• Title, Summary, Keyword: Masculinity

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The Effect of Freeze and Thaw for the Stabilized Soil Bottom Liners in the Landfill (폐기물 매립지 바닥층의 고화토 포설시 동결/융해 현상에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Song;Lee, Jai-Young;Kim, Heung-Suck
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.179-189
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this research is to complement the existing researches on landfill bottom liners behavior during the periods of freeze and thaw. Landfill-related researches have been typically focused on small-scale soil samples that are often compacted under conditions different from those used in the field. Although these tests have been invaluable in clarifying the problem of freeze and thaw, extending the results of such experimental studies to prototype landfills are questionable. In this investigation, the author utilized a large scale laboratory simulation allowing inclusion of the field depth of the cover systems, layered soil profiles, rainfall simulation, a cold climate and boundary conditions similar to those encountered in the landfill. The soil materials were stabilized soils (mixed clays, cements, and minerals) instead of clays. The bottom liners are made up of drainage layer (30 cm), stabilized layer (75 cm), and leach collection layer (60 cm). The stabilized layers are made up of supporting layer (45 cm) and low permeable layer (30 cm) - consisting of $P_A\; and\; P_B$ layer. As a results, depths of penetration increased by about 2~5 more centimeters at rainfall simulated designs than those at no rainfall simulated designs (that is design 3, design 5 and design 7) - it increased by about 20mm/day in the bottom liners and frost heaves also increased it by a few millimeters. Also, a few cracks appeared partly. According to these results, we can surmise that the compacted stabilized soil is more reliable than the compacted clay liners for construction of the landfill liners.

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가정 폭력 경험이 남자 범죄 청소년의 남성성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구

  • Kim, Kyung-Ho
    • 한국사회복지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.282-309
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    • 2003
  • This exploratory qualitative study investigates the effects of experiencing domestic violence on male adolescent offenders' masculinities. Empirical and theoretical literature suggests that negative male role models in violent families result in male adolescents' experiencing conflict in constructing gender identities, especially masculinities. Moreover. criminologists argue that masculinities are often connected with crimes as a way to prove masculine competence. This study compares male adolescent offenders who have experienced domestic violence with those who have not experienced domestic violence and explores how domestic violence experiences influence the construction of gender identities among male adolescent offenders. The study used a secondary qualitative data analysis method. The data consisted of ethnographic in-depth interview transcripts, observational field notes, and formal facility records collected at a juvenile correctional facility in Minnesota. The process of data analysis was a "constant comparative method" that sought to understand differences and similarities in the expressed gender narratives and identity patterns between the two groups of offenders. This process also examined differences within each group. The qualitative data analysis revealed that domestic violence experiences in childhood may be related to the construction of gender identities during adolescence. The findings of this study showed that male adolescent offenders who had experienced domestic violence tended to attach themselves to oppressed mothers more readily than those who had not experienced domestic violence. Next, their attachment to mothers related to the construction of more relational gender identities although most participants, regardless of domestic violence experiences, had much in common regarding gender expression. Finally, despite these relational gender identities, male adolescent offenders who had experienced domestic violence tended to depend upon violence and crimes to show masculine competence, as did male adolescent offenders who had not experienced domestic violence. The study findings suggest a need for research to understand the construction of gender identities in the context of particular experiences and the importance of building theories that advance a comprehensive understanding of the construction of masculinities and youth crime. This study also discusses the development of social work programs that protect young men from adherence to exaggerated masculinity, which is often associated with crimes.

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An Empirical Study on How the Moderating Effects of Individual Cultural Characteristics towards a Specific Target Affects User Experience: Based on the Survey Results of Four Types of Digital Device Users in the US, Germany, and Russia (특정 대상에 대한 개인 수준의 문화적 성향이 사용자 경험에 미치는 조절효과에 대한 실증적 연구: 미국, 독일, 러시아의 4개 디지털 기기 사용자를 대상으로)

  • Lee, In-Seong;Choi, Gi-Woong;Kim, So-Lyung;Lee, Ki-Ho;Kim, Jin-Woo
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.113-145
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    • 2009
  • Recently, due to the globalization of the IT(Information Technology) market, devices and systems designed in one country are used in other countries as well. This phenomenon is becoming the key factor for increased interest on cross-cultural, or cross-national, research within the IT area. However, as the IT market is becoming bigger and more globalized, a great number of IT practitioners are having difficulty in designing and developing devices or systems which can provide optimal experience. This is because not only tangible factors such as language and a country's economic or industrial power affect the user experience of a certain device or system but also invisible and intangible factors as well. Among such invisible and intangible factors, the cultural characteristics of users from different countries may affect the user experience of certain devices or systems because cultural characteristics affect how they understand and interpret the devices or systems. In other words, when users evaluate the quality of overall user experience, the cultural characteristics of each user act as a perceptual lens that leads the user to focus on a certain elements of experience. Therefore, there is a need within the IT field to consider cultural characteristics when designing or developing certain devices or systems and plan a strategy for localization. In such an environment, existing IS studies identify the culture with the country, emphasize the importance of culture in a national level perspective, and hypothesize that users within the same country have same cultural characteristics. Under such assumptions, these studies focus on the moderating effects of cultural characteristics on a national level within a certain theoretical framework. This has already been suggested by cross-cultural studies conducted by scholars such as Hofstede(1980) in providing numerical research results and measurement items for cultural characteristics and using such results or items as they increase the efficiency of studies. However, such national level culture has its limitations in forecasting and explaining individual-level behaviors such as voluntary device or system usage. This is because individual cultural characteristics are the outcome of not only the national culture but also the culture of a race, company, local area, family, and other groups that are formulated through interaction within the group. Therefore, national or nationally dominant cultural characteristics may have its limitations in forecasting and explaining the cultural characteristics of an individual. Moreover, past studies in psychology suggest a possibility that there exist different cultural characteristics within a single individual depending on the subject being measured or its context. For example, in relation to individual vs. collective characteristics, which is one of the major cultural characteristics, an individual may show collectivistic characteristics when he or she is with family or friends but show individualistic characteristics in his or her workplace. Therefore, this study acknowledged such limitations of past studies and conducted a research within the framework of 'theoretically integrated model of user satisfaction and emotional attachment', which was developed through a former study, on how the effects of different experience elements on emotional attachment or user satisfaction are differentiated depending on the individual cultural characteristics related to a system or device usage. In order to do this, this study hypothesized the moderating effects of four cultural dimensions (uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs, collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, and power distance) as suggested by Hofstede(1980) within the theoretically integrated model of emotional attachment and user satisfaction. Statistical tests were then implemented on these moderating effects through conducting surveys with users of four digital devices (mobile phone, MP3 player, LCD TV, and refrigerator) in three countries (US, Germany, and Russia). In order to explain and forecast the behavior of personal device or system users, individual cultural characteristics must be measured, and depending on the target device or system, measurements must be measured independently. Through this suggestion, this study hopes to provide new and useful perspectives for future IS research.

The Body of Male Domination and the Problem of the Phallic Ideology: The Strategy of the Deconstruction of Penis-Narcissism and the Penis-Cartel (남성지배의 몸과 남근 이데올로기의 문제: 페니스 나르시시즘과 페니스 카르텔의 해체전략)

  • YUN, Ji-Yeong
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • no.123
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    • pp.137-185
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    • 2018
  • This article aims to deconstruct the mechanism of male domination that constantly reproduces the hegemonic class of men. In order to overcome misogyny, we should no longer deny the ontological dimension of the reality of women's oppressions and the pre-eminence of the material condition of women's existence. In addition, the possibility of the category of women as a modality of resistance should be taken into consideration. First, I will highlight the correlation between penis and phallus according to which the phallus refers to the penis which is malleable and fragile and which disappears without being castrated by the external factor. From here we could deduce the fragility and imperfection, the non-absoluteness of the phallic order. Secondly, I will analyze the mechanism of penis-narcissism, which is the modality of the constitution of the individual identity of man. The penis is not only a physiological organ, but a site of self-estimation and the validity of the succession of power and authority of the father's law. With this penis-narcissism, man is constituted as a hegemonic body that can let itself go without worrying about the reactions of others. Thirdly, I will focus on the mechanism of the penis-cartel which is the modality of the formation of the collective identity. The penis-cartel is reinforced by the mutual affirmation of the superiority of men among themselves, but also by the permission and the tacit agreement of their absurdity and lack of rationality and corruption. Because the privilege of men is not monopolized by a small part of the elite, but is consciously and unconsciously shared by all men who are part of the hegemonic and collective category. In order to deconstruct the penis-narcissism and the penis-cartel, it is necessary to demonstrate that the penis is not a self-sufficient body, nor a closed and impermeable body, but that it is a porous body where the organ serves both ejaculation and urinary ejection. The penis is a porous body that is at once the site of sublimity and degradation, purity and impurity. In addition, the penis is no longer an all-powerful and aggressive organ, but it is a malleable and fluid flesh that constantly changes its shape. Linked to a phallus-organ that is the notion of Jacques-Alain Miller, it is a site of deficiency and vulnerability that is not the axis of the penis-cartel. It is through the notion of the double porosity of the penis and the phenomenology of the flesh of the penis, I try to provide the modality of undoing the reproductive mechanism of predatory masculinity. Because this would be an effective strategy to overcome misogyny.