• Title, Summary, Keyword: MIP

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An Algorithm of MIP-Map Level Selection for Ray-Traced Texture Mapping (광선 추적법 텍스쳐 매핑을 위한 MIP-Map 수준 선택 알고리즘 연구)

  • Park, Woo-Chan;Kim, Dong-Seok
    • Journal of Korea Game Society
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 2010
  • This paper proposes an effective method to select MIP-Map level of texture images for ray-traced texture mapping. This MIP-Map level selection method requires only the total length of intersected ray. By supporting MIP-Map for texture mapping, we can reduce the texture aliasing effects, while our approach decreases rendering performance very slightly.

Synthesis and Characterization of Theophylline Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (테오필린 분자 날인 고분자의 합성 및 특성)

  • Ryu, Ho-Sik;Kim, Beom-Soo;Kim, Dae-Su
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.138-142
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    • 2008
  • Molecularly imprinting technology is an effective method to prepare a synthetic material with a high selectivity to a target molecule. In this study, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized via UV-polymerization using theophylline and UV-curable polyester-acrylate resin as a template molecule and a crosslinker, respectively. To elucidate the effects of functional monomer type on the performance of the MIP, each MIP was synthesized using mathacrylic acid, acrylic acid, and acryl amide as functional monomers. Each MIP showed higher rebinding capacity to theophylline than its corresponding non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The MIP synthesized using mathacrylic acid as a functional monomer showed the highest rebinding capacity to theophylline. The selectivity of the MIP was investigated using a solution with caffeine having a very similar structure to theophylline. The binding performance of the MIP to theophylline decreased when distilled water was used as a solvent, which has more polarity than chloroform.

Efficacy of Maximum Intensity Projection of Contrast-Enhanced 3D Turbo-Spin Echo Imaging with Improved Motion-Sensitized Driven-Equilibrium Preparation in the Detection of Brain Metastases

  • Bae, Yun Jung;Choi, Byung Se;Lee, Kyung Mi;Yoon, Yeon Hong;Sunwoo, Leonard;Jung, Cheolkyu;Kim, Jae Hyoung
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.699-709
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    • 2017
  • Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic benefits of 5-mm maximum intensity projection of improved motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium prepared contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted turbo-spin echo imaging (MIP iMSDE-TSE) in the detection of brain metastases. The imaging technique was compared with 1-mm images of iMSDE-TSE (non-MIP iMSDE-TSE), 1-mm contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging (non-MIP 3D-GRE), and 5-mm MIP 3D-GRE. Materials and Methods: From October 2014 to July 2015, 30 patients with 460 enhancing brain metastases (size > 3 mm, n = 150; size ${\leq}3mm$, n = 310) were scanned with non-MIP iMSDE-TSE and non-MIP 3D-GRE. We then performed 5-mm MIP reconstruction of these images. Two independent neuroradiologists reviewed these four sequences. Their diagnostic performance was compared using the following parameters: sensitivity, reading time, and figure of merit (FOM) derived by jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis. Interobserver agreement was also tested. Results: The mean FOM (all lesions, 0.984; lesions ${\leq}3mm$, 0.980) and sensitivity ([reader 1: all lesions, 97.3%; lesions ${\leq}3mm$, 96.2%], [reader 2: all lesions, 97.0%; lesions ${\leq}3mm$, 95.8%]) of MIP iMSDE-TSE was comparable to the mean FOM (0.985, 0.977) and sensitivity ([reader 1: 96.7, 99.0%], [reader 2: 97, 95.3%]) of non-MIP iMSDE-TSE, but they were superior to those of non-MIP and MIP 3D-GREs (all, p < 0.001). The reading time of MIP iMSDE-TSE (reader 1: $47.7{\pm}35.9$ seconds; reader 2: $44.7{\pm}23.6$ seconds) was significantly shorter than that of non-MIP iMSDE-TSE (reader 1: $78.8{\pm}43.7$ seconds, p = 0.01; reader 2: $82.9{\pm}39.9$ seconds, p < 0.001). Interobserver agreement was excellent (${\kappa}$ > 0.75) for all lesions in both sequences. Conclusion: MIP iMSDE-TSE showed high detectability of brain metastases. Its detectability was comparable to that of non-MIP iMSDE-TSE, but it was superior to the detectability of non-MIP/MIP 3D-GREs. With a shorter reading time, the false-positive results of MIP iMSDE-TSE were greater. We suggest that MIP iMSDE-TSE can provide high diagnostic performance and low false-positive rates when combined with 1-mm sequences.

Chemokines Gene Expression of RAW 264.7 Cells by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Lipopolysaccharide Using Microarray and RT-PCR Analysis

  • Chung, Jin;Choi, Mun Jeoung;Jeong, So Yeon;Oh, Jong Suk;Kim, Hyung Keun
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.257-261
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    • 2009
  • Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) is an important pathogen casuing aggressive periodontitis. The present study was designed to investigate the chemokines expression regulated by A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Chemokines genes expression profiling was performed in Raw 264.7 cells by analyses of microarray and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Microarray results showed that the induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-$1{\alpha}$ (MIP-$1{\alpha}$), MIP-$1{\beta}$, MIP-$1{\gamma}$, regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), and interferon-${\gamma}$ inducible protein 10 (IP 10) by A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS was increased to 12.5, 1.53, 9.09, 17.3, 2.82, 16.1, and 18.1 folds at 18 h, respectively. To check these chemokines expression by A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS, we examined gene expressions by RT-PCR, and found that the expression of MIP-$1{\beta}$, MIP-$1{\gamma}$, RANTES, MIP-2, and IP 10 was increased 107.1, 93.6, 106.8, 86.5, and 162.0 folds at 18 h, respectively. These results indicate that A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS stimulates the several chemokines expressions (MIP-$1{\alpha}$, MIP-$1{\beta}$, MIP-$1{\gamma}$, RANTES, MIP-2, and IP 10) in Raw 264.7 cells.

Usefulness of Three-Dimensional Maximal Intensity Projection (MIP) Reconstruction Image in Breast MRI (유방자기공명영상에서 3 차원 최대 강도 투사 재건 영상의 유용성)

  • Kim, Hyun-Sung;Kang, Bong-Joo;Kim, Sung-Hun;Choi, Jae-Jeong;Lee, Ji-Hye
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.183-189
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) maximal intensity projection (MIP) reconstruction method in breast MRI. Materials and Methods : Total 54 breasts of consecutive 27 patients were examined by breast MRI. Breast MRI was performed using GE Signa Excite Twin speed (GE medical system, Wisconsin, USA) 1.5T. We obtained routine breast MR images including axial T2WI, T1WI, sagittal T1FS, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1FS, and subtraction images. 3D MIP reconstruction images were obtained as follows; subtraction images were obtained using TIPS and early stage of contrast-enhanced TIPS images. And then 3D MIP images were obtained using the subtraction images through advantage workstation (GE Medical system). We detected and analyzed the lesions in the 3D MIP and routine MRI images according to ACR $BIRADS^{(R)}$ MRI lexicon. And then we compared the findings of 3D MIP and those of routine breast MR images and evaluated whether 3D MIP had additional information comparing to routine MR images. Results : 3D MIP images detect the 43 of 56 masses found on routine MR images (76.8%). In non-mass like enhancement, 3D MIP detected 17 of 20 lesions (85 %). And there were one hundred sixty nine foci at 3D MIP images and one hundred nine foci at routine MR images. 3D MIP images detected 14 of 23 category 3 lesions (60.9%), 11 of 16 category 4 lesions (68.87%), 28 of 28 Category 5 lesions (100%). In analyzing the enhancing lesions at 3D MIP images, assessment categories of the lesions were correlated as the results at routine MR images (p-value < 0.0001). 3D MIP detected additional two daughter nodules that were descriped foci at routine MR images and additional one nodule that was not detected at routine MR images. Conclusion : 3D MIP image has some limitations but is useful as additional image of routine breast MR Images.

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The Cholesterol-Binding Antibiotic Nystatin Induces Expression of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 in Macrophages

  • Baek, Seungil;Kim, Sun-Mi;Lee, Sae-A;Rhim, Byung-Yong;Eo, Seong-Kug;Kim, Koanhoi
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 2013
  • Nystatin, a polyene antifungal antibiotic, is a cholesterol sequestering agent. The antifungal agent alters composition of the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, whereas its effects on cells are poorly investigated. In the current study, we investigated the question of whether nystatin was able to induce expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1). THP-1 cells rarely express MIP-$1{\alpha}$ and MIP-$1{\beta}$, however, upon exposure to nystatin, significantly elevated expression of MIP-$1{\alpha}$ and MIP-$1{\beta}$ was observed in a dose-dependent fashion at the messenger and protein levels. Cellular factors activated by nystatin as well as involved in nystatin-induced expression of MIP-1 proteins were identified in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of action of the anti-fungal agent. Treatment with nystatin resulted in enhanced phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, p38 MAPK, and JNK. Abrogation or significant attenuation of nystatin-induced expression of MIP-$1{\alpha}$ and MIP-$1{\beta}$ was observed by treatment with Akt inhibitor IV, LY294002, and SP6001250. Inhibition of ERK or p38MAPK using U0126 and SB202190 did not lead to attenuation of MIP-1 expression. In addition, inhibitors of protein kinase C, such as GF109203X and Ro-318220, also attenuated expression of MIP-1. These results indicate that nystatin is able to activate multiple cellular kinases and, among them, Akt and JNK play primary roles in nystatin-induced expression of MIP-1 proteins.

Analysis of Multicast Handover Scheme for Next Generation Access Networks (차세대 광 가입자망에서 멀티캐스트 서비스 지원을 위한 핸드오버 기법)

  • Lee, Young-Suk;Lee, Dong-Soo;Kim, Young-Han
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.37C no.12
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    • pp.1303-1309
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, we propose a handover scheme for seamless mobile multicast service in next generation access networks. For this, we drew optimum handover scheme when applying MIP(mobile IP), FMIP(Fast MIP), HMIP(Heterogeneous MIP), PMIP(Proxy MIP) to XG-PON1. And, we analyze handover scheme for seamless mobile multicast service in XG-PON1. The prosed handover scheme remove tunnel convergence and reduces handover delay, packet delivery cost.

Identification of a neural pathway governing satiety in Drosophila

  • Min, Soohong;Chung, Jongkyeong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.137-138
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    • 2016
  • Satiety cues a feeding animal to cease further ingestion of food, thus protecting it from excessive energy gain. Impaired control of satiety is often associated with feeding-related disorders such as obesity. In our recent study, we reported the identification of a neural pathway that expresses the myoinhibitory peptide (MIP), critical for satiety responses in Drosophila. Targeted silencing of MIP neuron activity strikingly increased the body weight (BW) through elevated food intake. Similarly, genetic disruption of the gene encoding MIP also elevated feeding and BW. Suppressing the MIP pathway behaviorally transformed the satiated flies to feed similar to the starved ones, with augmented sensitivity to food. Conversely, temporal activation of MIP neuron markedly reduced the food intake and BW, and blunted the sensitivity of the starved flies to food as if they have been satiated. Shortly after termination of MIP neuron activation, the reduced BW reverted to the normal level along with a strong feeding rebound. Together our results reveal the switch-like role of the MIP pathway in feeding regulation by controlling satiety.

Multi-layered Mobility Management for Heterogeneous Traffics Using the Combination of SIP and FMIPv6 (SIP와 FMIPv6를 이용한 이종 트래픽의 다계층 이동성 관리 기법)

  • Jung, Hyun-Duk;Lee, Jai-Yong
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.35 no.11A
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    • pp.1051-1058
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    • 2010
  • Mobile IP (MIP) and SIP are considered as important technologies to provide the macro mobility in the next generation mobile convergence networks which have heterogeneous access networks. Typically, MIP and SIP are more suitable for the non-real-time TCP connections and the real-time RTP/UDP sessions respectively, hence a handset which uses both of these sessions should simultaneously apply MIP and SIP to perform the efficient mobility management. Existing multi-layered mobility management schemes focus on the signalling order of each protocol. However, simple combining of two protocols cannot provide the performance enhancement of the mobility management. In this paper, a novel multi-layered mobility management algorithm using the combination of SIP and fast MIPv6 (FMIPv6) is proposed. FMIPv6 and SIP mobility is simultaneously performed to reduce the service interrupt time and to guarantee QoS requirement. The delay model is defined to analysis the performance of the algorithm and the simulation results show the performance of the proposed algorithm.

IN VITRO STEM CELL SUPPRESSION OF MACROPHAGE INFLAMMATORY $PROTEIN-1{\alpha}$ (Macrophage Inflammatory $Protein-1{\alpha}$의 조혈간세포(造血幹細胞) 억제 작용에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Suh, Ki-Hang;Ko, Seung-O;Shin, Hyo-Keun;Kim, Oh-Whan
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.286-297
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    • 1996
  • The proliferation of bone marrow stem cell compartment is thought to be under both positive and negative controls by cytokines and colony stimulation factors. Macrophage inflammatory $protein-1{\alpha}(MIP-1{\alpha})$ has been assessed for its potential to protect hematopoietic stem cells from cytotoxic effects of a cycle-specific antineoplastic agents. We have tested the ability of $MIP-1{\alpha}$ to suppress the proliferation of stem cell line Du.528.101 in variety of active status by using $[^{3}H]-thymidine$ incorporation test. The results were as follows. 1. The effect of $MIP-1{\alpha}$ on steady-state Du.528.101 cell represented the cell growth suppression at the concentration of 10, 50, 100nM of $MIP-1{\alpha}$(P<0.001). 2. $MIP-1{\alpha}$ stimulated the proliferation of Du.528.101 cells previously treated with IL-1 at the concentration of 5, 50nM of $MIP-1{\alpha}$(P<0.01). 3. The suppression effect of MIP-1 on Du.528.101 cells at the concentration of 5, 50nM was shown when cells were treated with $MIP-1{\alpha}$ before activation with $IL-1{\beta}(P<0.01)$. 4. The growth rate of synchronized cells were slower than that of non-synchronized ones, and $MIP-1{\alpha}$ represented the similar suppression effect on both synchronized and non-synchronized cells.

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