• Title, Summary, Keyword: Macrocell user

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Power Control of Femto Base Station for Protecting Macrocell Users (매크로셀 사용자 보호를 위한 펨토셀 기지국의 전송전력 제어)

  • Jeong, Dong Geun;Kim, Yu Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.38A no.10
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    • pp.865-873
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    • 2013
  • In the cellular networks adopting femtocells, the macrocell users can suffer from severe interference by the femtocells. In this paper, we propose a distributed transmission power control scheme for femtocells to protect macrocell users. With the proposed scheme, when a macrocell user experiences outage due to severe interference, it informs the interfering femtocell base station (BS) of the outage occurrence, via the macrocell BS. Then, the femtocell BS reduces the transmission power to protect the macrocell user. The proposed scheme does not require too much control information among the macrocell BS, the macrocell users, and the femtocell BS. Moreover, the computational complexity in femtocell BS is very low. By using simulation, we show that the performance of the proposed scheme is good enough to use in practice, in spite of its simplicity.

Interference Avoidance through Pilot-Based Spectrum Sensing Algorithm in Overlaid Femtocell Networks

  • Sambanthan, Padmapriya;Muthu, Tamilarasi
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.30-40
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    • 2016
  • Co-channel interference between macro-femtocell networks is an unresolved problem, due to the frequency reuse phenomenon. To mitigate such interference, a secondary femtocell must acquire channel-state knowledge about a co-channel macrocell user and accordingly condition the maximum transmit power of femtocell user. This paper proposes a pilot-based spectrum sensing (PSS) algorithm for overlaid femtocell networks to sense the presence of a macrocell user over a channel of interest. The PSS algorithm senses the pilot tones in the received signal through the power level and the correlation metric comparisons between the received signal and the local reference pilots. On ensuring the existence of a co-channel macrocell user, the maximum transmit power of the corresponding femtocell user is optimized so as to avoid interference. Time and frequency offsets are carefully handled in our proposal. Simulation results show that the PSS algorithm outperforms existing sensing techniques, even at poor received signal quality. It requires less sensing time and provides better detection probability over existing techniques.

Capacity esitmation of microcell in macro/microcell overlaid W-CDMA WLL system (매크로셀과 마이크로셀이 중첩된 W-CDMA 무선가입자망에서 마이크로셀의 용량 산정)

  • 손성찬;노재성;김수용;조성준
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.23 no.9A
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    • pp.2153-2164
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    • 1998
  • This paper has presented the parameters for the coexistence between two systems in macro/microcell ovelaid W-CDMA WLL (wideband CDMA wireless local loop) and has calculated the capacity of forward/reverse link in microcell. To produce the capacity for analyzing system interference effects, we have shown tables and graphs with the parameters sucyh as RF channel bandwidth of WLL(W), the transmission rate of service message(R), the required signal power to noise power ratio( $E_{b/}$ $N_{0}$) for achieving accepatable error rate, te user number ( $N_{W1}$, $N_{W2}$) of the neighboring system, the signal power to interference power ratio(.GAMMA.$_{C1B}$, .GAMMA.$_{C2B}$) of the neighboring system, the normalized distance(d) between microcell and macrocell base-station, and microcell to macrocell radius ratio ( $R_{d}$). From the results, we have convinced that the capacity of microcell diminishes as increasing the user number ( $N_{W2}$) in macrocell, increasing the microcell radius, and decreasing the normalized distance(d) between microcell and macrocell base-station. Especially, we have known that when $R_{d}$=0.1, $N_{W2}$ must be below 24 at .GAMMA.$_{C2B}$ = 0 dB and below 8 at .GAMMA.$_{C2B}$ = 4 dB for the acceptable capacity raito to be over 80%. Therfore, this paper is usefult to design microcell W-CDMA WLL for accommodating more user number under the interference effects of macrocell W-CDMA WLL and is expected to be reference in power control if base-station.ation.ion.ation.ation.

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Femtocell Searching Technique Using Synchronization Signals for Next-Generation Mobile Communication Systems (차세대 이동통신 시스템에서 동기신호를 이용한 펨토셀 탐색 기법)

  • Kim, Yeong Jun;Cho, Yong Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.38A no.1
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    • pp.44-57
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, we propose a femtocell searching technique which can prevent a macrocell UE(user equipment) from losing synchronism to its serving macrocell near closed access femtocells in co-channel deployment due to the leakage of femtocell signals by using a CS(Common Signal). The CS, commonly transmitted by femtocells in a macrocell at the same time, enables the macrocell UEs to be kept synchronized with their serving macrocells since the CINR(Carrier to Interference and Noise Ratio) of base stations in macrocell can be kept high even near closed access femtocells. Also, the CS is designed in such a way that a macrocell UE can recognize the existence of femtocell by using the metric CSCINR(Common Signal Carrier to Interference and Ratio) measured with CS. In addition, the proposed femtocell searching technique can reduce the frequency of femtocell searching trial by using the metric on mobility of a macrocell UE defined in this paper, and the reduction of the frequency of handover trial can be also expected as a byproduct.

Reverse Link Characterization of a Spectrally Overlaid Macro/Micro Cellular CDMA System Supporting Multimedia Traffic (멀티미디어 서비스를 위한 스펙트럼 중첩 매크로/마이크로 셀룰러 CDMA 시스템의 역방향 링크 특성)

  • Kang, Chang-Soon;Park, Joong-Han
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.28 no.7A
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    • pp.440-450
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    • 2003
  • The reverse link of a spectrally overlaid macrocell/microcell cellular CDMA system supporting multimedia traffic is characterized in terms of the required signal power, interference, and capacity. Several narrowband subsystems are overlaid with a wideband subsystem in macrocells, while a single wideband subsystem is operated in a microcell with the same spectrum as the macrocell wideband subsystem. Using a typical propagation model the reverse link signal power and interference are characterized as the relative user signal power and the cross-tier interference factors between the macrocell and the microcell. The reverse link capacity of the overlay system is then analyzed. Analytical results show that the dominant parameters affecting the system performance are the spectral overlay ratio and the distance between the microcell and macrocell base stations. In particular, when the distance equals a half of macrocell radius, optimum performance can be achieved by minimizing the cross-tier interference factors. These results can be applied to CDMA multimedia network planning in heavily populated traffic areas.

A game theory approach for efficient power control and interference management in two-tier femtocell networks based on local gain

  • Al-Gumaei, Y. A.;Noordin, K. A.;Reza, A. W.;Dimyati, K.
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.9 no.7
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    • pp.2530-2547
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    • 2015
  • In the recent years, femtocell technology has received a considerable attention due to the ability to provide an efficient indoor wireless coverage as well as enhanced capacity. However, under the spectrum sharing between femtocell user equipment (FUEs) and the owner of spectrum macrocell user equipment (MUEs), both may experience higher uplink interference to each other. This paper proposes a novel distributed power control algorithm for the interference management in two-tier femtocell networks. Due to the assignment of licensed radio frequency to the outdoor macrocell users, the access priority of MUEs should be higher than FUEs. In addition, the quality of service (QoS) of MUEs that is expressed in the target signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) must always be achieved. On the other hand, we consider an efficient QoS provisioning cost function for the low-tier FUEs. The proposed algorithm requires only local information and converges even in cases where the frontiers of available power serve the target SINRs impossible. The advantage of the algorithm is the ability to implement in a distributed manner. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm based on our cost function provides effective resource allocation and substantial power saving as compared to the traditional algorithms.

Performance Analysis of Optimal Tracking Load Balance Scheme in Hierarchical LTE Networks (계층적 LTE 네트워크에서 최적의 트래킹 로드밸런스 기법의 성능분석)

  • Jeon, Minsu;Jeong, Jongpil
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.9-21
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    • 2013
  • Tracking is a process which explores user equipment (UE) in the area of tracking in terms of cells. In this paper, two tracking schemes based on macrocell-microcell tiers in hierarchical LTE networks, PMMT and IMMT, are evaluated. In this network, UE can receive a signal from macrocells and overlapping microcells, and can be called from each macrocell or microcell-tier in the PMMT. Also, the UE can be called from the combined macrocell-tier and microcell-tier in the IMMT. Finally, we analyze the optimization of load balance between marcocell-tier and microcell-tier, and an analytical model is developed to evaluate those two arrangements.

Uplink Interference Avoidance Scheme to Improve Femtocell Performance in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks (이기종 셀룰러 네트워크에서 펨토셀 성능향상을 위한 상향링크 간섭 회피 기법)

  • Kwon, Jung Hyoung;Sang, Young Jin;Kim, Kwang Soon
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.38A no.5
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    • pp.451-458
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    • 2013
  • This paper proposes a cross-tier interference avoidance scheme to improve femtocell performance in single frequency heterogeneous cellular networks (SFHCN). The scheduled macrocell users located close femtocell base stations cause serious interference to those femtocells so that the performance of femtocell is dramatically deteriorated. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an interference avoidance scheme by reversing the uplink and downlink frames of such femtocells. After reversing the uplink and downlink frames, femtocell base station relays the macrocell user data as well as transmitting its own data. In the 1st relaying link, femtocell and macrocell users transmit their data respectively divided uplink frames and in the 2nd relaying link, femtocell base station transmit macrocell and femtocell data using a simultaneously superposition coding scheme. Computer simulation results confirm performance improvement of proposed scheme.

Optimal Inter-Element Spacing of FD-MIMO Planar Array in Urban Macrocell with Elevation Channel Modelling

  • Abubakari, Alidu;Raymond, Sabogu-Sumah;Jo, Han-Shin
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.11 no.10
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    • pp.4759-4780
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    • 2017
  • Full Dimension multiple input multiple output (FD-MIMO) architecture employs a planar array design at the Base Station (BS) to provide high order multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) via simultaneous data transmission to large number of users. With FD-MIMO, the BS can also adjust the beam direction in both elevation and azimuth direction to concentrate the energy on the user of interests while minimizing the interference leakage to co-scheduled users in the same cell or users in the neighboring cells. In a typical highly populated macrocell environment, modelling the elevation angular characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) channel is critical to understanding the performance limits of the FD-MIMO system. In this paper, we study the throughput performance of FD-MIMO system with varying elevation angular spread and inter-element spacing using a 3D spatial channel model. Our results show that for a typical urban scenario, horizontal beamforming with correlated antenna spacing achieves optimal performance but by restricting the spread of elevation angles of departure, elevation beamforming achieves high array gain with wide inter-element spacing. We also realize significant gains due to spatial array processing via modelling the elevation domain and varying the inter-element spacing for both the transmitter and receiver.

Forward Link Power Allocation and Capacity of IMT-2000 System (IMT-2000 시스템의 순방향 링크 전력할당과 용량유도)

  • Ro, Sang-Min;Kim, In-Kyoung;Kim, Joo-Eung;Daesik Hong;Kang, Chang-Eon;Jung, Hyun-Meen
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.117-120
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    • 2000
  • This paper discusses solutions for forward link power allocation based on 3GPP(FDD) standardization reports and which meet the required Eb/No of forward link channels. In addition, the forward link user capacity in a mixed service environment. Cell coverage is induced from the user capacity solutions using the urban propagation model. In an urban macrocell environment, the forward link user capacity turns out to be roughly 29 and 3, respectively, for voice and data service (144 kbps) at a distance of 1 km, and in an urban microcell environment, the user capacity turns out to be Toughly 14, 4, and 2, respectively, for voice and two data services (144 kbps, 384 kbps) when the cell radius is 0.2 km.

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