• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mast cells

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Distribution of the Mast Cells in the Parenchymal Organs of the Cattle, Horses, Pigs, Dogs, and Rompun-induced Mast Cell Degranulation in the Dog (우(牛), 마(馬), 돈(豚) 및 견(犬)의 실질장기내(實質臟器內) Mast Cell 분포(分布)와 Rompun을 투여(投與)한 견(犬)의 Mast Cell 탈과립소견(脫顆粒所見))

  • Kim, Tae-hwan;Lee, Cha-soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 1985
  • This paper dealt with the distribution of normal mast cells in the spleen, liver and lung on cattle, horses, pigs and dogs, and also degranulation of mast cells in the dogs infected with Rompun (2% Xylazine HCl). The results observed are summarized as follows. Normal mast cells were distributed in spleen, liver and lung on cattle, horse, pig and dog. Mast cells were observed in both red pulp and surroundings of white pulp of the spleen in horse, in the white pulp of the spleen in cattle, in the trabeculae of the spleen in pigs, and in white pulp and red pulp of the spleen in dogs, respectively. Mast cells were observed in the portal triad of the liver in cattle and horses, in both portal triad and interlobular connective tissues of the liver in pigs, and not only the portal triad but also walls of the sinusoids and the central veins in dogs. A large number of mast cells were observed in the interlobular septa and peribronchioles of lung on all the species in this experiment. The mast cells are more numerous in the lungs than other organs. Author considers that numbers of normal mast cells distributed in the tissue is related to the dosage of Rompun in animal. The degranulation of mast cells were observed in the subcutaneous tissues of dog intramuscularly injected with Rompun(0.5ml/times) for 4 or 5 times and subcutaneously injected with Rompun(0.3ml/times) for 4 times. In dog intradermally injected with 0.1ml of Rompun, mast cells were decreased in number at 30 minutes and markedly decreased in number at 2 hours, but more or less increased in number at 3 hours after injection. In addition, the granules of the mast cells were decreased in number at 30 minutes and marked degranulation of the mast cells were recognized at 2 hours after injections, but normal mast cells begun to appear in subcutaneous tissue with the lapse of time from 3 hours after injection. There was also observed local infiltration of neutrophils in subcutaneous tissues of dogs intradermally injected with 0.1ml of Rompun at 30 minutes. At 2 hours after injection, numerous neutrophils and a small number of eosinophils were observed in the site of injection. Conclusionally, Rompun was regarded as a factor which causes the degranulateon of mast cell and the authors considered that histamine released from the mast cells by Rompun might cause relaxation of skeletal muscle.

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The Role of Mast Cells in Innate and Adaptive Immunity. (선천면역 및 적응면역에서 비만세포의 기능)

  • Kim, Young-Hee
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.891-896
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    • 2008
  • The function of mast cells as effector cells in allergy has been extensively studied. Mast cells activated through high affinity IgE-receptor ($Fc{\varepsilon}RI$) release diverse mediators, and lead to smooth muscle constriction, vasodilation, increase of vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment and activation, mucus secretion, and tissue proliferation and remodeling. However, various other immunological and non-immunological signals can lead to the activation of mast cells. In resent years, mast cells have been identified to be involved in a complex range of immune functions. Mast cells can be important as key players in the regulation of innate as well as adapted immune responses, and may influence the development of allergy, autoimmune disorder and peripheral tolerance. This review summarizes the recent advances in the understanding of effector functions of mast cells in immune responses.

Identification of Inducible Genes during Mast Cell Differentiation

  • Lee Eunkyung;Kang Sang-gu;Chang Hyeun Wook
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.232-237
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    • 2005
  • Mast cells play an important role in allergic inflammation by releasing their bioactive mediators. The function of mast cells is enhanced by stimulation because of the induction of specific genes and their products. While many inducible genes have been elucidated, we speculated that a significant number of genes remain to be identified. Thus, we applied differential display (dd) PCR to establish a profile of the induced genes in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) after they were co-cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts. To date, 150 cDNA fragments from the connective-type mast cells (CTMCs) were amplified. Among them, thirty cDNA fragments were reamplified for cloning and sequencing. The ddPCR strategy revealed that serine proteases were the most abundant genes among the sequenced clones induced during the maturation. Additionally, unknown genes from the co-culture of BMMCs with 3T3 fibroblasts were identified. We confirmed their induction in the CTMCs by Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR. Characterization of these induced genes during the maturation processes will provide insight into the functions of mast cells.

Crassirhizomae rhizoma Exhibits Anti-Allergic Activity through Inhibition of Syk Kinase in Mast Cells (Syk kinase 억제를 통한 관중의 항앨러지 효과)

  • Kim, Young-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2008
  • This study aimed to investigate the anti-allergic activity and the mechanism of action of Crassirhizomae rhizoma (CR). The extract of CR exhibited potent inhibitory activity in mast cells; its $IC_{50}$ values were $31.2{\pm}1.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ for rat basophile leukemia (RBL)-2H3 mast cells and $51.5{\pm}2.1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ for bone marrow-derived mast cells by antigen stimulation. It also suppressed the expression of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-4 mRNAs in RBL-2H3 cells. In an in-vivo animal allergy model, it inhibited a local allergic reaction, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), in a dose-dependent manner. With regard to the mechanism of action, CR inhibited the activating phosphorylation of Syk kinase, a key signaling protein for the activation of mast cells. Taken together, these results strongly suggested that the anti-allergic activity of CR is mediated through the inhibition of histamine release and allergic cytokine production by the inhibition of Syk in mast cells.

Tissue-dependent variation of protease expression phenotype in mouse peritoneal mast cells (마우스복강비만세포에서 프로테아제 발현 표현형의 조직 의존적 변화)

  • Lee, Young-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.543-548
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    • 2001
  • To examine the fate of the injected peritoneal mast cells (PMCs), we injected PMCs (500 or $10^5$) derived from WBB6F1-green fluorescent protein(GFP) mice into stomach wall of $WBB6F1-W/W^v$ mice. When 500 PMCs were injected, the proportion of alcian blue $(AB)^+$ mast cells to $GFP^+$ mast cells in the muscle was 25.0% on day 1, but decreased to 0.9% on day 7. Then, it increased to 98.2% on day 35. In contrast,$GFP^+$ mast cells in the mucosa were not detectable on day 1, 3, and 7 after injection. On day 35, the proportion of $AB^+$ mast cells to $GFP^+$ mast cells in the mucosa was 97.0%. When $10^5$ PMCs were injected, the proportion of $AB^+$ mast cells to $GFP^+$ mast cells in the muscle was more than 88.2%, and that in the mucosa was more than 86.3% from day 1 through 35 after injection. These results indicated that percentage of degranulation on day 1, 3, 7, 14 after injection of 500 PMCs was significantly higher than that after injection of $10^5$ PMCs. Futhermore, when 500 PMCs were injected, protease expression phenotypes of PMCs changed from day 14 after injection. When $10^5$ PMCs were injected, protease expression phenotype of PMCs did not change after injection. Such degranulated PMCs may acquire the new phenotype and adapt the new tissue.

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Rhus Trichocarpa Suppresses IgE-mediated Allergic Response In Vitro and In Vivo (개옻나무 추출물의 IgE 매개성 알레르기 반응 억제 효과 및 기전)

  • Lim, Hannah;Kim, Young Mi
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.118-124
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    • 2013
  • Mast cells is the key effector cells for IgE-mediated allergic responses. In this study, we investigated whether Rhus trichocarpa extract (RT) inhibited IgE-mediated allergic responses in mast cells and an allergic animal model. We further tried to find its mechanism of action in mast cells. We found that RT suppressed antigen-stimulated degranulation and production of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-4 in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 mast cells and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC), as well as IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in mice. As the mechanism of action of RT, it inhibited the activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a pivotal signaling molecule for activation of mast cells and that of LAT, a downstream adaptor molecule of Syk in $Fc{\varepsilon}RI$-mediated signal pathways. RT also suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and Akt. The current results demonstrated for the first time that RT has the anti-allergic effect through inhibiting degranulation and secretion of cytokines by suppression of Syk in antigen-stimulated mast cells. Therefore, RT might be useful for allergic diseases.

Kinetics of Goblet Cells and Mast Cells in the Intestine of C3H/HeN and BALB/c Mice Infected with Echinostoma hortense

  • Im, Jee-Aee;Kim, Insik;Jo, Yoon-Kyung;Lee, Kyu-Jae;Ryang, Yong-Suk
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2004
  • Mast cells and goblet cells have the ability to protect against parasites by increasing mucus production that traps and excludes worms and prevents their intimate contact with the gut mucosa in the host. In this study, we investigated the function of mast cells and goblet cells for the rejection of Echinostoma hortense (E. hortense). In addition, we used both C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice in order to examine whether mast cells and goblet cells function differentially according to the strains of mice. After an oral infection with 30 E. hortense metacercariae, the number of mucosal mast cells and goblet cells, as well as worm recovery rate, were observed in experimentally infected mice between 1 week and 8 weeks post-infection (PI). Worm recovery rates in C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice were 65.7% and 23%, respectively, in week 1 P.I., indicating that worm expulsion in C3H/HeN mice was higher than in BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrate that the period (week 3 P.I.) in which worm recovery falls rapidly is the same period that the number of goblet cells and mast cells reaches a peak. These results indicate that worm recovery significantly correlates with the growth rate of goblet cells and mast cells (P=0.0482). However, worm expulsion is not associated with goblet cells or mast cells in BALB/c mice.

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Cudrania tricuspidata Suppresses Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Response In Vitro and In Vivo (꾸지뽕나무 추출물의 비만세포 억제에 의한 항알레르기 효과 및 기전)

  • Kim, Young-Mi
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.26-34
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    • 2012
  • Mast cells play an important role in early and late phase allergic reactions through allergen and IgE-dependent release of histamine, proteases, prostaglandins, and several multifunctional cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether Cudrania tricuspidata extract (CTE) suppresses IgE-mediated allergic responses in mast cells, an allergic animal model, and its mechanism of action in mast cells. We found that CTE inhibited IgE-mediated degranulation and cytokine production in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 mast cells and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC), as well as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in mice. With regard to its mechanism of action, CTE suppressed the activating phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a key enzyme in mast cell signaling processes and that of LAT, a downstream adaptor molecule of Syk in $Fc{\varepsilon}RI$-mediated signal pathways. CTE also suppressed the activating phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and Akt. The present results strongly suggest that the anti-allergic activity of CTE is mediated through inhibiting degranulation and allergic cytokine secretion by inhibition of Syk kinase in mast cells. Therefore, CTE may be useful for the treatment of allergic diseases.

Effect of modified-Okbyungpoongsan on mast cell-mediated allergic responses in RBL-2H3 mast cells (가미옥병풍산(加味玉屛風散)의 비만세포에서의 알레르기 반응에 대한 효과 연구)

  • Jung, Jin-Ki;Park, Yong-Ki
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : In this study, we investigated the effect of modified-Okbyungpoongsan (mOP) on mast cell-mediated allergic response in basophilic leukemia cell line, RBL-2H3 mast cells. Methods : Cells were stimulated with anti-DNP-IgE after the treatment of DNP-HSA (AI/D), and then incubated with different concentrations of mOP (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/$m{\ell}$) in RBL-2H3 cells. Cell toxicity was determined by WST-1 assay. The degranulation of mast cells was observed by microscope with toluidine blue staining and also the levels of beta-hexosaminidase, histamine and TNF-alpha were measured in culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results : mOP inhibited anti-DNP-IgE-imduced degranulation of mast cells in RBL-2H3 cells. mOP also significantly decreased the levels of histamine and inflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha in RBL-2H3 cells, but slightly decreased the level of beta-hexosaminidase. Conclusions : These results indicate that mOP, an oriental prescription could be inhibit the allergic response through suppressing the mast cell activation.

Morphological Study on the Mast Cell of Proventriculus in Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (꿩 전위의 비만세포에 관한 형태학적 연구)

  • Lee Y. H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.97-100
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    • 2005
  • Mast cells have been studied extensively in various animals including rats and mice, whereas little is known the morphological data about pheasant mast cells. Here, morphological features of Korean pheasant mast cells are described in this study using light and electron microscopes. For light microscopy, mast cells had many metachromatic granules stained with toluidine blue in the cytoplasm. The fixation with $10\%$ neutral buffered formalin blocked staining of most mast cells but a modified Karnovsky solution proved to be a good fixative. In Korean pheasants, toluidine blue stained more mast cells than did alcian blue. For electron microscopy, the mast cells of the Korean pheasant were round, oval, spindle-like and irregular form and occasionally had a few short cytoplasmic processes. These cells had membrane-bounded granules and poorly developed organells. Some granules in the cytoplasm of the mast cells had bilayer membrane. Most granules were round shape and the membrane of several granules was concave or convex. The granules were composed of three parts, homogenous, particulate and reticular pattern.