• Title, Summary, Keyword: Masculinity

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A Cross-Cultural Study on the Clothing Value between Korean and American College Students (한.미간 남자 대학생의 의복 가치관 비교 연구)

  • Im, Sung-Kyung
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1048-1061
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of the study was to compare the culture and the clothing value between Korean and American college students, especially men. Also, this study was to analyze the culture effect on the clothing value. The survey was performed and 200 questionnaires were utilized for this study. The SPSS 12.0 was used to analyze the technical statistics like average, frequency, t-test, factor analysis, multiple regression analysis. The result showed, first, there were some 2 major cultural differences such as power distance and long-term orientation between Korean and American college men. Comparatively, Korean college men showed higher masculinity and lower power distance and long-term orientation. Second, there were differences in the clothing value aspect. Both of them considered the economic clothing value to be most important. Third, there were some differences in the clothing value because of the cultural differences. For Korean college men, there were masculinity and long term orientation that had an effect on the social and religious clothing values, however, for American college men, power distance, masculinity and long term orientation that had an effect on the social, religious, theoretical and economic values.

Cultural Differences of Professional Organizations in Wholesale Seafood Markets (수산물 도매시장의 유통조직별 문화의 차이)

  • Kim, Jin-Baek
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.107-125
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    • 2009
  • Research on culture has been widespread across social science researches. But there has not been any cultural research in the fisheries industry. This study tried to identify whether the culture of the fishery organization had a convergent or divergent characteristic. To do so, fishery distributors and wholesalers, who affiliated with their professional associations or wholesale seafood markets, were surveyed across supplying and consuming areas(Busan and Seoul). If fishery organizations have always been culture-bound, rather than culture free, then their members show the divergent characteristic of culture. Despite a similarity in tasks, size and market segments, if this fact is proved, fishery distributors and wholesalers in different areas will differ in many of their managerial practices such as marketing policies, communication patterns, motivation techniques, etc. And it is expected that national and industrial cultures are major determinants of their behaviors. Depending on the results of this study, fishery distributors and wholesalers had a divergent characteristic. So, it was concluded that fishery distributors and wholesalers of wholesale seafood markets in supplying area were different from those in consuming area. It was found that this difference was attributed to individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity dimensions. In individualism/collectivism dimension, fishery distributors and wholesalers of consuming area were stronger than those of supplying area. That is, fishery distributors and wholesalers of consuming area were more collective than those of supplying area. But in masculinity/femininity dimension, fishery distributors and wholesalers of supplying area were stronger than those of consuming area. And the divergent characteristic was moderated by demographic variables (gender, age, education level, career). Especially, masculinity/femininity dimension was more moderated by demographic variables than individualism/ collectivism dimension.

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A Study on the Masculinity of Male Characters Represented in the Disney Feature Animation Frozen (디즈니 장편 애니메이션 <겨울왕국>에 나타나는 남성 캐릭터의 남성성 연구)

  • Oh, Dong-Il
    • Journal of Digital Contents Society
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.1217-1226
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    • 2017
  • The Disney Studios have been aiming at the animation storytelling of the signification system that the contemporary audience can universally accept. And it can be said that such storytelling is aesthetic expression based on the contemporary mainstream dominant mythology. Seen from this perspective, the changes of the masculinity of male characters that are represented in the Disney feature animation Frozen are not just a simple aesthetic phenomenon but a strategy of animation storytelling that reflects the contemporary cultural and social trend. The gender identity of the male characters of Frozen is completely freed from the existing stereotypes about Disney feature animations, and it positively presents the changes of the gender roles that reflect the changes in social value and the needs of the times.

Preference for Clothing Images According to Gender-Role Identity (성역할 정체감에 따른 의복 이미지별 선호도)

  • Lee, Jungmin;Chung, Sungjee;Kim, Donggeon
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.164-176
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    • 2013
  • The study aims to find differences in clothing image preferences according to gender-roleidentity. The questionnaire developed by the researchers was distributed to 533 men and women who aged between 20 and 59. Fourhundred eight questionnaires were used for the final analysis. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, and Tukey's test using SPSS 18.0/Windows. As results, both male and female participant groups of the study were classified into 4 groups according to their gender-role identity: masculinity, femininity, androgyny, and the undifferentiated. For men, the masculinity group showed a higher preference for flamboyant, sexy, expressive, cold, mature, hard, strong, weighty, heavy, sharp images, while the femininity group showed a stronger preference for flamboyant, bold, luxurious clothing images. The male androgyny group preferred masculine, sexy, cold, mature, hard, strong, weighty, luxurious, heavy, artificial images, whereas the undifferentiated group preferred flamboyant, sexy and mature images. On the other hand, for women, the masculinity group showed a higher preference for luxurious image, while the femininity group showed a stronger preference for sexy, urban, decorative, modern, complicated, luxurious images. The female androgyny group preferred expressive, modern, mature, complicated, and luxurious images, whereas the undifferentiated group preferred bold, decorative, rational, and complicated clothing images.

A Study on the Expression of Apparel Advertising in Men's Apparel

  • Kim, Yoon-Kyoung;Lee, Kyoung-Hee
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.69-83
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to offer basic resource for effective advertising strategy of men's apparel by analysing the characteristics of the appeal types in the men's apparel ads. 272 photographs were collected the following magazines ; fashion magazine, men's magazine, luxury magazine, woman's general magazine, and fashion professional magazine. It was related to the men's apparel ads of magazines above from January to December of 2001. The results of this study was as follows; Appeal types of apparel advertising in men's apparel were divided into style appeal, informercial appeal, sexual appeal, lifestyle appeal, image appeal, and masculinity appeal and appeared other appeal types according to men's fashion style, brand types, and magazine types. It also was closely connected with the men's market positioning. Consequently, the study will be helpful to plan the effective and economic strategy of men's apparel ads.

A Study on the Gender Role of the Middle Aged Woman (중년기 여성의 성역할(Gender Role)에 관한연구)

  • 서병숙
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.156-168
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    • 1993
  • This paper has two purpose. The primary purpose is to investigate how the middle ages women of Korea describe their own masculinity femininity and gender role identity. Secondary purpose is to find out how the masculine and the feminine are related to socio demographic feature and physical symptom. The questionaire sheets of 327 use from middle aged woman of 39 years to 59 years old with their last child is more than 10 years old. The summerized results of study are as follows: 1) The overall tendency in gender role identity of middle aged women. the undifferentiated type(36.70%) was the most and have shown the androgynous type(30.58%) by the next. 2) The employed middle aged women inducated higher masculinity than the unemployed middle aged women and felt the lesser physical symptoms conciousness. In case of occupation of husband is higher social status the femininity was higher the others. and in the group has not daughter or shorter marital period the femininity was higher.

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The Aesthetic Characteristics of the Necktie in the Modern Fashion (현대패션에 표현된 넥타이의 미적특성)

  • Kim, Sun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to understanding the intrinsic meanings and aesthetic characteristics expressed by current fashion trends in neckties and to develop a new and unique fashion design for neckties. This study used precedent studies and related literatures to review the changes in neckties and the types of knots used over time. The findings were then verified by photographs from fashion magazines and collections from the 1990s. The results of this study are as follows. First, neckties, generally regarded as a symbol of masculinity, are often mixed with other men's or women's clothing items rather than being worn by themselves, and they provide an androgynous characteristic in women's fashion. This transcendence of femininity or masculinity reflects the human desire to be a more perfect being by sharing each others characteristics, and it can be seen in contemporary beauty trends. Second, neckties have been transformed into scarves, waist belts, front-fly omaments, and so forth. They are used to express a new and sensational sense, the sense of deconstructionism, by breaking away from stereotypes and changing the shape of neckties atypically.

Effect of Cultural Factors on Online Privacy Concern : Korea vs. China

  • Lili, Wan;Min, Daihwan
    • Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.149-165
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    • 2014
  • This paper has studied whether cultural factors have an effect on privacy concern of Internet users in Korea and China. The result has shown that power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation are positively related to privacy concern, while masculinity is negatively related to privacy concern. This study has also found some similarities and differences between the two countries. First, privacy concern of Korean Internet users is significantly higher than that of Chinese users. Second, individualism and uncertainty avoidance significantly affect privacy concern in both Korea and China, although individualism in Korea has stronger effect than that in China. Third, long term orientation has a significant effect in only Korea while power distance is significant only in China. These results suggest that an online company doing businesses in multiple countries should have country-specific privacy policies to deal with the privacy concern of Internet users in different countries.

Attitudes and Usage of Denim Clothing as Related to Selected Social Psychological Factors in a Group of College Women (데님(Denim)의복을 중심으로 한 여대생의 의복행동에 관한 연구)

  • Chung Sahm Ho;Kahng Hewon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 1977
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of attitudes and usage of denim cloth-ing to masculinity femininity, attitudes toward women's role, and four aspects of clothing interests. Masculinity-femininity was assessed by The Fe Scale of the California Psychological Inventory. Attitudes toward women's role was measured by selected items from The Inventory of Feminine Values and The Sex Ideology Scale. Measures of attitudes toward denim clothing consisted of: 1) attitudes regarding practicality and youth symbol, 2) possession, and 3) frequency of wearing denim clothing. Four aspects of clothing interests in general were assessed by statements dealing with choice of design, conformity-individuality, fashion and practicality in clothing. The sample consisted of 388 students in Sookmyung Women's University in Seoul, Korea. The data, collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire, were analyzed by correlation. The results indicate that: 1) Masculinity-femininity was related to youth symbol attitudes, possession, and frequency of wear-ing denim clothing. 2) Attitudes toward women's role was related to practicality attitudes, and frequency of wearing denim clothing. 3) Practicality attitudes toward denim clothing was related to conformity-individuality, and practicality in clothing. 4) Youth symbol attitudes toward denim clothing was related to fashion in clothing. 5) Possession of denim clothing was related to fashion and the choice of design in clothing. 6) Frequency of wearing denim clothing was related to the choice of design, and conformity-individuality in clothing.

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The Relationships between Sex-Role Identity and the Meaning in Life for a Matriarch (여성가장의 성역할 정체감유형과 생의 의미수준)

  • Kim, Sook-Nam;Choi, Soon-Ock;Shin, Kyung-Il;Lee, Jeong-Ji
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.190-200
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    • 2002
  • The purposes of this study were to understand the sex role identity and the meaning in life(MIL) of matriarchs and analyze their relationships to offer basic data for effective nursing strategies for improving MIL. The data for this study was collected from the 10th of August to the 30th of November, 2000. The subjects were women registered in an occupational training program for unemployed matriarchs which is held in the Working Women's Center in Busan. The measurement tools of this study were MIL(unpublished)developed by researchers and sex role inventory designed by Kim Deuk Ran(1992). The results of this study were as follows: 1.Sex role identities of matriarchs were feminity 13.7%, masculinity 13.4%, androgyny 37.8% and undifferentiated 35.1%. 2. The mean MIL for matriarchs was $173.46{\pm}16.09$. 3. The levels of MIL were 57.2% of the subjects felt a loss of meaning in life, i. e. existential vacuum, 42.8% were in pursuit of meaning but had not discovered it completely and 6.0% felt they had established meaning in life. 4.There were significant differences in MIL levels, concurrent to 4 types of sex role identities(F=11.93, P=.000). And according to Scheffe's post test, between feminity and masculinity, feminity and androgyny, masculinity and the undifferentiated, androgyny and the undifferentiated, there were significant differences. From the results of this study, most matriarchs felt loss of meaning in life, i. e. existential vacuum, and the group with masculine sex role identity had the highest level of MIL. In conclusion, the factors related to masculine sex role identity are necessary to develop nursing strategies for improving levels of MIL.

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