muscle sample was obtained from the left side of carcass of seven months old of $KNP{\times}D$ barrow. The sample was sliced into 1 cm in thickness, placed on trays (two slices/tray) and filled with different gas composition, i.e. 0:20:80/$O_2:CO_2:N_2$ (MAP1), 30:20:50/$O_2:CO_2:N_2$ (MAP2) and 70:20:10/$O_2:CO_2:N_2$ (MAP3). Other slices of sample were vacuum packed (VP) as a control. All packs were stored at $5{\pm}1^{\circ}C$. At 12 d of storage, pH value of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than that of MAP1 and pH value of MAP1 was higher (p<0.05) than that of VP. At 6 d of storage, redness ($a^*$) value of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than that of VP and MAP1 and, at 9 and 12 d of storage, redness value of MAP3 was higher (p<0.05) than that of VP, MAP1, and MAP2. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 d of storage, the 2- thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of MAP3 was higher than that of MAP2 and TBARS value of MAP2 was higher than that of VP and MAP1. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 d of storage, volatile basic nitrogen values of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than those of VP and MAP1. At 3 d of storage, total aerobic plate counts of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than those of VP and MAP1 and, at 6 d of storage, total aerobic plate counts of MAP3 was higher (p<0.05) than that of MAP1 and MAP2. However, there was no significant different total aerobic plate count among MAP1, MAP2, and MAP3 at 9 and 12 d of storage. There was no significant different total anaerobic plate count among MAP1, MAP2, and MAP3 during storage. It is concluded that the MAP containing 30:20:50/$O_2:CO_2:N_2$ gas composition (MAP2) might be ideal for better meat quality for $KNP{\times}D$ meat.

A Study on the Specification of Digital Map Ver. 2.0 Generalization (수치지도 Ver. 2.0 일반화스펙에 관한 연구)

  • Park Kyeong-Sik;Jung Sung-Heuk;Choi Seok-Keun;Lee Jae-Kee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry, and Cartography Conference
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    • pp.405-410
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    • 2006
  • The digital map version 2.0 is national base map which is used for frame work data, paper map making as well as geographic information system. National Geographic Institude has been research to make small scale digital map by using large scale digital map. NGI made from 25 1/5,000 digital maps to one 1/25,000 digital map ver 2.0 with map generalization system in 2003. However, they could not make 1/10,000 and l/50,000 digital map version 2.0 because of There is no portrayal on the scale 1/10,000 and 1/50,000 digital map in the existing regulations. therefore. We create the specification of the digital map on scale in order to make small scale digital map version 2.0 such as 1/10,000 and 1/50,000 scale.

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The Effect of Electrical Stimulation on MAP2 Expression in the Cerebral Cortex following Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rat (흰쥐 좌골신경손상 후 전기 자극이 대뇌피질에서의 MAP2 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, Eun-Young;Kim, Jin-Sang
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.391-401
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of electrical stimulation(EST) on MAP2(Microtubule Associated Protein 2) expression in cerebral cortex following sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Twelve Sprague-Dawley adult female rats, six for control and six for experimental, were anesthetized and their sciatic nerves were crushed. The electrical stimulation (EST) was applicated with 3 Hz for 10 minuties in a day for muscles innervated sciatic nerve. The MAP2 expression in cerebral cortex was identified from immunohistochemistry against MAP2. The result of this study were as follow: 1) In control group, MAP2 immunoreactive neurons were observed but there no significant increase for 3 days. 2) MAP2 immunoreactive neurons were increased markably in experimental group than control group. 3) MAP2 immunoreactive neurons were increased markably after applicating with EST in sciatic nerve crush injury induced group from 2nd day. This study showed that the application of EST for muscles after sciatic nerve crushed injury made MAP2 immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral cortex increased. Therefore, the electrical stimulation on the peripheral site, denervated muscle, may facilitate MAP2 expression in the cerebral cortex.

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Normal map generation based on Pix2Pix for rendering fabric image (옷감 이미지 렌더링을 위한 Pix2Pix 기반의 Normal map 생성)

  • Nam, Hyeongil;Park, Jong-Il
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Broadcast Engineers Conference
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    • pp.257-260
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    • 2020
  • 본 논문은 단일의 옷감 이미지로 가상의 그래픽 렌더링을 위해 Pix2Pix 방법을 이용하여 Normal map 을 생성하는 방법을 제시한다. 구체적으로 단일의 이미지를 이용해서 Normal map 를 생성하기 위해, Color image 와 Normal map 쌍의 training dataset 을 Pix2Pix 방법을 이용해서 학습시킨다 또한, test dataset 의 Color image 를 입력으로 넣어 생성된 Normal map 결과를 확인한다. 그리고 선행연구에서 사용되어오던 U-Net 방식의 방법과 본 논문에서 사용한 Pix2Pix 를 이용한 Normal map 생성 결과를 SSIM(Structural Similarity Index)으로 비교 평가한다. 또한, 생성된 Normal map 을 렌더링하고자 하는 가상 객체의 사이즈에 맞게 사이즈를 조정하여 OpenGL 로 렌더링한 결과를 확인한다. 본 논문을 통해서 단일의 패턴 이미지를 Pix2Pix 로 생성한 Normal map 으로 옷감의 디테일을 사실감 있게 표현할 수 있음을 확인할 수 있었다.

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Emerging Pathogenic Bacteria: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Foods

  • Kim, Jung-Hoan;Griffiths, Mansel W.
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.147-157
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    • 2011
  • Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of Johne's disease in animals, may be a causative agent of Crohn's disease (CD) in humans, but the evidence supporting this claim is controversial. Milk, meat, and water could be potential sources of MAP transmission to humans. Thus, if the link between MAP and Crohn's disease is substantiated, the fact that MAP has been detected in retail foods could be a public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to review the link between MAP and CD, the prevalence of MAP in foods, heat inactivation, control of MAP during food processing, and detection methods for MAP. Although MAP positive rates in retail milk in nine countries ranged from 0 to 2.9% by the culture method and from 4.5 to 15.5% by PCR, high temperature short time pasteurization can effectively control MAP. The effectiveness of pasteurization to inactivate MAP depends on the initial concentration of the MAP in raw milk. Development of highly sensitive and specific rapid detection methods for MAP may enhance investigation into the relationship between MAP and CD, the prevention of the spread of MAP, and problem-solving related to food safety. Collaboration and efforts by government agencies, the dairy industry, farmers, veterinarians, and scientists will be required to reduce and prevent MAP in food.

A Secondary MAP Scheme for Decreasing a Handover Delay and Packet Loss in an HMIPv6 (HMIPv6에서 핸드오버 지연 및 패킷 손실 감소를 위한 2차 MAP 이용 기법)

  • Jang Seong Sik;Lee Won Yeoul;Park Sun Young;Byun Tae Young;Han Ki Jun
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 2005
  • An HMIPv6 provides micro mobility management using MAP for decreasing handover delay and network load in a mobile IP networks. An HMIPv6 uses distance based algorithm for MAP selection when a mobile host enters a new network domain. However, since every mobile hosts select a farthest router as a MAP, a handover delay and packet loss will be increased. A new MAP selection scheme is herein proposed to solve the problems caused by the distance based MAP selection algorithm by using secondary MAP. We executed the performance evaluation by simulation about handover delay and packet loss of an HMIPv6 and our proposed scheme. The simulation results show that the performance of our proposed scheme is better than that of HMIPv6.

Merging of Topological Map and Grid Map using Standardized Map Data Representation (표준화된 지도 데이터 표현방법을 이용한 위상지도와 격자지도의 병합)

  • Jin, Hee-Seon;Yu, Wonpil;Moon, Hyungpil
    • The Journal of Korea Robotics Society
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.104-110
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    • 2014
  • Mapping is a fundamental element for robotic services. There are available many types of map data representation such as grid map, metric map, topology map, etc. As more robots are deployed for services, more chances of exchanging map data among the robots emerge and standardization of map data representation (MDR) becomes more valuable. Currently, activities in developing MDR standard are underway in IEEE Robotics and Automation Society. The MDR standard is for a common representation and encoding of the two-dimensional map data used for navigation by mobile robots. The standard focuses on interchange of map data among components and systems, particularly those that may be supplied by different vendors. This paper aims to introduce MDR standard and its application to map merging. We have applied the basic structure of the MDR standard to a grid map and Voronoi graph as a kind of topology map and performed map merging between two different maps. Simulation results show that the proposed MDR is suitable for map data exchange among robots.

A Study on the Creation of Augmented Reality Map (증강현실 지도제작에 대한연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Eun
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.335-341
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    • 2018
  • This paper is a study on map contents to be embedded in a new type of mobile device that combines 2D information and 3D information by combining 2D information with augmented reality technology. We also describe the planning and production of a 3D map application called 'NSU AR Map' using Unity3D engine to help understand this paper. 'NSU AR Map' is a map application that enables accurate identification of user's location and real-world view through 360 View. Based on the experience gained during the process of 3D map application, this paper will present how 3D technologies and augmented reality technologies are applied to new map applications and how they can be developed in the future.

Improvement of MAP Load Balancing in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (계층적 Mobile IPv6에서의 MAP 부하 분산 개선에 관한 분석)

  • Song, Bok-Sob;Kim, Jeong-Ho
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2009
  • The growing need for the mobility supportable networks induces the IP-based mobility management protocols. Though HMIPv6 which manages the micro-mobility of mobile nodes using MAPs suggests an effective method for mobility-support for mobile nodes within the domain that is managed by MAP. There is a problem that traffic may be concentrated on MAPs. In this paper, therefore, we proposed a method that can effectively distribute the traffic which is concentrated on a MAP under phased Mobile IPv6. In our proposed method, two or more MAPs are required and classified as an 'Active MAP' or a 'Passive MAP'. In addition, we defined the state of transition events between Active MAP and Passive MAP and the operations among MAPs for load distribution when an overload condition is occurred at some MAPs by traffic congestion. We compared the performance of our proposed method with its phased Mobile IPv6 to prove the propriety of our proposed method. As a result, we showed that our proposed method can provide an enhanced performance by about 12 percentages in view of packet throughput at the node.

SPHERICAL SUBMANIFOLDS WITH FINITE TYPE SPHERICAL GAUSS MAP

  • Chen, Bang-Yen;Lue, Huei-Shyong
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.407-442
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    • 2007
  • The study of Euclidean submanifolds with finite type "classical" Gauss map was initiated by B.-Y. Chen and P. Piccinni in [11]. On the other hand, it was believed that for spherical sub manifolds the concept of spherical Gauss map is more relevant than the classical one (see [20]). Thus the purpose of this article is to initiate the study of spherical submanifolds with finite type spherical Gauss map. We obtain several fundamental results in this respect. In particular, spherical submanifolds with 1-type spherical Gauss map are classified. From which we conclude that all isoparametric hypersurfaces of $S^{n+1}$ have 1-type spherical Gauss map. Among others, we also prove that Veronese surface and equilateral minimal torus are the only minimal spherical surfaces with 2-type spherical Gauss map.