• Title, Summary, Keyword: MFE

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Anti-Diabetic Effects of Mori Folium Extract on High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Mice (고지방식이와 STZ 유도 제2형 당뇨병 마우스에서 상엽 추출물의 항당뇨 효과)

  • Kwon, Tae-Oh;Choi, Ji-Won;Lee, Hyun-Seo;Cho, Byoung-Ok;Yin, Hong-Hua;Jang, Seon-Il
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : The present study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of Mori Folium (Morus alba L. of Moraceae) extract (MFE) on high fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetes mellitus in mice. Methods : The mice (C57BL/6J) were fed HFD for 8 weeks and then was induced with a single injection of STZ (75 mg/kg). The diabetic mice were divided into four groups [(STD, HFD, HFD + MFE and HFD + quercetin (QUR)] and administered with MFE or OUR for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides and cholesterol etc.), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), insulin and leptin were measured every 2 weeks. Results : Body weight gain was lower in the MFE and QUR groups than HFD group. The fasting blood glucose was lower in the MFE and QUR groups. Oral glucose and insulin tolerance were decreased in the MFE and QUR groups. The levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were reduced in the MFE and QUR groups. The HDL cholesterol was much higher in the MFE and QUR groups than HFD group. The levels of GOT, GPT and atherogenic index were decreased in the MFE and QUR groups. The serum insulin and leptin concentrations were reduced in the MFE and QUR groups. Conclusions : These results showed that MFE could decrease blood glucose level and lead to an amelioration in dyslipidemia states on HFD/STZ-induced type II diabetes mellitus in mice.

Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

  • Lee, Young-Ju;Lee, Ka-Hwa;Ahn, Chang-Bum;Chun, Soon-Sil;Je, Jae-Young
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1532-1536
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of mulberry fruit extracts prepared by hot water (MFH) and 80% ethanol (MFE). Total polyphenolic contents of MFH and MFE were $195{\pm}3.4\;mg$ gallic acid equivalents/g MFH and $185{\pm}2.8\;mg$ gallic acid equivalents/g MFE. MFH and MFE significantly quenched 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide dose-dependently, and showed high chelating ability and reducing power in non-cellular systems. MFH and MFE also inhibited the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, and elevated intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MFH and MFE also dose-dependently suppressed AChE activity.

Anti-fibrotic Effect of Mori Folium Extract in Hepatic Stellate Cells (간성상세포에서 상엽(桑葉) 추출물의 섬유화 억제 효과)

  • Byun, Sung Hui;Park, Sang Mi;Kim, Sang Chan;Cho, Il Je
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : Mori Folium was popularly used as one of the traditional medicinal herbs. Although M. Folium has been cultivated for rearing silkworm historically, it's use has been expanded as natural therapeutic agent for the treatment of filariasis, diabetes and dropsy in East Asia. However, little has been known about the effect of M. Folium on liver fibrosis. Therefore, we would like to explore an anti-fibrogenic potential of M. Folium extract (MFE) using immortalized human hepatic stellate cell line, LX-2 cells. Methods : We examined the effects of MFE on the transforming growth factor ${\beta}1$ ($TGF{\beta}1$)-induced liver fibrosis in LX-2 cells. Cell viability, Smad binding element-driven luciferase activity, phosphorylations level of Smad 2/3, and expression level of $TGF{\beta}1$-dependent target genes were monitored in the MFE-treated LX-2 cells. Results : Up to 30 ${\mu}g/ml$ MFE treatment did not show any possible toxic effect in LX-2 cells. MFE inhibited $TGF{\beta}1$-inducible Smad binding element-driven luciferase activity and decreased the $TGF{\beta}1$-inducible phosphorylations of Smad 2 and Smad 3 in hepatic stellate cell in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, increases of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, $TGF{\beta}1$ and matrix metalloproteinases 2 genes by $TGF{\beta}1$ were also attenuated by MFE treatment. Conclusions : These findings suggested that MFE would be used as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment liver fibrosis, which might be mediated by the inhibition of $TGF{\beta}1$-inducible Smad 2/3 transactivation and target genes expression.

Measuring mid frequency error using mirror reflection test (반사 실험을 이용한 알루미늄 반사경의 중주파 오차 측정)

  • Jeong, Byeongjoon;Pak, Soojong;Kim, Sanghyuk;Lee, Kwang Jo
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.109.1-109.1
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    • 2014
  • 다이아몬드 선삭 기계(DTM)를 이용한 렌즈 및 반사경 가공은 제작시간 단축 및 비용 절감의 장점을 가지고 있다. 그러나 알루미늄과 같은 무른 금속을 가공하여 반사경을 제작하는 경우에는 반사경 표면에 가공오차가 발생한다. 오차는 크기에 따라 고주파 오차(High Frequency Error, HFE), 중주파 오차(Mid Frequency Error, MFE), 저주파 오차(Low Frequency Error, LFE)로 분류 할 수 있다. LFE는 가공한 반사경 표면이 설계된 형상과 얼마나 다른지를 표현하는 값으로 광학 수차와 같이 해상도를 저하시킨다. MFE는 반사경 표면에 수십 마이크로미터 크기로 나타난다. 회전하는 반사경 시료에 다이아몬드 툴의 홈이 동심원으로 생기면서 회절격자와 같이 회절 및 간섭 현상을 만든다. HFE는 표면의 거친 정도를 나타내며 반사율과 관련되고 수 나노미터 크기로 나타난다. 본 연구에서는 광학 레이저를 사용하여 MFE가 광학 성능에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 유리 반사경과 MFE를 제거한 반사경, 제거하지 않은 반사경에 대하여 실험을 진행하였다. 본 실험 결과는 반사경 가공 표면을 평가할 수 있는 유용한 자료가 될 것이다.

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The Effects of Mulberry Fruit Extract Supplementation on the Serum Mineral Contents and Oxidative Stress Markers of Middle-Aged Humans Living in Choongnam Area (오디추출물 급여가 충남 일부지역에 거주하는 중년 남, 녀의 혈청 무기질 수준 및 항산화 관련 인자에 미친 영향)

  • Kim, Ae-Jung;Kim, Hyun-Bok;Bang, In-Soo;Kim, Sun-Yeou
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.284-289
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    • 2006
  • Effects of mulberry fruit extract (MFE) on the levels of serum mineral and serum oxidative stress markers on 31 middle-aged humans (16 males and 15 females) supplemented with MFE for 4 weeks were investigated. Contents of mineral per 100 g MFE were 80.66 (Ca), 12.26 (Mg), 6.26 (Fe), 0.05 (Cu), and 4.04 mg (Zn). Relative scavenging activities of MFE and its cyanidin-3-glucoside on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were 34 and 85%, respectively, using ascorbic acid as standard. Anthropometry measurements, serum mineral (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn)levels, and serum oxidative stress markers were analyzed before and after supplementation of MFE. After supplementation of MFE, no significant differences were observed in anthropometry measurements and levels of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in males and females, and ferric-reducing ability plasma (FRAP) in males, whereas serum mineral levels (Fe in males, and Fe, Cu, and Zn in females) and serum FRAP levels (both males and females) increased significantly.

Mulberry Fruit Extract Consumption is Inversely Associated with Hyperlipidemia in Middle-aged Men (오디 추출물이 중년 남성의 항고지혈증에 미친 효과)

  • Kim, Ae-Jung;Park, Soo-Jin;Rho, Jeong-Ok
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 2008
  • In a previous study, a mulberry fruit extract(MFE) supplement exhibited anti-inflammatory activity and improved serum lipid profiles in arthritic rats. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary MFE could ameliorate inflammatory parameters and serum lipid levels in humans. Twenty-six middle-aged subjects(mean body mass index=27 $kg/m^2$) consumed MFE(100 $m{\ell}/day)$ after lunch for 4 wks. Anthropometric measurements, serum oxidative stress markers and serum lipid profile analyses were performed at baseline and then at 4 wk following the study. There were no significant differences in anthropometric measurements, including BMI, WHR, and body fat composition. After the 4 wk-intervention, serum levels of C-reactive protein(CRP), ferric-reducing ability of plasma(FRAP), serum triglyceride(TG) and LDL-cholesterol had significantly decreased(p<0.05), whereas serum levels of HDL-cholesterol significantly(p<0.05) increased. These findings suggest the consumption of mulberry extract may be protective against inflammation and the atherosclerotic state in elderly obese men at high risk for cardiovascular disease(CVD).

Effect of Mori Folium Extract on Improvement of Blood Flow in Ferric Chloride-Induced Carotid Artery Damage Rat Model (염화제2철이 유도하는 경동맥 손상 렛트 모델에서 상엽 추출물의 혈행개선 효과)

  • Kang, Hyun Ju;Jeon, In Hwa;Kwon, Tae Oh;Choi, Jiwon;Kim, Sung Zoo;Jang, Seon Il
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.607-613
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    • 2014
  • In a previous study, we have shown that mulberry leaves (Mori Folium) extract MFE) and its compounds have the antioxidant effect in human red blood cells. However, the possible effect of MFE and its compounds on improvement of blood flow were not reported. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of MFE and its compounds on improvement of blood flow in a rat model of topical ferric chloride ($FeCl_3$)-induced carotid artery damage. The $FeCl_3$ treatment seriously damaged the carotid artery: the walls of the artery, blood flow rate, blood vessel diameter, blood vessel area and blood flow amount. However, administration of MFE or its compound has ameliorated the blood flow and suppressed thrombus in blood vessels. Moreover, the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol in the MET and its compound groups were remarkably reduced in comparison to the control group, and HDL cholesterol concentration was higher in the MET and its compound groups than in the control group. These results suggest that MFE and its compounds ameliorate the thrombosis against blood vessel damage.

Inhibitory effect of Mori Folium ethanol extract on pro-inflammatory mediator in lipopolysaccharide - activated RAW 264.7 cells (상엽(桑葉) 추출물의 LPS로 유도된 RAW 264.7 세포에서의 항염증 효과)

  • Park, Sang-Mi;Byun, Sung-Hui;Kim, Young-Woo;Cho, Il-Je;Kim, Sang-Chan
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : Mori Folium is one of the traditional medicinal herb. It was commonly used for sericulture in the world and has been traditionally administered as natural therapeutic agent for the treatment of filariasis, diabetes and dropsy in East Asia. This study investigated an anti-inflammatory potential of Mori Folium ethanol extract (MFE). Methods : We examined the effects of MFE on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Results : MFE inhibited production of NO and $PGE_2$ in a dose dependent manner and also decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$. As a plausible molecular mechanism, increased degradation of I-${\kappa}B{\alpha}$ and phosphorylation of I-${\kappa}B{\alpha}$, NF-${\kappa}B$ and MAP kinases by LPS were partly blocked by MFE treatment. Conclusions : These results suggest that MFE has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential, which may result from inhibition of NF-${\kappa}B$ activation and MAPK phosphorylation, thereby decreasing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes.

Alleviating Effects of Mulberry Fruit Extract on Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Mice (STZ으로 유도된 당뇨 마우스에서 오디열매추출물의 식후 고혈당 완화 효과)

  • Choi, Kyung Ha;Kang, Ji-Hye;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.921-927
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    • 2016
  • Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia by impeding the rate of carbohydrate (such as starch) digestion in the small intestine. This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory actions of mulberry fruit extract (MFE) on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities, and its alleviating effect on postprandial hyperglycemia activities in vitro and in vivo. Male four-week old ICR mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were treated with mulberry fruit extract. MFE showed strong inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16 and 0.14 mg/ml, respectively, and was more effective than acarbose, which was used as a positive control. The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly attenuated in the MFE-administered group mice than in the control group mice of both STZ-induced diabetic and normal mice. Moreover, the area under the glucose response curve significantly decreased following MFE administration in diabetic mice. These results indicate that MFE may be a potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, and helpful in suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. The mulberry fruit extracts may be considered as a potential candidate for the management of diabetes.