• Title, Summary, Keyword: MRI

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Review of Recent Advancement of Ultra High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging: from Anatomy to Tractography

  • Cho, Zang-Hee
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Advances of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially that of the Ultra-High Field (UHF) MRI will be reviewed. Materials and Methods: Diffusion MRI data was obtained from a healthy adult young male of age 30 using a 7.0T research MRI scanner (Magnetom, Siemens) with 40 mT/m maximum gradient field. The specific imaging parameters used for the data acquisition were a single shot DW echo planar imaging. Results: Three areas of the imaging experiments are focused on for the study, namely the anatomy, angiography, and tractography. Conclusion: It is envisioned that, in near future, there will be more 7.0T MRIs for brain research and explosive clinical application research will also be developed, for example in the area of connectomics in neuroscience and clinical neurology and neurosurgery.

Drug selection for sedation and general anesthesia in children undergoing ambulatory magnetic resonance imaging

  • Jung, Sung Mee
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.159-168
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    • 2020
  • The demand for drug-induced sedation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have substantially increased in response to increases in MRI utilization and growing interest in anxiety in children. Understanding the pharmacologic options for deep sedation and general anesthesia in an MRI environment is essential to achieve immobility for the successful completion of the procedure and ensure rapid and safe discharge of children undergoing ambulatory MRI. For painless diagnostic MRI, a single sedative/anesthetic agent without analgesia is safer than a combination of multiple sedatives. The traditional drugs, such as chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, midazolam, and ketamine, are still used due to the ease of administration despite low sedation success rate, prolonged recovery, and significant adverse events. Currently, dexmedetomidine, with respiratory drive preservation, and propofol, with high effectiveness and rapid recovery, are preferred for children undergoing ambulatory MRI. General anesthesia using propofol or sevoflurane can also provide predictable rapid time to readiness and scan times in infants or children with comorbidities. The selection of appropriate drugs as well as sufficient monitoring equipment are vital for effective and safe sedation and anesthesia for ambulatory pediatric MRI.

Cortical Dysplasia: Tc-99m ECD SPECT Findings and Comparative Study with MRI according to Pathologic Grading (뇌피질 이형성증: Tc-99m ECD SPECT 소견과 병리적 등급에 따른 MRI와 비교 연구)

  • Park, Soon-Ah;Lim, Seok-Tae;Sohn, Myung-Hee;Chung, Gyung-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.23-32
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: Cortical dysplasia (CD) designates a diverse group of malformations resulting from one or more abnormalities in the development of the cerebral cortex. We investigated the findings of interictal SPECT and the diagnostic usefulness of interical and ictal SFECT according to pathological grading (PG) in comparison with MRI. Materials and Methods: This study included 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age: $19.9{\pm}11.8$ yrs) with pathologically proven CD. Tc-99m ECD SPECT was performed in all patients: interictal 11, interictal and ictal 3, ictal 2. MRI were obtained in all patients and image analysis was done blindly as to the result of SPECT. Pathologic findings of CD were classified into grade 1 G1, dyslamination), grade 2 (G2, dysplastic neurons) and grade 3 (G3, balloon cells). We compared SFECT with MRI in lesions-to-lesions and analyzed the result according to PG. Results: In SFECT and MRI. 38 and 27 lesions were visually recognized. In 14 interictal SPECT, variable findings in 35 lesions were demonstrated: 25 were hypoperfusion, 7 hyperperfusion, 2 heterotopic perfusion in the white matter. By comparison between two studios, missed lesions were founded: SPECT were 1 lesion, MRI 12. Review of missed 12 lesions of MRI were followed according to PG: G1 patients were 16.7% (4/19), G2 40.0% (6/15), and G3 50% (2/4). Conclusion: Interictal SFECT in CD showed variable findings such as hypoperfusion, hyperperfusion or heterotopic perfusion. However, for detection of missed CD on MRI, SFECT may help to detect a functional abnormality of the lesion with high PG.

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Primary Angiosarcoma of the Breast: MRI Findings

  • Lee, Kanghun;Seo, Kyung Jin;Whang, In Yong
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.194-199
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    • 2018
  • We present image findings, especially rare MRI of a primary breast angiosarcoma with its histopathology, and also analyze the relevant medical literature reports in terms of the MRI findings. As our patient had unique features of a primary breast angiosarcoma, this case could be very helpful for future diagnosis of this rare breast malignancy by MRI.

MRI Artifacts

  • 최순섭
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 1997
  • MRI의 artifact는 대부분 신호의 부호화 방향에 따라서 방향성을 가지는데, 이를 요약해보면, 위상부호화 방향의 artifact에는 motion artifact, flow artifact, RF noise등이 있고, 주파수 부호화 방향의 artfact는 susceptibility artfact, chemical shift artifact, central line artifact등이 있으며, 양방향 모두 생길수 있는 것은 Aliasing artifact와 Gibb's phenomenon이고, 전체적으로 영샹의 질을 떨어뜨리는 것은 susceptibility artifact, Eddy current, cross talk등이 있다. 이런 artifact는 대부분은 MRI 자체의 물리적 특성에 다소간 기인하므로, artifact가 없는 양호한 영상을 얻기 위해서는 MRI의 설치 단계부터 관심이 필요하고, MRI의 기본원리와 다양한 artifact에 대해 이해함으로써, 제거 가능한 artifact는 제거하여 양질의 영상을 만들고 판독시의 오류를 피할 수 있도록 해야할 것이다.

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On the Implementation of Articulatory Speech Simulator Using MRI (MRI를 이용한 조음모델시뮬레이터 구현에 관하여)

  • Jo, Cheol-Woo
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.2
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 1997
  • This paper describes the procedure of implementing an articulatory speech simulator, in order to model the human articulatory organs and to synthesize speech from this model after. Images required to construct the vocal tract model were obtained from MRI, they were then used to construct 2D and 3D vocal tract shapes. In this paper 3D vocal tract shapes were constructed by spatially concatenating and interpolating sectional MRI images. 2D vocal tract shapes were constructed and analyzed automatically into a digital filter model. Following this speech sounds corresponding to the model were then synthesized from the filter. All procedures in this study were using MATLAB.

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Head Motion Detection and Alarm System during MRI scanning (MRI 영상획득 중의 피험자 움직임 감지 및 알림 시스템)

  • Pae, Chong-Won;Park, Hae-Jeong;Kim, Dae-Jin
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.55-66
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    • 2012
  • Purpose : During brain MRI scanning, subject's head motion can adversely affect MRI images. To minimize MR image distortion by head movement, we developed an optical tracking system to detect the 3-D movement of subjects. Materials and Methods: The system consisted of 2 CCD cameras, two infrared illuminators, reflective sphere-type markers, and frame grabber with desktop PC. Using calibration which is the procedure to calculate intrinsic/extrinsic parameters of each camera and triangulation, the system was desiged to detect 3-D coordinates of subject's head movement. We evaluated the accuracy of 3-D position of reflective markers on both test board and the real MRI scans. Results: The stereo system computed the 3-D position of markers accurately for the test board and for the subject with glasses with attached optical reflective marker, required to make regular head motion during MRI scanning. This head motion tracking didn't affect the resulting MR images even in the environment varying magnetic gradient and several RF pulses. Conclusion: This system has an advantage to detect subject's head motion in real-time. Using the developed system, MRI operator is able to determine whether he/she should stop or intervene in MRI acquisition to prevent more image distortions.

A System for Concurrent TMS-fMRI and Evaluation of Imaging Effects (동시 뇌경두개자기자극-기능자기공명영상 시행을 위한 홀더 제작과 시뮬레이션 및 영상 데이터 평가)

  • Kim, Jae-Chang;Kyeong, Sunghyon;Lee, Jong Doo;Park, Hae-Jeong
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.169-180
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    • 2013
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to setup a concuurent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-functional MRI (fMRI) system for understanding causality of the functional brain network. Materials and Methods: We manufactured a TMS coil holder using nonmagnetic polyether ether ketone (PEEK). We simulated magnetic field distributions in the MR scanner according to TMS coil positions and angles. To minimize image distortions caused by TMS application, we controlled fMRI acquisition and TMS sequences to trigger TMS during inter-volume intervals. Results: Simulation showed that the magnetic field below the center of the coil was dramatically decreased with distance. Through the MR phantom study, we confirmed that TMS application around inter-volume acquisition time = 100 miliseconds reduced imaging distortion. Finally, the applicability of the concurrent TMS-fMRI was tested in preliminary studies with a healthy subject conducting a motor task within TMS-fMRI and passive motor movement induced by TMS in fMRI. Conclusion: In this study, we confirmed that the developed system allows use of TMS inside an fMRI system, which would contribute to the research of brain activation changes and causality in brain connectivity.

Measurement of MRI Monitor Luminance and MRI Room Illuminance with a Light Probe (Light Probe를 이용한 MRI 검사실 및 모니터의 조도와 휘도 측정)

  • Kim, Ji Min;Han, Ah Yung;Lee, Ha Young;Lee, So Ra;Kweon, Dae Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.168-172
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of the optimal environment of the MRI room to measured luminance and illuminance of the MRI room and the monitor. University Hospital (n = 6) of the MRI (n = 10) in the luminance and illuminance Light Probe Xi Unfors (Unfors Instruments AB, Billdal, Sweden) was measured by using the. Black luminance level and white level of illuminance is repeated three times in the middle of the side of the monitor to obtain the mean and standard deviation using a t-test statistical processing was of significance test. Monitor luminance and black level in the average $1.78cd/m^2$, the standard deviation was $0.85cd/m^2$, white level average of $43.58cd/m^2$, the standard deviation of $13.19cd/m^2$. Illuminance of MRI room was the lowest value measured in accordance with the 30.5 lux, the maximum value is 601.3 lux, mean was measured by a variety of 177.86 lux. Luminance and illuminance of the MRI room and monitor is found to have statistically significant difference (p < .05). In conclusion, refer to the recommended standard of MRI and room monitor luminance and illuminance and to create an optimal environment.