• Title, Summary, Keyword: Masculinity

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Sex-Role Development in Late Childhood and Adolescence: -Relationships among Sex-Role Stereotypes, Sex-Role Ideology, Sex-Role Identity, and Self-Esteem (아동 후기에서 청소년기에 이르는 성역할발달에 관한 연구 - 성역할 고정관념, 성역할 이데올로기, 성역할 정체감, 자아존중감간의 관계를 중심으로 -)

  • Yoo, Ka Hyo
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.127-144
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    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study was to identify intrapsychic processes of self socialization in sex role development during late childhood and adolescence. For this purpose I investigated the sex-role stereotypes, sex-role ideology, sex-role identity, and self-esteem of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and examined the causal relationships among these sex-role variables. Data were gathered through questionnaires administered twice with an interval of three months. The methods of analysis were one-way ANOVA, $x^2$, and multiple regression. The results showed, (1) Adolescents' sex-role stereotypes had significant relationships with sex typing. Subjects with low scores on sex-role stereotypes were more likely to show opposite sex typing. (2) Sex-role ideologies had significant relationships with sex typing. As Subjects agreed more with egalitarianism, they were more likely to exhibit opposite sex typing. (3) Adolescents' sex typing had significant relationships with their self-esteem. The androgynous group exhibited the highest scores on self-esteem. (4) Path analysis from the multiple regression analysis indicated different processes between sexes in sex-role development. In the boys' sex-role development, it was found that only masculinity contributed to self -esteem. Girls' masculinity also contributed most to self -esteem, but other sex -role variables such as femininity and sex-role stereotypes made some contributions to girls' self-esteem.

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A Study on the Male Body Image Expressed in Modern Advertisements (현대 광고에 나타난 남성 신체 이미지에 관한 연구)

  • Yang Sook-Hi;Yang Hee-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.326-337
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    • 2006
  • Self-immersed narcissism image that had been limited only a feminine image has being represented as a new masculinity image through various fashion magazine and TV advertisements. Besides, this makes a contribution of enlargement of concern about the beauty and fashion of the male. In the past, fashion has been created through the fetishism about the female body. But, new male image has been changed during only 30-40 years compared with the traditional various social, cultural, sexual body images had been changed for a long time. On the contrary, changed modem male image removes the interval of difference between the male and the female image. Now, representative techniques of the masculinity perform both accommodation and disobedience against social and cultural rules. Social body, which has been understood that appearance represents almost all things, makes the good use of the space of discipline and reformation. This paper is tended to grasp the characteristics of male body image expressed modem male fashion and TV advertisements based on the examination about the changed male body image.

A Study on Sex Role Identity and Family Group Characteristics among University Students (대학생의 성역할 정체감과 가족의 집단성격유형에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Yoon-Hee;Park, Young-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate sex role identity and family group characteristics among university students. Method: The participants of the study were 325 university students at S university in Seoul from September 1st to 30th, 2001 and from September 1st to 30th, 2003. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, sex role identity scale, and family group characteristics type scale. Data were analyzed by frequency, means, t-test, Chi-square test, and Pearson's correlation in the SPSS Win Program. Result: In this study, there was a high prevalence of androgyny to female(31.9%) and masculinity to male(39.4%) university students. There was a significant difference between male and female students in sex role identity(p=.000). "Family concord" indicated a high mean score of family group characteristics (4.71$\pm$.80). There were significant differences between family group characteristics and masculinity and femininity type. Conclusion: There is a high relationship between family group characteristics and sex role identities of university students. It is necessary to explore the varied aspects of the androgyny concept, and further research is needed on factors of family group characteristics.

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The Influence of Power Structure on Sexuality in Dress (권력 구조가 복식의 성적 표현에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Min-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.56 no.5
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    • pp.89-104
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to explain how a power group in a society forms features of sexuality in dress. As for the research methodology, first, historical research was undertaken to study in socioeconomic context in which sexuality has been formed and transformed. Second, demonstrative studies on sexual-image styles were undertaken through the analysis of pictures and photos. Third, analysis of the relationship between the power and sexuality in dress was done by literature research. Masculinity in dress, such as simplicity and concealment, corresponds to the attributes of the viewer, and femininity in dress, such as decoration and exposure, corresponds to the attributes of the viewee. Power struggle is the complex process of forming of the viewer-viewee relationship. The one who grasps the power becomes the viewer. In the shift from the Industrial Society to the Information and Technology Society, powers are horizontally spread over the society and the stereotype of sexuality in both women's and men's dress is fading out. In the field of design, standards and certainty described by absolute power are losing their importance. The 'chaotic' view of a world filled with mutual exchange of masculinity and femininity and uncertainty of sexuality will be sure to be a dominant trend in fashion.

A Study on Appearance Management Behavior of Male Consumers(III) - Focusing on the Gender Role Identity - (남성들의 외모관리행동에 관한 연구(III) - 성역할태도를 중심으로 -)

  • Ku, Yang-Suk;Lee, Young-Ju;Choo, Tae-Gue
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.226-233
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of appearance management behavior, appearance management motives and body image perception according to males' gender role identities. A set of questionnaire was administered to 398 male consumers. Data were analyzed by utilizing frequency, factor analysis, ANONA, and Crosstabs. The results showed that four groups of male consumers according to the gender role identity were androgyny, unclassified, femininity, and masculinity. The androgyny oriented group showed more active and various appearance management behavior. And they were more conscious of their own body image and rated themselves high in body image perception. The masculinity oriented group were satisfied with their bodies and showed positive attitudes on their body figures and hair care. The femininity oriented group showed positive attitudes on skin care and plastic surgery for social life.

The Effects of Clothing Styles and Colors on the Image Perception and the Evaluation of Age for Men

  • Shin, Yun-Kyung;Lee, Myoung-Hee
    • The International Journal of Costume Culture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of clothing style and color of male casual wear on image perceptions and age evaluations. $4{\times}2$ (top color${\times}$trouser color) and $2{\times}3{\times}2$ (clothing style${\times}$clothing hue${\times}$clothing chroma) factorial designs were used as the experiment designs. Photoshop program was used to manipulate the clothing colors after creating photos of models wearing experiment clothing for stimulus. Subjects were 280 female college students from Seoul region and each subject responded to two stimuli. Factor analysis showed four factors of images of male casual wear; sociability, conspicuousness, softness and masculinity. Polo shirts were evaluated higher in sociability and softness than jumpers and nary blue trousers were evaluated higher in masculinity than beige trousers. High chroma clothing was assessed higher in sociability and conspicuousness than low chroma clothing. High chroma red jumpers displayed very sociable feel and low chroma blue jumpers displayed the lowest sociability. High chroma male clothing resulted in younger age perception but age was evaluated young when a black shirt was worn under the jacket when wearing a low chroma jacket.

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The Feminism expressed in the Modem Fashion -'The Logic of Sex and Gender' on Feminism- (현대 복식에 나타난 페미니즘 -'성논리'의 연계성을 중심으로-)

  • Shin, Su-Ok;Yang, Sook-Hi
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.218-230
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study is -under the post-modem situation- to emphasize the role of women which has various several logic on feminism, to look forward to division of men's consciousness of women, and to reflect a trend to accept the role of sex which is occurring in the system of sex, that is, 'The Third Gender and Homosexuality'. The category of biological and sociocultural on feminism discussed, meantime expressed the sexual logic under post-modern situation, and probed the sexual logic on feminism which was expressed in modem dress and its ornaments by redefining some characters as follows; Imitation-it was to attain masculinity by imitating the body of the opposite sex. Interaction such situations like...... masculinity in women, feminity in men was demonstrated as transvestism of cross-dressing and the symbolic meaning of homosexuality was demonstrated in the shoes of sociocultural on Feminism. Dispersion appeared as a moderation charm and a resistance against the men-ruling culture. Destruction-expressed the fetishism of punk of porny image and maternal affectional image of biological trend as playful satire. Therefore, It is conceived that Feminism would be created true human-phase come true in the men's world as long as the realization of women themselves make the phase of women higher; and further not only propose new image of women but the system of gender.

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A Cross-Cultural Study on the Clothing Value - Focusing on Korea and the United States - (한국과 미국 여대생의 문화에 따른 의복가치관의 비교 연구)

  • Im, Sung-Kyung;Han, Myung-Sook
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.619-633
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    • 2008
  • This study is to compare cultural characteristics and the clothing value between Korean and American college women. Also this study is to analyze the culture effect on the clothing value. The cultural characteristics is explained by Hofstede's five Cultural Dimensions- power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation. 800 questionnaires, were utilized for this study. The SPSS 12.0 was used to analyze the technical statistics like average and frequency, 1-test, $x^2$, factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. Also the LISREL 8.0 was used to Perform a confirmatory factor analysis. The result showed, first, there were 5 major cultural differences between Korean and American college women. Comparatively, Korean college women showed higher uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation, and lower power distance, individualism and masculinity. Second, there were differences in the clothing value aspect. Korean college women considered the aesthetic clothing value to be most important, however, American college women considered the economic clothing value to be most important. Third, there were some differences in the clothing value because of the cultural differences. For Korean college women, there were 5 major cultural differences that had an effect on the aesthetic, social, religious and economic clothing values, however, for America college women, the 5 major cultural differences had an effect on the aesthetic, social, and religious values but no effect on the economic value.

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Expressions of Gender Images According to Sex in Editorial Fashion Photography (에디토리얼 패션사진에 나타난 성별에 따른 젠더 이미지 표현)

  • Choi, Na-Ry;Woo, Ju-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.143-154
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    • 2007
  • This study's purpose is how express gender image according to sex in editorial fashion photography. This study's objectives are the women's magazine Vogue, Harper's Bazaar and man's magazine GQ, Esquire published 2000-2005 within the country. The photography was classified with established a standard based on the precede studies. The photo is classified Gender image according to dress and its ornaments, model character and atmosphere by Sex Expression of femininity woman has exposure of body parts and emphasizing thin eyebrows and red lips, soft and mild image, modest and static pose. Man expressed femininity used ladylike color and pattern, erotic exposure of body and long hair style. Commonly emphasizing red lips, natural background of flower plant, S-line. For expression of masculinity man and woman are used masculinity item, short hair-style and thick eyebrows. And also emphasize square like chin and shoulder. Specially, woman used direct silhouette to conceal soft body curved line. The expressions of androgynous woman and man are colorful dress and make-up. Woman emphasized male face to show and man expressed soft image through hull of abundant material of fur. All two sex selected method that conceal body curved line and face to express sexless. Hiding characteristics of body and face make indistinct of sex. The gender is affected by atmosphere such as model and illumination background as much as clothes because of the editorial fashion photography.

Male Consumers' Motives of Appearance Management Behavior -Focused on Their Sex Role Identities and Benefit Sought in Clothing- (남성들의 외모관리행동의 동기에 관한 연구 -성역할 정체성과 의복추구혜택을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Yoon-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.551-562
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of sex role identities on male consumers' appearance management behavior. Recently, heavy marketing efforts have been made by the cosmetics and apparel industries to cater to male consumers who seem to be increasingly interested in their appearances. This study intended to identify the relationship between male consumers' appearance management tendencies and their sex role identities and benefits sought in clothing. A survey data was collected from 321 men aged between 20 and 40 and was analyzed using SPSS. The results showed that not only the male consumers' perceived masculinity and femininity but also the discrepancies between their ideal and perceived masculinity/femininity were related to the benefit they sought in clothing. Also, individuals who identify themselves as masculine (rather than feminine) were more likely to be engaged in appearance management practices. However, a greater portion of their appearance management behavior was explainable by their pursuit of fashionability, conformity, and individuality in clothing. This seems to indicate these male consumers consider appearance management primarily as a fashion trend.