• Title, Summary, Keyword: MPO activity

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The Effects of Low Power Laser Treatment on Tissue Inflammatory Reactions in the Linear Incision Wound on Rat Skin (흰 쥐의 선상 절개 창상모델에서 저출력 레이저 자극이 조직 염증반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, In-Hyuk;Lee, Jeong-Weon;Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.61-70
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    • 2003
  • The purposes of this study was to evaluate the effect of low power GaAsAl laser on tissue contraction in a linear incision wound on rat skin. The linear incision wound was made on the midline of the backside in the experimental animals. Low power laser applications with different intensities such as 3, 6, or 10 mW were applied to the experimental animals twice a day for 10 days. On either the seventh or tenth postoperative day, the quantitative analysis of the inflammatory reaction surrounding the linear incision wounds on the rats were performed using enzymatical analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The number of neutrophil was $.07-1.0{\times}106/m{\ell}$ from a normal blood sample that was obtained from the normal experimental animals. Each concentration of neutrophil showed .04-.62 unit activity of MPO. Therefore, the 6 unit activity of MPO per neutrophil was $.57{\pm}.014{\times}10^{-6}$ unit. On the 7th and 10th post operative day, non treated tissues demonstrated increased MPO activity as compared to that of normal tissue. These data indicated that the inflammatory reaction of tissue was induced after wound induction and the MPO activity were increased in the inflammed tissues. While both 3 mW or 6 mW intensity of laser treatments did not affect the tissue MPO activity, 10 mW intensity of laser treatment significantly decreased the tissue MPO activity on the 7th and 10th post operative day. These data demonstrated that only 10 mW intensity of laser treatment successfully suppressed tissue inflammatory reaction after wound induction. In conclusion, these findings suggested that 10 mW of GaAIAs laser treatments effectively suppressed the inflammatory reaction of tissue that was induced during the wound healing process.

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A STUDY ON PERIODONTAL DISEASE SEVERITY AND MYELOPEROXIDASE IN GINGIVAL CREVICULAR FLUID (치주질환 심도와 치은열구액내 Myeloperoxidase에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Byung-Son;Kwack, Jung-Minn;Kim, Hyung-Seop
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.733-740
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    • 1995
  • This investigation was undertaken to determine the relationship between the amount of polymorphonuclear leukocyte(PMN) enzyme myeloperoxidase(MPO) in gingival crevicular fluid(GCF) collected from active or control site and gingival disease status described by clinical indices(gingival index, papillary bleeding index, pocket depth, periotron unit). The results were as follows : 1. MPO activity/site was greater at active sites than at control sites. 2. According to increasing the clinical parameters, MPO/sites was higher statistically (P<0. 01, P<0.05). 3. High MPO(unit/site) groups was higher statistically than low MPO(unit/site) groups in various clinical parameters. 4. Correlation coefficients between MPO(unit/site) and GI, MPO($unit/{\mu}l$ GCF) and periotron unit were 0.4782, -0.5901, respectively.

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Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin on Neutrophils -

  • Nikfarjam, Bahareh Abd;Adineh, Mohtaram;Hajiali, Farid;Nassiri-Asl, Marjan
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.52-56
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: Neutrophils represent the front line of human defense against infections. Immediately after stimulation, neutrophilic enzymes are activated and produce toxic mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). These mediators can be toxic not only to infectious agents but also to host tissues. Because flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of inflammation. In the present study, the effects of rutin on stimulus-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$ productions and MPO activity in human neutrophils were investigated. Methods: Human peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation coupled with dextran T500 sedimentation. The cell preparations containing > 98% granulocytes were determined by morphological examination through Giemsa staining. Neutrophils were cultured in complete Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium, pre-incubated with or without rutin ($25{\mu}M$) for 45 minutes, and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Then, the $TNF-{\alpha}$, NO and MPO productions were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Griess Reagent, and MPO assay kits, respectively. Also, the viability of human neutrophils was assessed using tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and neutrophils were treated with various concentrations of rutin ($1-100{\mu}M$), after which MTT was appended and incubated at $37^{\circ}C$ for 4 hour. Results: Rutin at concentrations up to $100{\mu}M$ did not affect neutrophil viability during the 4-hour incubation period. Rutin significantly decreased the NO and $TNF-{\alpha}$ productions in human peripheral blood neutrophils compared to PMA-control cells (P < 0.001). Also, MPO activity was significantly reduced by rutin (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this in vitro study, rutin had an anti-inflammatory effect due to its inhibiting NO and $TNF-{\alpha}$ productions, as well as MPO activity, in activated human neutrophils. Treatment with rutin may be considered as a therapeutic strategy for neutrophil-mediated inflammatory/autoimmune diseases.

The Effects of Gyejijakyakjimo-Tang on the Allergic Contact Dermatitis induced by DNCB (계지작약지모탕(桂枝芍藥知母湯)이 DNCB로 유발된 알레르기성 접촉피부염에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Ho;Kim, Hee-Taek
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.8-22
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Gyejijakyakjimo-Tang on the Allergic Contact Dermatitis caused by 2,4-dinitro-chlorobezene(DNCB). Methods : Twenty eight mice were divided into four groups ; normal, control, experimental group A and B. Control and experimental groups were induced allergic contact dermatitis by DNCB. Experimental group A was orally administered the Gyejijakyakjimo-Tang and experimental group B was orally administered the prednisolone. In this study, ear thickness measurement, auricle microphotograph observation, MPO(Myeloperoxidase) activity measurement, Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) analysis of the mRNA level of TNF-$\alpha$, IL-$1{\beta}$ were performed on these four groups. In addition, the effect of Gyejijakyakjimo-Tang on cell viability and the effect of Gyejijakyakjimo-Tang on the compound 48/80-induced histamine release from HMC and RPMC were measured. Results: 1. Both experimental group A and B had decreased ear thickness compared with control group In contact hypersensitivity assay. 2. In experimental group A, inflammatory edema was similarly observed comparing to control group. Nevertheless, inflammatory edema was obviously reduced in experimental group B. In both experimental group A and B, pathological lesion of dermatitis were alleviated. In addition, the numbers of infiltrated inflammatory cells were decreased compared with control group. 3. Compared to the normal group, there was a noticeable increase in MPO activity in control group. However, in experimental group A and B, it showed remarkable inhibition of the increase in MPO activity comparing with control group. 4. The level of expression of TNF-$\alpha$, IL-$1{\beta}$ in experimental group A and B were meaningfully lower than those in control group. 5. In MTT assay, the concentrations of Gyejijakyakjimo-Tang that were used on the test had no cytotoxicity. 6. Gyejijakyakjimo-Tang dose-dependently inhibited the compound 48/80-induced histamine release from both HMC and RPMC. Conclusions : According to above experiments, Gyejijakyakjimo-Tang was effective on allergic contact dermatitis.

Effects of Moxi-tar Herbal Acupuncture of LI11 on inflammatory bowel disease induced by TNBS in mice (생쥐의 급 ${\cdot}$ 만성 대장염에 대한 곡지의 구진 약침 효과)

  • Song, Moon-Young;Gwon, Oh-Sang;Jang, Jae-Hoon;Jang, Jae-Yeong;Park, Sung-Ik;Kim, Jae-Hyo;Kim, Kyung-Sik;Sohn, In-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.131-149
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of herbal acupuncture (HA) with Moxi-tar for the treatment to intestinal disease in mice with 2, 4, 6 - trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis. Methods : Mice were administered with 5% TNBS at day 1 and day 7. To investigate effects of HA with Moxi-tar at LI11, treatments were carried out at day -1, day 1, day 3, day 5, and day 7. It was checked on the weight and width of colon, diarrhea, edema, survival rate, changes of body weight, and myeloperoxygenase (MPO) activity. Furthermore, we carried out immunohistochemical staining and Western blot and analyzed mRNA expression by RT-PCR. Results : HA of Moxi-tar at LI11 in preventive mode suppressed macroscopic damages and damages of intestinal epithelial cells and infiltration of immune cells in the colon by TNBS. HA in early and preventive mode ameliorated various symptoms by TNBS. TNBS injection increased MPO activity in colon while HA in preventive mode suppressed increase of MPO activity. HA down-regulated NF-kB activity and reduced expression of TNF-a, IL-1b, and ICAM-1 in colon of TNBS treated mice. Similar to experiment at colon, HA down-regulated NF-kB activity and reduced expression of TNF-a, IL-1b, and ICAM-1 by TNBS in mesenteric lymph node. HA in therapeutic mode suppressed errosion and shortening of colon and MPO activity by TNBS and suppressed mRNA expression of TNF-a, IL-1b, and ICAM-1 in the colon. Conclusions : This study demonstrates that HA with Moxi-tar at LI11 represents a potential therapeutic method of inflammatory bowel diseases.

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Endotoxin-induced Acute Lung Injury is Mediated by PAF Produced via Remodelling of Lyso PAF in the Lungs

  • Lee, Young-Man;Kim, Teo-An
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.219-226
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    • 2000
  • In order to elucidate the role of platelet activating factor (PAF) in the acute lung injury induced by endotoxin (ETX), activities of phospholipase A2, lyso PAF acetyltransferase and oxidative stress by neutrophilic respiratory burst were probed in the present study. To induce acute lung injury, $100\;{\mu}g$ of E.coli ETX (type 0127; B8) was instilled directly into the tracheae of Sprague-Dawley rats. Five hours after the ETX instillation, induction of acute lung injury was confirmed by lung leak index and protein contents in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. At the same time, lung phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and expression of group I and II secretory type PLA2 were examined. In these acutely injured rats, ketotifen fumarate, known as lyso PAF acetyltransferase inhibitor and mepacrine were administered to examine the role of PAF in the pathogenesis of the acute lung injury. To know the effect of the ETX in the synthesis of the PAF in the lungs, lyso PAF acetyltransferase activity and PAF content in the lungs were measured after treatments of ETX, ketotifen fumarate and mepacrine. In addition, the role of neutrophils causing the oxidative stress after ETX was examined by measuring lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) and enumerating neutrophils in the BAL fluid. To confirm the oxidative stress in the lungs, pulmonary contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. After instillation of the ETX in the lungs, lung leak index increased dramatically (p<0.001), whereas mepacrine and ketotifen decreased the lung leak index significantly (p<0.001). Lung PLA2 activity also increased (p<0.001) after ETX treatment compared with control, which was reversed by mepacrine and ketotifen (p<0.001). In the examination of expression of group I and II secretory PLA2, mRNA synthesis of the group II PLA2 was enhanced by ETX treatment, whereas ketotifen and WEB 2086, the PAF receptor antagonist, decreased the expression. The activity of the lysoPAF acetyltransferase increased (p<0.001) after treatment of ETX, which implies the increased synthesis of PAF by the remodelling of lysoPAF in the lungs. Consequently, the contents of the PAF in the lungs were increased by ETX compared with control (p<0.001), while mepacrine (p<0.001) and ketotifen (p<0.01) decreased the synthesis of the PAF in the lungs of ETX treated rats. The infiltration of the neutrophils was confirmed by measuring and enumerating lung MPO and the neutrophils in the BAL fluid respectively. Compared with control, ETX increased lung MPO and number of neutrophils in BAL significantly (p<0.001) whereas mepacrine and ketotifen decrerased number of neutrophils (p<0.001) and MPO (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively). The lung MDA contents were also increased (p<0.001) by ETX treatment, but treatment with mepacrine (p<0.001) and ketotifen (p<0.01) decreased the lung MDA contents. Collectively, we conclude that ETX increases PLA2 activity, and that the subsequently increased production of PAF was ensued by the remodelling of the lyso PAF resulting in tissue injury by means of oxidative stress in the lungs.

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Protective Effect of DA-9601, an Artemisiae Herba Extract, on Radiation-induced Colitis in Wistar Rats

  • Ahn, Byoung-Ok;Oh, Tae-Young;Ryu, Byoung-Kweon;Kim, Soon-Hoe;Kim, Won-Bae;Kang, Seung-Hee;Chun, Mi-Son;Yoon, Jung-Hee
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to examine the effects of DA-9601, a novel antiulcer agent extracted from Artemisiae Herba, on radiation colitis in the rat. Female Wistar rats received a 30 Gy dose of irradiation to the 2 cm of distal colon in length using an intrarectal applicator system. 30 mg/tg or 100 mg/kg of DA- 9601 was administered orally 30 min before and 4 h after radiation on day 1. And the same dose of DA-9601 was given to the animals twice a day from day 2 to 14. As a reference control, sucralfate suspension (100 or 300 mg/head) was given as an enema based on the same treatment schedule of DA-9601. Body weight change and the frequency of diarrhea were recorded during the observation period as markers of radiationinduced injury, All animals were sacrificed on day 15 for evaluation of macro- and microscopic findings and mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Radiated animals showed diarrhea, mucosal redness and histologic changes characterized by edema and eosinophilic infiltration of the periglandular lamina propria with loss of colonic epithelium. Radiation also significantly increased mucosal MfO activity of affected colon f\\\\\\\\`<0.05). However, most of these changes were completely protected by oral administration with DA-9601. DA-9601 reduced radiation-induced histologic alteration significantly in a dose-related manner (P<0.05). In addition, mucosal MPO activity in rats receiving high dose of DA-9601 decreased significantly when compared with that in radiated control. High dose of sucralfate (300 mg/head) alleviated radiation-induced histologic lesion, but failed to reach statistical significance. The results of this study suggest that DA-9601 can be useful for the prevention of acute clinical symptoms of radiation proctocolitis and that decrease of mucosal MPO by DA-9601 plays a role in its protective mechanism(s), at least in part.

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Inhibition of Phospholipase $A_2$ Diminishes the Acute Alveolar Injury Induced by $Interleukin-1{\alpha}$

  • Lee, Young-Man
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 1997
  • In an attempt to investigate the role of phospholipase $A_2$($PLA_2$) in interleukin-l (IL-l) induced acute lung injury, mepacrine was tried to inhibit $PLA_2$ in IL-l induced ARDS rats. For confirmation of acute lung injury by IL-l, and to know the role of neutrophils in this injury, lung leak index, lung myeloperoxidase(MPO), number of neutrophils and protein content in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and wet lung weight were measured. At the same time lung $PLA_2$ was measured to know the effect of IL-l on $PLA_2$ activity. Pulmonary surfactant was also measured for an investigation of type II alveolar cell function. Neutrophil adhesion assay was performed to know the effect of $PLA_2$ inhibition in vitro with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). For precise location of injury by IL-l, morpholgical study was performed by electron microscopy. Five hours after instillation of IL-l (50 ng/rat), lung leak index, protein content, number of neutrophils, lung MPO and wet lung weight were increased significantly. Five hours after IL-l instillation lung $PLA_2$ activity was increased significantly, and increased surfactant release was observed in IL-l induced ARDS rats' BAL. In contrast, in rats given mepacrine and IL-l, there was decrease of acute lung injury i.e. decrease of lung leak index, wet lung weight, protein content, number of neutrophils in BAL and decreased lung MPO activity. Mepacrine decreased surfactant release also. Interestingly, inhibition of $PLA_2$ decreased adhesion of human neutrophils to HUVEC in vitro. Morphologically, IL-l caused diffuse necrosis of endothelial cells, type I and II epithelial cells and increased the infiltration of neutrophils in the interstitium of the lung but after mepacrine treatment these pathological findings were lessened. On the basis of these experimental results it is suggested that $PLA_2$ has a major role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury mediated by neutrophil dependent manner in IL-l induced acute lung injury.

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Gastric Protective Effects of Banhasasim-tang on Indomethacin-treated Rats

  • Park, Su-Wan;Byun, Joon-Seok
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.208-221
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : Banhasasim-tang (BHSST) has been applied for treating the symptom of gastric stuffiness, which is similar to dyspepsia. The object of this study was to observe the healing effect of BHSST on the indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Methods : Three different dosages of BHSST (400, 200 and 100 mg/kg) were orally administered 30 min before IND treatment; 6 hrs after IND treatment, the changes on the gross lesion scores, fundic histopathology, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system (glutathione contents, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities) were observed, and compared with the activity of the synthetic anti-ulcer drug, a representative proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (OME) 10 mg/kg. Results : All three different dosages of BHSST treatment in the IND-induced gastric ulcer rats, significant and dose dependent decreased gastric damages - hemorrhagic gross lesions, gastric mucosa MPO levels and histopathological gastric ulcerative lesions - were detected as compared with the IND treated control rats. BHSST also strengthened the antioxidant defense systems - decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and CAT activity but increased the level of GSH and SOD activity, and BHSST 200 mg/kg showed similar anti-ulcerative effect as compared with OME 10 mg/kg. Conclusions : The results obtained in this study suggest that BHSST has favorable effects against IND-induced gastric damages, through significant and dose-dependent decreasing gastric damages and the strengthening of the body's antioxidant defense systems with direct anti-inflammatory effects.

Lovastatin derivative dehydrolovastatin ameliorates ulcerative colitis in mice by suppressing NF-κB and inflammatory cytokine expression

  • Zhang, Xu;Deng, Qing-Hua;Deng, Jian-Hua;Wang, Sheng-Ju;Chen, Qiu
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.137-147
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    • 2020
  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with intestinal immune imbalance and inflammatory response. Because dehydrolovastatin (DLVT), a derivative of lovastatin, has been recently shown to inhibit inflammation and relieve immune arthritis induced by chemical stimuli, we studied its effect and possible mechanism on UC induced by dextran sulfate sodium. The BALB/c mice were classified into six groups: normal control group, model group, DLVT high dose group, DLVT low dose group, salazosulfapyridine (SASP) group and lovastatin (LVT) group. The disease activity indices of UC and pathological changes were investigated. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colon tissue and inflammatory factors such as IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and TNF-α in the serum were analyzed by ELISA, while the expression of NF-κB p65 protein in colon tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. DLVT relieved the disease activity indices and pathological damage of the UC mice. Furthermore, DLVT significantly decreased MPO activity and improved the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines through inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65. Meanwhile, the positive drug of SASP has a similar effect to DLVT, but the effect of DLVT in both decreasing IL-17, TNF-α, and increasing IL-10 was significantly stronger than that of SASP. These results suggest that DLVT may ameliorates the symptoms of UC.