• Title, Summary, Keyword: Masculinity

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A Men's Following Up Image Change and the Aspect of Ideal Appearance Type of Korean and Chinese Men -Focused on Men in Their 20s to Their 40s- (한국과 중국 남성의 이상적인 외모유형과 남성의 추구이미지 변화 양상 -20~40대를 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Yoon Kyung;Jung, Dawool;Bian, Lihua
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.867-876
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    • 2015
  • This research studies socio-cultural hegemony change focused on male society through contemporary ideal masculine images of Asian men (especially Korean and Chinese men). Participants were: South Korean men in and around Seoul and Chinese men in Beijing and Shanghai. The youngest survey participants in their 20's and the oldest in their 40's were asked about their present men's appearance images and masculinity as well as asked to evaluate satisfaction with their own style, and interest in fashion trends on a 5-point Likert scale. In this research, an ideal masculinity was tested by 6 characters (traditional masculinity, macho masculinity, androgynous masculinity, adolescent masculinity, trendy masculinity, and general masculinity) as male avatars. Asian men's consciousness of an ideal masculinity image has moved gradually from traditional masculinity to trendy masculinity, leading to new roles in a socio-cultural agenda. Korean and Chinese men are more interested in appearance and notice fashionable styles to be trendy that follow the latest fashion because most other Asian men reflect a traditional masculinity as an ideal appearance image.

An Exploratory Study of Masculinity in Nursing (간호에서의 남성성에 관한 탐색적 연구)

  • Kim, Mi Young
    • Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This study was to explore the meaning of masculinity in nursing by investigating how the male qualities are expressed in the culture of nursing wherein men represent a minority group. Methods: Connell's hegemonic masculinity theory (1987, 1995) and qualitative thematic analysis were used to conduct this study in which eight male nurses participated. Braun and Clarke's six stages of thematic analysis (2006) were used for data analysis. Results: The results indicated that masculinity in nursing meant 'soft masculinity' meeting the expectations of the discipline while keeping the male qualities intact. Male nurses were found to suppress their masculinity at earlier stages of their career and to make themselves more accommodating to the profession. However, males re-asserted their masculinity once they became more comfortable with their nursing work. Conclusion: In the field of nursing, masculinity was found to be subjected to stages of attenuating and consolidating which take place in succession. Consolidation of the male qualities was motivated rather unexpectedly by female colleagues. The results confirmed that the issue of gender in nursing is an important factor in recruiting and understanding male nurses in the future.

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A Study on Gender Identity shown in Movie Costumes from 1930′s to 1990′s -Focused on Masculinity and Feminity- (1930-1990년대 영화 의상에 나타난 젠더 정체성(I) -남성성(Masculinity), 여성성(Feminity)를 중심으로-)

  • 정세희;양숙희
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.63-78
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    • 2002
  • The movie costumes may serve to change individuals'ego identity, shift a gender identity to another one and make multiple and plural gender identities shared. The unique identities shown in movies can influence the audience to the extent that they will imitate characters's costumes or appearance in their real life, replacing their inner, unrealizable and private fantasy with real one. The purpose of this study is to review the movies produced in 1930's and thereafter by categorizing the socio-cultural gender concepts into masculinity and feminity. Masculinity and Feminity are not attributions fixed by some physical characteristics, but it tends to be changed or expended by some social factors over time. In short, it may be a flexible, plural, individual and self-introspecive attribute. Movies present diverse types of masculinity and feminity, and in particular, the movie costumes specify them. In other words, the costumes may be model means expressing the masculinity and feminity, and the gender identities shown in the movies tend to be imitated, re-created or assumed by the audience. All in all, the movie costumes serve to take on the confrontation of masculinity and feminity between inner, unrealizable and private fantasy and external reality and thereby, expand it from internal to external issue and thus, change or reform masculinity and feminity.

Hegemonic Masculinity in Disney Animated Films (디즈니 애니메이션에 나타난 헤게모니적 남성성)

  • Lee, A-Ram-Chan
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this paper is to explore the hegemonic masculinity in Disney animated feature films in terms of Antonio Gramsci's hegemony and R. W. Connell's hegemonic masculinity. According to Gramsci, hegemony refers to the predominance of a dominant group over other groups. By the same token, Connell uses the term hegemony as the configuration of gender practice which embodies the domination of men and the subordination of women. He describes four masculinities to explore male hierarchy in male groups: hegemonic masculinity, subordinated masculinity, complicit masculinity, and marginalized masculinity. Through Connell's terms, this study investigates masculinities in Disney films, especially Beauty and the Beast (1991) in relation to hegemonic masculinity. As a result, Disney describes repeatedly hegemonic masculinity as hard body defined by Susan Jeffords and supports tacitly the domination of a specific male group.

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A Study of Femininity and Masculinity Represented in Men's and Women's Fashion Magazine in Korea since 2000 (2000년 이후 한국 남녀 패션 잡지에 표현된 여성성과 남성성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Kyung-Hee
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-21
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to typify femininity and masculinity represented in mainstream women's and men's fashion magazines in Korea since 2000 and infer sexual ideology appearing in contemporary Korean society by content analysis with the view of plural sexuality. For the content analysis total 259 editorial fashion photography was analyzed. As the result, 5 femininities and 5 masculinities were typified, and then sexual discourse was inferred out of the frequency of each type and texts with the images. On the basis of previous studies and historical considerations of this topic, the types of sexuality represented in mainstream fashion magazines in Korea since 2000 were classified as follow.: in women's fashion magazines Traditional Femininity and Androgynous Femininity were almost similarily dominant sexuality, and Glamor Femininity, Babydoll Femininity, and Genderless sexuality were alternative. Meanwhile, in men's fashion magazines Traditional Masculinity formed clear dominant sexuality, and Macho Masculinity, Androgynous Masculinity, Adolescent Masculinity, and Genderless sexuality were alternatives. In addition, Androgynous Masculinity in women's fashion magazines occupied the highest frequency, while Glamor Femininity in men's fashion magazines did so. From this sexual discourses represented in mainstream fashion magazines in Korea since 2000 are as follow.: First, mainstream fashion in Korea sticks to the modern values preserving traditional sexual ideology even in this postmodern period of the former 21C. Second, Androgynous Femininity as another dominant femininity with Traditional Femininity connotes the change of conception of femininity in Korean society. Third, Androgynous Masculinity to females is preferred, while femininity to males is still regarded as fetish or adorned object. Fourth, the appearance of various alternative sexualities leads to pluralization of sexuality, and then fashion gradually codifies youthfulness and feminine values, such as body and sexual desire more than before.

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Alteration of masculinity Types Shown in Melodramas -From 1992 to 2012- (멜로드라마에 나타난 남성상 유형의 변화 (1992년부터 2012년까지))

  • Lee, Hwa-Jeong
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.62-69
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to examine how the masculinity types of the male lead appearing in melodrama genre TV series with 2005 as the borderline when we perceived the change of female types in TV drama series. To attain the goal, the paper analyzed the change of the male lead in 74 melodrama series that ranked high from 1992 till 2012 in terms of the ratings. As a result, from 2005, the types of masculinity of the male lead changed significantly. The followings deal with the details of the change: first, about the age of the male lead, those in the 30's or older increased. Second, unmarried men increased. Third, more of them saw men and women equally, and masculinity types setting no role division for men and women increased. Fourth, masculinity types of having more concern over their appearance increased. Fifth, masculinity types of relying on others when a problem occurred increased. Sixth, in relationship with others, passive masculinity types increased. There was no change in men's jobs, economic level, personality, or sexual consciousness. This study result shows that from 2005, stereotyped masculinity types shown in advanced research have disappeared a lot, and the current men image tends to show both male and female features.

Appearance-Related Consumption Behavior according to Interpersonal Relations and Masculinity - Mediated effect of Appearance Concern - (대인관계성향, 남성성유형에 따른 외모관련소비행동 연구 - 외모관심도의 매개효과 분석 -)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ok
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.777-786
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    • 2013
  • This study identifies the influences of appearance-related consumption behavior according to interpersonal relations and masculinity examined through amediated effect of appearance concerns based on a structural study method. Five hypotheses were established to verify the relationships of interpersonal relations, masculinity and appearance-related consumption behavior. Questionnaires were administered to 201 males in their 20s to 50s living in Daegu South Korea. The SPSS 20.0 package utilized for data analysis included frequency analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis and Cronbach's ${\alpha}$. This study utilized an Amos 21.0 program, a Confirmative Factor Analysis(CFA)and a Structural Equation Modeling(SEM). The results of the study are as follows: First, the appearance concern showed a partial mediation effect between measurement variables that verified the causal relationship of the structural model. Second, interpersonal relations showed a positive influence on masculinity. Third, masculinity showed a positive influence on the appearance concern. Fourth, masculinity had a positive influence on appearance-related consumption behavior. Fifth, interpersonal relations did not have a significant influence on appearance-related consumption behavior. Sixth, the appearance concern showed a positive influence on appearance-related consumption behavior. The findings of this study can influence a market segmentation strategy by predicting future emotional and new consumption markets strategies for male's appearance-related product.

Ideal Body Image, Body Importance and Body Satisfaction by Gender Role Identity in Male College Students (남자대학생의 성역할정체감에 따른 이상적 신체상, 신체중요도 및 만족도)

  • Kim, Eun-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: In an attempt to investigate the ideal body image, body importance and body satisfaction by gender role identity, this study was carried out in male college students. Methods: The subjects were 323 male college students in all of Korea except Jeju province. The data was collected by using the questionnaires, Korean Sex Role Inventory and modified Multidimensional Body-Self Questionnaire. Results: Normal shape ranked first as ideal body image in all 4 types of gender role identity. Androgyny, femininity and masculinity type were significantly higher than undifferentiated type in body importance. And androgyny and masculinity type were significantly higher than femininity and undifferentiated type in body satisfaction. Conclusion: Androgyny and masculinity type were positively related to self body image, but undifferentiated type was negatively related to compared with androgyny and masculinity type. And to reinforce androgyny and masculinity in male college students, various programs should be developed.

A Study on Gender Identity Expressed in Fashion in Music Video

  • Jeong, Ha-Na;Choy, Hyon-Sook
    • International Journal of Costume and Fashion
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.28-42
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    • 2006
  • In present modern society, media contributes more to the constructing of personal identities than any other medium. Music video, a postmodernism branch among a variety of media, offers a complex experience of sounds combined with visual images. In particular. fashion in music video helps conveying contexts effectively and functions as a medium of immediate communication by visual effect. Considering the socio-cultural effects of music video. gender identity represented in fashion in it can be of great importance. Therefore, this study is geared to the reconsidering of gender identity represented through costumes in music video by analyzing fashions in it. Gender identity in socio-cultural category is classified as masculinity, femininity, and the third sex. By examining fashions based on the classification. this study will help to create new design concepts and to understand gender identity in fashion. The results of this study are as follows: First. masculinity in music video fashion was categorized into stereotyped masculinity, sexual masculinity. and metro sexual masculinity. Second, femininity in music video fashion was categorized into stereotyped femininity. sexual femininity, and contra sexual femininity. Third, the third sex in music video fashion was categorized into transvestism, masculinization of female, and feminization of male. This phenomenon is presented into music videos through females in male attire and males in female attire. Through this research, gender identity represented in fashion of music video was demonstrated, and the importance of the relationship between representation of identity through fashion and socio-cultural environment was reconfirmed.

Study on Appearance-oriented, Appearance Management Behavior according to the types of Masculinity (남성성유형에 따른 외모지향도, 외모관리행동 연구)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ok;Ku, Yang-Suk
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.923-931
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the type of masculinity on appearance-oriented and appearance management behavior. Questionnaires were administered to 201 males 20s to 50s living in Daegu. The SPSS 20.0 package was utilized for data analysis which included frequency analysis, Cronbach's ${\alpha}$, factor analysis, cluster analysis, regression analysis, t-test and logistic regression. First, factor analysis in a appearance management behavior and the type of masculinity, were cluster analysis in appearance-oriented. Were used to analyze the problem of the study by classified five factors and two groups. The results of this study were as follows: First, the masculinity of Retro sexual, Metro sexual, Techno sexual showed a negative influence on appearance-oriented. Second, the masculinity had a influence on appearance management behavior. M-ness showed a negative influence on skin care, Metro sexual showed a positive influence on skin care, hair/fashion, cosmetics, plastic surgery. And Retro sexual showed a influence on skin care, positive influence on hair/fashion, cosmetics. Techno sexual showed a positive influence on body management, skin care, hair/fashion. Uber sexual showed a positive influence on body management, cosmetics of appearance management. Third, the appearance-oriented had a differences on body management, hair/fashion, cosmetics, plastic surgery of appearance management behavior.