• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mackerel

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Genomic DNA Sequence of Mackerel Parvalbumin and a PCR Test for Rapid Detection of Allergenic Mackerel Ingredients in Food

  • Choi, Ka-Young;Hong, Kwang-Won
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.67-70
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    • 2007
  • Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) often causes severe allergic reactions in sensitive people. Food containing undeclared mackerel may pose a risk to such people. The major allergenic protein in fish such as mackerel, codfish, and Alaska pollack has been found to be parvalbumin. In this study, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect mackerel DNA using primers corresponding to the parvalbumin gene. We cloned and sequenced 1.5 kb of parvalbumin gene by PCR using mackerel genomic DNA as a template. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genomic parvalbumin gene, composed of 4 exons and 3 introns, allowed the selection of two pairs of oligonucleotide primers specific for mackerel. These primers successfully enabled PCR amplification of specific regions of genomic parvalbumin DNA from mackerel, but no amplification from 8 other fish samples, surimi, and 6 boiled fish pastes. The sensitivity of this method was sufficient to detect 5 ng of purified mackerel DNA mixed with 50 ng of surimi DNA. This rapid and specific method for the detection of allergenic mackerel would be beneficial in reducing food allergy caused by the ingestion of hidden allergen in processed food.

Economic benefits and management implications of reducing the harvest of juvenile mackerel in Korea

  • LEE, Jungsam;KIM, Dae-Young;SEO, Young-Il;KIM, Do-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.386-393
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    • 2016
  • It is essential to provide good environment for juvenile fish to grow and spawn in order to keep reproduction mechanism of fisheries resources. However, harvesting juvenile fish deprives adult fish of the opportunity to reproduce, thereby changing self-regulating renewable resources into non-renewable ones and preventing sustainable harvesting as well as reducing fishers' income. We reviewed the catch status of Korea on juvenile mackerel and analyzed how reducing the catch ratio of juvenile mackerel may affect the spawning stock and Korean fishermen's revenue. In addition, we analyzed the problem of caching juvenile mackerel in Korean fisheries and current efforts to protect and reduce the catch ratio of juvenile mackerel in Korea. Furthermore, we suggested future efforts to protect juvenile mackerel. The result of the study showed that reducing the catch ratio of juvenile mackerel from 44.4% to 30.0% would increase fishers' revenue by 60.6 billion KRW. We suggest the changing of purse seine fishery's catching methods from night operation to day operation, relocation of fishing vessels to move to other fishing grounds when fishing vessels meet high density of juvenile mackerel, and consumers' clever choice of consuming adult mackerel in order to accelerate the move toward protecting juvenile mackerel in Korea.

Biogenic Amine Contents in Fish Products (수산가공품의 biogenic amine 함량 변화)

  • Cho, Young-Je;Son, Myoung-Jin;Kim, Seung-Mi;Park, Hyun-Kyu;Yeo, Hae-Kyung;Shim, Kil-Bo
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to determine content of biogenic amines (Histamine, Cadaverine, Putrescine) in the salted mackerel, canned mackerel, mackerel pike, and freeze dried mackerel pike (Guamegi) collectively, all were purchased in the market. Salted mackerel was purchased at five markets (A, B, C, D, and F market) and stored for 10 days at $4{^{\circ}C}$. At the time of purchase, salted mackerel purchased at markets A, B and C was tested for biogenic amine, yet nothing was detected. However, salt mackerel purchased at market D was tested and the histamine concentration was 0.5 mg/100g. Mackerel from market F, exhibited content levels of 0.5 mg/100g histamine and 1.6 mg/100g cadaverine. Those make certain safety during self-life but that purchased F market gradually increased biogenic amine during storage. Prepared salted mackerel of varying levels of freshness and processing methods were analyzed for biogenic amines. Salting process was performed using functional brine salt. VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) was used to establish freshness levels of salted mackerel. Analyses of mackerel muscle determined the values of freshness to be 9.2 mg/100g (good freshness), 18.2 mg/100g (bad freshness), respectively. After 40 days of storage, the content of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine in the freshness of salted mackerel was 2.0 mg/kg, 2.4 mg/kg and 0 mg/kg, respectively. The content of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine in salted mackerel of poor freshness was 71.3 mg/kg, 22.9 mg/kg and 17.8 mg/kg, respectively. It was concluded the presence of biogenic amines during the salting process of salted mackerel significantly effected freshness of materials. The presence of biogenic amines were detected in mackerel that underwent the salting process after 1 month of storage at $4{^{\circ}C}$. The levels of biogenic amines in the brine salted mackerel were higher than those found in dry, salted mackerel; however, the freshness of fish had an insignificant effect on biogenic amines. The presence of histamine was detected in small quantities in canned mackerel and mackerel pike from three companies. Alternatively, cadaverine and putrescine were not detected. Guamegi, vacuumed packed or sealed with a rope was purchased from three markets (A, B, C seafood company). Guamegi was stored and observed for 180 days at $-20{^{\circ}C}$. Histamine was detected in small quantities in all products stored at $-20{^{\circ}C}$. Levels of histamine was dependent on the types of packaging, rope packaging yielded the highest level. However, other amines were not detected.

Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide Treatment Decreases Microbial Contamination and Preserves Sensory Properties of Mackerel During Storage

  • Kim, Yun-Jung;Nam, Sa-Uk;Chae, Hyeon-Seok;Lee, Seoung-Gyu;Song, Kyung-Bin
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.181-184
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    • 2007
  • Effect of aqueous chlorine dioxide ($ClO_{2}$) treatment on quality change of mackerel during storage was examined. Mackerel treated with 0, 5, 10, and 50 ppm of $ClO_{2}$ solution, respectively was stored at $4^{\circ}C$. $ClO_{2}$ treatment decreased populations of aerobic bacteria in mackerel during storage. The number of total aerobic bacteria of mackerel treated with 50 ppm $ClO_{2}$ increased from 2.45 to 3.44 log CFU/g after 9 days of storage, while that of the control increased from 3.47 to 4.72 log CFU/g. The pH values of mackerel increased during storage, with no significant changes among treatments. Volatile basic nitrogen values of mackerel were decreased by $ClO_{2}$ treatment. Quality of mackerel treated with $ClO_{2}$ was better than that of the control during storage based on sensory evaluation. These results indicate that aqueous $ClO_{2}$ treatment could be useful for improving the microbial safety and qualities of mackerel.

Analysis of Mackerel Sorting Performance for Development of Automatic Mackerel Grader (고등어 자동 선별기 개발을 위한 고등어 선별 성능 분석)

  • Jun, Chul-Woong;Sohn, Jeong-Hyun;Choi, Myung Gu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2016
  • A mackerel grader is a machine for sorting mackerel according to size. In this study, the dynamic deflection and optimal sorting simulation of a mackerel grader was carried out by using multi-body dynamics. To analyze the dynamic deflection of the roller, RecurDyn, a multi-body dynamics analysis program, was used. The dynamic deflection of the roller pipe was analyzed according to the inclination of the roller pipe. When the inclination of the roller pipe was 30 degrees, the roller indicated the maximum deflection of about 6.3 mm at the center of the mass. To simulate the mackerel sorting, the mackerel grader machine was modeled, and the contact simulation between the mackerel model and the rotating roller pipe was carried out. When the inclination of the roller frame was 7 degrees, the mackerel grader indicated optimal sorting performance.

Effects of Chicken Breast Meat on Quality Properties of Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Sausage

  • Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Pak, Won-Min;Kang, Ja-Eun;Park, Hong-Min;Kim, Bo-Ram;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.122-126
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to evaluate the effects of chicken breast meat on the quality of mackerel sausages. The mackerel sausages were manufactured by additions of 5%, 7%, and 10% of chicken breast meat. The lightness of mackerel sausages showed no significant differences between the control and addition groups. The redness increased in a dose-dependent manner, but the yellowness decreased significantly with the addition of 7% chicken breast meat (p<0.05). The whiteness value of mackerel sausage added with 7% chicken breast meat was significantly higher than those of the other groups (p<0.05). In texture analysis, the hardness and adhesiveness of the mackerel sausage added with 5% of chicken breast meat showed no significant differences as compared to the control. However, the mackerel sausages added with 7% and 10% of chicken breast meat showed a dose-dependent decrease. The gel strength of the mackerel sausage added with 5% chicken breast meat was not significantly different from the control, but the addition of 7% and 10% chicken breast meat reduced the gel strength of the mackerel sausage. In sensory evaluation, the mackerel sausages prepared with chicken breast meat have higher scores in smell, taste, texture, hardness, chewiness, and overall preference as compared to the no addition group. Therefore, these results suggest that the optimal condition for improving the properties within mackerel sausages was 5% addition of chicken breast meat.

Comparison of Distribution Competitiveness of the Mackerel Industry between Korea and Norway (우리나라-노르웨이 고등어산업의 유통 경쟁력 비교 연구)

  • KIM, Dae-Young;KANG, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1685-1692
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    • 2015
  • This study examines the mackerel distribution systems in Norway which has a leading mackerel industry, and has the purpose of analyzing the effects of structural improvements for the development of Korea's mackerel industry. The landing and distribution status of Korea and Norway's mackerel industry was compared, and the effects of structural improvements was analyzed under the assumption that a number of factors would be improved after an analysis of competitiveness. Special features of the landing and distribution systems of mackerel in Norway are Reduction of transportation costs and transportation time through E-auctions, fish Pumps, freshness management using state-of-the-art equipment and technology such as sea water cooling systems, direct landing at processing factories and Automation through fully automated sorting & packaging systems. The distribution competitiveness of Korea and Norway's mackerel industry was compared through the qualitative review of landing time and the length of distribution channel, distribution costs due to differences in trading method, quality and hygiene management and merchandising. For Korea's mackerel industry to have international competitiveness, they must have efficiency throughout the phases of landing, processing and distribution systems as observed in case of Norway.

A Comparison of the Biochemical Characteristics of Different Anatomical Regions of Chub (Scomber japonicus) and Blue Mackerel (Scomber australasicus) Muscles (고등어 및 망치고등어육의 부위별 생화학적 특성 비교)

  • Bae, Jin-Han;Yoon, Sung-Ho;Lim, Sun-Young
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.6-11
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    • 2010
  • Chub and blue mackerels are popular fish resources in Korea, but little is known about each biochemical characters of different anatomical regions. To investigate biochemical characters of chub and blue mackerels, three ordinary muscle regions were identified by their fin position; namely anterior, median, posterior. In addition, red muscle, as a dark muscle, was obtained from beneath the lateral line to compare with ordinary muscles. Proximate and lipid-class compositions did not show any discernible trends in the different anatomical ordinary muscles from mackerel of the same kind, while significant differences between ordinary and red muscles in the same mackerel, or between chub and blue mackerels, were observed. Red muscles from both mackerels had higher levels in lipids with higher neutral lipid class compared with ordinary muscles. The major difference between chub and blue mackerels was the levels of lipids and neural lipid class, indicating that all muscles from chub mackerel showed higher levels of neural lipids compared with those of blue mackerel (P<0.05). Fatty acid compositions showed that the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), in median and posterior was higher compared with anterior muscle from both mackerels. When compared with chub mackerel, blue mackerel showed higher percentage of DHA in all muscle regions. In amino acid analysis, taurine concentration was much higher in the red muscle than in the ordinary muscles. But levels of histamine, glutamic acid, leucine and lysine were higher in the ordinary muscles. Our results indicated that chub mackerel contained more lipids than blue mackerel and that red muscle had higher levels of neural lipid and taurine compared to ordinary muscles.

Studies on the Development of the Fishing System of Set Net in the Coast of Jeju Island - I. Comparative of Fishing Efficiency of Rectangular Set Net and Pound Net by the Model Net - (제주도 연안 정치망 조업시스템 개발에 관한 연구 - I. 모형어구에 의한 각망과 낙망의 어획성능 비교 -)

  • 김종범;김석종
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.223-231
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    • 2001
  • For the purpose of providing the basic data on the improved fishing gear and the man power saving, which contribute to enhance fishing efficiency of set net in the coast of Jeju Island, this study executed the test of fish tank by reducing these actual nets by 1/30 and using the manufactured model nets, and observed and interpreted the behaviors of entering and escaping of the schools of mackerel Scomber japonicus, horse mackerel Trachurus japonicus and rabbit fish Siganus fuscescens. Thereby the result is as follows ; 1. After the elapsed time of 60 seconds, in case of rectangular set net, the ratio for entering by a school of fish marked 50% with mackerel, 18% with horse mackerel and 28% with rabbit fish, and in case of pound net, the ratio for entering net by a school of fish marked 70% with mackerel, 60% with horse mackerel and 30% with rabbit fish. 2. After the elapsed time of 60 seconds, in case of rectangular set net, the ratio for escaping by a school of fish marked 70% with mackerel, 40% with horse mackerel and 24% with rabbit fish, and in case of pound net, the ratio for escaping from net by a school of fish marked 0% with mackerel, 0% with horse mackerel and 3% with rabbit fish. 3. After the elapsed time of 60 seconds, in case of rectangular set net, the ratio for remaining by a school of fish marked 30% with mackerel, 60% with horse mackerel and 76% with rabbit fish, and in case of pound net, the ratio for remaining by a school of fish marked 100% with mackerel, 100% with horse mackerel and 97% with rabbit fish.

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Changes in Proximate Composition and Lipid Components in Chub Mackerel Scomber japonicus and Japanese Jack Mackerel Trachurus japonicus with Various Cooking Methods (조리방법에 따른 고등어(Scomber japonicus) 및 전갱이(Trachurus japonicus)의 일반성분 및 지질성분의 변화)

  • Moon, Soo-Kyung;Kang, Ji-Yeon;Kim, In-Soo;Jeong, Bo-Young
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.708-716
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    • 2013
  • Changes in the proximate composition, lipid classes, and fatty acids were studied in chub mackerel Scomber japonicus and Japanese jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus muscles cooked using a frying pan, oven, and microwave oven. The moisture content was high in the raw samples (chub mackerel 65.5%, Japanese jack mackerel 60.5%) and decreased with cooking, especially in the frying pan method (chub mackerel 49.2%, Japanese jack mackerel 49.8%). In contrast, the protein, lipid and ash contents increased significantly with cooking in chub mackerel muscle (P<0.05). However, the lipid content of Japanese jack mackerel muscle showed no significant difference between the samples using the three cooking methods and the raw sample. The dripped lipid contents from the cooked muscles showed the highest levels in the frying pan samples and the lowest levels in the microwave oven samples. The percentage of non-polar lipid (NL) in the total lipid content was over 95% in the muscle lipids (10.43-21.86 g/100 g sample). Prominent fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), 16:1n-7 and 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) in both fish muscles and dripped lipids. There was no change in the EPA level in any of the fish muscles, by any cooking method. The percentage of DHA in the muscle of chub mackerel showed the lowest level in the frying pan sample and the highest level in the microwave oven and raw samples, and an intermediate level in the oven sample. However, the percentage of DHA in the Japanese jack mackerel muscle was not significantly different between the various cooking methods. From these results, the microwave oven and oven cooking methods showed relatively low levels of dripped lipid content and loss of n-3 PUFA compared with the frying pan cooking method.