• Title, Summary, Keyword: MTT assay

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Development of Sperm MTT Assay for Its Application in Boar Semen

  • Jang, Hyun-Yong;Lee, Hee-Young;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Kim, Jong-Taek;Park, In-Chul;Park, Choon-Keun;Yang, Boo-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.229-235
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    • 2010
  • The MTT assay is one of superior evaluation methods widely used to analyze the viability of metabolically active cell. It can be used to determine the percentage of viable sperm through measurement of the reduction of MTT granules at mitochondria in sperm tail. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal condition of a simple and easy MTT assay to validate boar sperm viability and compare the accuracy of this test with microscopic examination. The MTT reduction rate for sperm viability were analyzed in microtiter plates (96 well) from 1 hr to 5 hr incubation periods at $37^{\circ}C$ using spectrophotometer (microplate reader) at 550 nm wavelength. The remainder of semen sample was simultaneously examined to compare the correlation of accuracy between MTT assay and other sperm parameters. Those sperm parameters were included the motility, survival rates, membrane integrity, mitochondria activity and acrosome integrity. The OD values of MTT assay (MTT reduction rates) did not greatly change at 1 hr to 5 hr incubation periods in different proportion of live and freeze-killed sperms (dead sperm). The MTT reduction rates or survival rates were decreased according to the different concentration of live and dead sperm. The linear regression at 1 hr and 4 hr incubation periods in sperm MTT assay was y=291.55x-72.176 and y= 180.64x-44.569, respectively. There are high correlation between 1 hr and 4 hr incubation periods (p<0.001). The results of MTT assay and other sperm parameters has a positive correlation (p<0.01 or 0.05). The correlation coefficients for MTT assay was 0.88115 for motility, 0.89868 for survival rates, 0.91722 for membrane integrity and 0.77372 for acrosome integrity, respectively. In conclusion, the MTT assay can be used as a reliable and efficient evaluation method for boar sperm viability. It can be use practical means to evaluate the quality of boar sperm by a fast, inexpensive and easy method.

The Optimal Condition of Performing MTT Assay for the Determination of Radiation Sensitivity (방사선 감수성 측정법으로서 MTT 법 시행 시의 최적 조건에 대한 연구)

  • Hong, Se-Mie;Kim, Il-Han
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.163-170
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : The measurement of radiation survival using a clonogenic assay, the established standard, can be difficult and time consuming. In this study, We have used the MTT assay, based on the reduction of a tetrazolium salt to a purple formazan precipitate by living cells, as a substitution for clonogenic assay and have examined the optimal condition for performing this assay in determination of radiation sensitivity. Materials and Methods : Four human cancer cell lines - PCI-1, SNU-1066, NCI-H630 and RKO cells have been used. For each cell line, a clonogenic assay and a MTT assay using Premix WST-1 solution, which is one of the tetrazolium salts and does not require washing or solubilization of the precipitate were carried out after irradiation of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Gy. For clonogenic assay, cells in $25\;cm^2$ flasks were irradiated after overnight incubation and the resultant colonies containing more than 50 cells were scored after culturing the cells for $10\~14$ days. For MTT assay, the relationship between absorbance and cell number, optimal seeding cell number, and optimal timing of assay was determined. Then, MTT assay was performed when the irradiated cells had regained exponential growth or when the non-irradiated cells had undergone four or more doubling times. Results : There was minimal variation in the values gained from these two methods with the standard deviation generally less than $5\%$, and there were no statistically significant differences between two methods according to t-test in low radiation dose (below 6 Gy). The regression analyses showed high linear correlation with the $R^2$ value of $0.975\~0.992$ between data from the two different methods. The optimal cell numbers for MTT assay were found to be dependent on plating efficiency of used cell line. Less than 300 cells/well were appropriate for cells with high plating efficiency (more than $30\%$). For cells with low plating efficiency (less than $30\%$), 500 cells/well or more were appropriate for assay. The optimal time for MTT assay was after 6 doubling times for the results compatible with those of clonogenic assay, at least after 4 doubling times was required for valid results. In consideration of practical limits of assay (12 days, in this study) cells with doubling time more than 3 days were inappropriate for application. Conclusion : In conclusion, it is found that MTT assay can successfully replace clonogenic assay of tested cancer cell lines after irradiation only if MTT assay was undertaken with optimal assay conditions that included plating efficiency of each cell line and doubling time at least.

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The Use of MTT Assay, In Vitro and Ex Vivo, to Predict the Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer (In-vitro와 Ex-vivo MTT Assay를 통한 직장암의 방사선치료 감수성 예측 가능성 검증)

  • Kim, Ji-Eun;Kim, Mi-Sook;Kang, Chang-Mo;Kim, Jong-Il;Shin, Hye-Kyung;Choi, Chul-Won;Seo, Young-Seok;Ji, Young-Hoon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: The measurement of radiosensitivity of individuals is useful in radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the measurement of radiation survival using a clonogenic assay, which is the established standard, can be difficult and time consuming. The aim of this study is to compare radiosensitivity results obtained from the MTT and clonogenic assays, and to evaluate whether the MTT assay can be used on clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: HCT-8, LoVo, CT-26, and WiDr were the colon cancer cell lines used for this study. The clonogenic assay was performed to obtain the cell survival curves and surviving fractions at a dose of 2 Gy ($SF_2$) as the standard technique for radiosensitivity. Also, the MTT assay was performed for each of the cell lines (in vitro). To simulate clinical specimens, the cell lines were inoculated into nude mice, removed when the tumors reached 1 cm in diameter, and chopped. Next, the tumors were subjected to the same process involved with the MTT assay in vitro. The inhibition rates (IR) of 10 Gy or 20 Gy of irradiation for in vitro and ex vivo were calculated based on the optical density of the MTT assay, respectively. Results: According to $SF_2$ and the cell survival curve, the HCT-8 and WiDr cell lines were more resistant to radiation than LoVo and CT-26 (p<0.05). The IR was measured by in vitro. The MTT assay IR was 17.3%, 21%, 30% and 56.5% for the WiDr, HCT-8, LoVo and CT-26 cell lines, respectively. In addition, the IR measured ex vivo by the MTT assay was 23.5%, 26%, 38% and 53% in the HCT-8, WiDr, LoVo and CT-26 tumors, respectively. Conclusion: The radiosensitivity measured by the MTT assay was correlated with the measures obtained from the clonogenic assay. This result highlights the possibility that the MTT assay could be used in clinical specimens for individual radiosensitivity assays.

Toxic Effect on Phenolic Compound by Colorimeteric Assay in Normal NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts

  • Jin Byung-Jo;Lee Joo-Hyun;Choi Ki-Wook;Lee Jae-Kyoo;Han Du-Seok
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.263-268
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of phenolic compound on normal NIH 3T3 fibrolasts. The colorimetric assay for phenol compound, syringic acid was performed by MTT assay or XTT assay. MTT or XTT assays are known as a very sensitive method in measuring the cytotoxic effect of chemical agents in vitro. In the present study, syringic acid on normal Nlli 3T3 fibroblasts did not show any cytotoxicity for MTT assay or XTT assay compared with control after cells were treated with various concentrations of syringic acid for 48 hours. MTT/sub 50/ and XTT/sub 50/ were 3,340.9 μM and 2,462.4 μM of syringic acid, respectively. From the above the results, it is suggested that phenolic compound of syringic acid did not have any cytotoxicity on normal NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

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MTT Assay Using Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes (백서의 초대 배양 간세포를 이용한 MTT assay$^{1)}$)

  • Ha, Hun;Yoon, Soo-Hong;Fujii, Takeru;Hori, Hitoshi
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.9 no.1_2
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    • pp.19-23
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    • 1994
  • The tetrazolium dye, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), is reduced by live but not dead cell, and this reaction is used as the end point in a rapid drug screening assay. It can also be used for accurate determinations of drug sensitivity but only if a quantative relationship is established between cell number and MTT-formazan production. Several conditions were examined to devise an in vitro assay method in primary cultured hepatocytes, such as optimum wavelength, optimal MTT concentration, optimal incubation time, and cell density.

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Evaluation of Boar Sperm Viability by MTT Reduction Assay in Beltsville Thawing Solution Extender

  • Byuna, J.W.;Choo, S.H.;Kim, H.H.;Kim, Y.J.;Hwang, Y.J.;Kim, D.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.494-498
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    • 2008
  • MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) reduction assay is a method that validates the viability of an active cell. Dehydrogenase in mitochondria converts yellow colored insoluble tetrazolium salt to purple colored water-soluble formazan. Sperm also have mitochondria in the midpiece, therefore sperm viability could be evaluated by MTT reduction assay. Several studies have already demonstrated the capability of application of the MTT reduction assay to sperm of several species in Hepes-BSA buffer. Because most liquid semen was diluted in extender like BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution), Modena or Androhep when it is used or transferred, semen needed another dilution in Hepes-BSA buffer to assess sperm viability. In this study, we evaluated boar sperm viability especially in BTS extended semen and compared the efficiency of this test with eosin-nigrosin staining. We used the fresh BTS extended semen from a local A.I center. Semen sample was diluted to $3.0{\times}10^7$ sperms/ml in BTS. The rates of formazan production were measured in 96-well microtiter plates immediately and 1h after incubation at $17^{\circ}C$ using a spectrophotometer at wave length 560 nm. Simultaneously, split samples of the same semen were tested, using eosin-nigrosin staining to compare the efficiency of the MTT assay of sperm viability in BTS. The correlation between the results of these tests was calculated using Student-t test and ANOVA. The results revealed a strong correlation between the results of MTT reduction rate and the results that were simultaneously determined by eosin-nigrosin staining at 1 h. In conclusion, the MTT reduction test was an effective and simple method to validate sperm viability and it could be used as a simple tool to evaluate sperm viability in the local A.I center and laboratory.

The effects of Hwangryunhaedoktang and herbs on Mouse neuroblastoma 2a cells damaged by hypoxia-reoxygenation (황연해독탕(黃連解毒湯)이 Hypoxia-reoxygenation에 의해 손상 받은 Mouse Neuroblastoma 2a Cells에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Ahn, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Jong-Woo;Kang, Chul-Hun;Whang, Wei-Wan
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.37-59
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    • 2006
  • Objective : This study was designed to asses the effect of Hwangryunhaedoktang and herbs on Mouse neuroblastoma 2a cells damaged by hypoxia-reoxygenation. Method : Mouse neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay after 48h hypoxia and 6h reoxygenation. Mouse neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells were treated by Hwangryunhaedoktang and herbs. Result : 1. Hwangryunhaedoktang was effective on LDH assay of hypoxia and reoxygenation. 2. All of herbs were generally effective on LDH assay of hypoxia and reoxygenation. In LDH assay of hypoxia, the effects of herbs depended on concentration. In MTT assay of hypoxia, Coptidis Rhizoma and Gardeniae Fructus were effective. In MTT assay of reoxygenation most of herbs were not effective. But Phellodendri Cortex was effective in high concentration. Conclusion : The results imply that Hwangryunhaedoktang and all herbs of it nay have protective effect on dementia and aging.

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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE LOW-DOSE RADIOSENSITIVITY OF TUMOR CELL LINES (수종의 암세포주의 저선량 방사선감수성에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim Min-Sook;Koh Kwang-Joon
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.249-260
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    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study was to aid in the radiation therapy of head and neck cancer patients. For this study, radiation survival curves were generated for Bl6, MG-63 and YAC-l cell lines using semiautomated MTT assay and Dye Exclusion Assay. Irradiation of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10Gy were delivered at room temperature at a dose rate of 210.2cGy/min using / sup 60/Co γ-ray Irradiator ALOORAOO 8. The viable cells were determined for each radiation dose and compared to control values. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was significantly different absorbance at 10Gy on B16 cell line in MTT assay(P<0.05). 2. There was significantly different absorbance at 4, 6, 8, 10Gy on MG-63 cell line in MTT assay(P<0.05). 3. YAC-l cell line was more sensitive than B16 or MG-63 cell line to all doses of radiation(P<0.05). 4. There was significantly different absorbance among all tumor cell lines except between B16 and MG-63 cell line at ZGy in MTT assay(P<0.05). 5. Good correlation was obtained between MTT assay and DEA(P<0.05). The efficient of correlation of B16, MG-63 and YAC-l cell line was 0.845, 0.824 and 0.906, respectively.

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Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Cosmetic Materials to Mouse Fibroblast : by Tetrazolium salt, MTT Colorimetric Assay (Tetrazolium salt, MTT Colorimetric Assay를 이용한 Mouse Fibroblast에 대한 화장품원료 물질의 세포독성 평가)

  • Jo, Jae- Hoon
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 1989
  • The in Vitro chemosensitivity of fibroblast cell strains was determined using a semiautomated tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay(MTT assay) to 16 cosmetic materials. This assay is useful method to evaluate toxic effects of the chemicals. From assay results, we determined that the preservatives are more toxic than moisteurizers. The chemicals in the same group have a different toxicity. That is, in preservatives, Germall -115 is more toxic than Danisol -M, -p, and in surfactant sodium laurel sulfate than Myrj 52, and in moisteurizers, 1, 3-butylene glycol is more safe than the others. When the results from this assay for preservatives were compared with patch test results, good correlation was observed. Forthemore, this assay method can be used together with Patch test for the evaluation of the chemical toxicity, particularly in cosmetic field.

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The antiproliferative activity of cannabidiol ethyl ethers against human ora epitheloid carcinoma cells

  • Baek, Seung-Hwa;Kang, Kil-Ung;Chung, Soon-Ryang;Kim, Hyung-Min;Chung, Woo-Young;Han, Du-Seok
    • Advances in Traditional Medicine
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2000
  • Cannabidiol derivatives (1, 2 and 3), and 5-fluorouracil (4, 5-FU) were tested for their growth inhibitory effects against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cell lines (KB) using two different 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and sulforhodamine B protein (SRB) assay. These compounds showed a potent inhibitory activity in vitro in the micromolar range against KB cell lines. In general, the antitumor activity of these compounds (1, 2, 3 and 4) was in a dose-dependent over the micromolar concentration ranges from $1\;{\mu}M\;to\;100\;{\mu}M$. The comparison of $IC_{50}$ values of these compounds in tumor cell lines shows that their susceptibility to these compounds decreases in the following order: CBD > 5-FU > CBDME > CBDDE by the MTT assay and SRB assay. Cannabidiol derivatives (1, 2 and 3), and 5-FU were tested for their cytotoxic effects on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts using two different MTT assay and SRB assay. These compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activities in vitro in the micromolar range against NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. In general, the cytotoxic activities of these compounds (1, 2, 3 and 4) were in a dose-dependent over the micromolar concentration range $1\;{\mu}M\;to\;100\;{\mu}M$. The comparison of $CD_{50}$ values of these compounds on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts shows that their susceptibility to these compounds decreases in the following order; CBD > 5-FU > CBDDE > CBDME by MTT assay, CBD > 5-FU > CBDME > CBDDE by SRB assay. These results suggest that cannabidiol (1, CBD) retains the most growth-inhibitory activity against KB cell lines.

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