• Title, Summary, Keyword: Material Mixing Method

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The Additional Effects of Various Materials on Microwave Heating Property of Frozen Dough (품질개량제 첨가가 냉동반죽의 Microwave 가열특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Mi;Han, Hye-Kyung;Kim, In-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.873-881
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to improve the properties of frozen dough foods (buns and noodles etc.) on the quality deterioration with microwave oven cooking. Microwave is a useful cooking method, but it quickly takes moisture from food surface and makes lowering food quality abruptly. For improvement of these problems, mixing doughs with addition of various additives of 34 types manufactured respectively; starches, modified starches, gums and emulsifiers etc. Each mixing dough produced in sheet type $(30{\times}30{\times}1mm)$ and steamed them, was quickly froze at $-70^{\circ}C$ and packed with polyethylene. Packed samples kept at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours. After they were steam or microwave treatment packed or non-packed with polyethylene, studied for improvement effects of quality as sensory evaluation and selected 6 type additives; modified starches (TA, ST), gums (AR, GA) and emulsifiers (E, S1) as improvement agent. Because moisture loss from microwave oven cooking leads to quality deterioration of frozen dough foods, additive, such as including starches, modified starch, gums, and emusifiers were added to improve dough properties. Amylogram, scanning electron microscopy, textural analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry revealed addition of additives improved textural properties including surface-hardening of frozen dough foods compared to the control.

Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom[Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer] at Medium with Ca(OH)2 Treatment (수산화칼슘[Ca(OH)2] 처리 배지를 이용한 느타리버섯의 재배)

  • Baek, Seung-Hwa;Lee, Yeong-Il;Yoo, Ki-Yong;Han, Seong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.303-313
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    • 2008
  • This research is aimed to investigate the cultivation method of oyster mushroom[Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer] at the non-sterilized medium with $Ca(OH)_2$ treatment. Therefore, experiments were carried out to develop non-sterilization method of medium by addition of $Ca(OH)_2$ for omission of heat sterilization progress of medium. General components, minerals and amino acid in Jiri wild type No. 1 (Pleurotus ostreatus) and production cost were analyzed. For the purpose of omission of heat sterilization progress, treatment ratio of $Ca(OH)_2$ (purity 95%) was 5%(w/w) of dry medium. Initial pH of this medium was 11 and then the pH was changed by 9 after the uniform mixing of the medium for half an hour. The various germs occurred 50% and 100% at pH 8 and pH 7 of the non-sterilized medium, respectively. Production of oyster mushroom increased by $2,030\;ton\;ha^{-1}$ when the main raw material used corn pith instead of waste cotton. The time required of mycelium culture was 30 days when hypha was cultured at the non-sterilized medium, and pinhead occurred when 2 or 3 days was passed after the time required of mycelium culture. Occurrence of pinhead was most rapid at the condition of $22{\sim}26^{\circ}C$, 65% humidity and pH $6.5{\sim}7.0$ and required of $22{\sim}28$ days at $70{\sim}80\;mm$ thickness of non-sterilized medium. Ca content in 1st harvest oyster mushroom was higher than that in 2nd harvest one, and its difference was $30.3\;mg\;kg^{-1}$. Amino acid content by stipe thickness of oyster mushroom was ranged from 411.2 to $343.9\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ both in a pileus and a stipe of 1st harvest mushroom, and from 402.4 to $498.2\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ and from 442.6 to $470.4\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ in those of 2nd harvest one, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that the non-sterilization medium by addition of $Ca(OH)_2$ is usable with the cultivation of oyster mushroom.

The CH3CHO Removal Characteristics of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete with TiO2 Spreaded by Low Temperature Firing using Sol-gel Method (Sol-gel법으로 이산화티탄(TiO2)을 저온소성 도포시킨 경량골재콘크리트의 아세트알데히드(CH3CHO) 제거 특성)

  • Lee, Seung Han;Yeo, In Dong;Jung, Yong Wook;Jang, Suk Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.31 no.2A
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2011
  • Recently studies on functional concrete with a photocatalytic material such as $TiO_2$ have actively been carried out in order to remove air pollutants. The absorbtion of $TiO_2$ from those studies is applied by it being directly mixed into concrete or by suspension coated on the surface. When it comes to the effectiveness, the former process is less than that of the latter compared with the $TiO_2$ use. As a result, the direct coating of $TiO_2$ on materials' surface is more used for effectiveness. The Surface spread of it needs to have a more than $400^{\circ}C$ heat treat done to stimulate the activation and adhesion of photocatalysis. Heat treat consequently leads hydration products in concrete to be dehydrated and shrunk and is the cause of cracking. The study produces $TiO_2$ used Sol-gel method which enables it to be coated with a low temperature treat, applies it to pearlite using Lightweight Aggregate Concrete fixed with a low temperature treat and evaluates the spread performance of it. In addition to this, the size of pearlite is divided into two types: One is 2.5 mm to 5.0 mm and the other is more than 5.0 mm for the benefit of finding out the removal characteristics of $CH_3CHO$ whether they are affected by pearlite size, mixing method and ratio with $TiO_2$ and elapsed time. The result of this experiment shows that although $TiO_2$ produced by Sol-gel method is treated with 120 temperature, it maintains a high spread rate on the XRF(X ray Florescence) quantitative analysis which ranks $TiO_2$ 38 percent, $SiO_2$ 29 percent and CaO 18 percent. In the size of perlite from 2.5 mm to 5.0 mm, the removal characteristic of $CH_3CHO$ from a low temperature heated Lightweight concrete appears 20 percent higher when $TiO_2$ with Sol-gel method is spreaded on the 7 percent of surface. In other words, the removal rate is 94 percent compared with the 72 percent where $TiO_2$ is mixed in 10 percent surface. In more than 5.0 mm sized perlite, the removal rate of $CH_3CHO$, when $TiO_2$ is mixed with 10 percent, is 69 percent, which is similar with that of the previous case. It suggests that the size of pearlite has little effects on the removal rate of $CH_3CHO$. In terms of Elapsed time, the removal characteristic seems apparent at the early stage, where the average removal rate for the first 10 hours takes up 84 percent compared with that of 20 hours.

A study on the optimum ratio of the ingredients in preparation of black sesame gruels (흑임자죽 재료배합비의 최적화 연구)

  • 박정리;김종군;김정미
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.685-693
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    • 2003
  • The aim of this study was to develop a standardized recipe for black sesame gruel that has been preferred for generations as a nutritional food. The method focused on optimizing the mixing ratio of the components to improve the quality of the black sesame gruels that modem consumers would like. The results are summarized as follows: The more black sesame added to the gruel, the lower its brightness was, but the redness and yellowness was higher. The amount of black sesame made a significant difference in the viscosity, color, nutty taste, bitterness, appearance and overall preference. It was highest in the overall preference when the amount of black sesame was added 33g(40% of rice weight basis). Different types of rice were added to the black sesame gruel, and it was observed that the color value of the gruel was high in its brightness, redness and yellowness when 50g(60%) of glutinous rice was added to it. The black sesame gruel was most preferred when 50g of non-glutinous rice was added. The redness value was high when 15g(18%) of non-glutinous rice flour was added. The yellowness value was high when 25g(30%) of non-glutinous rice flour was added. This observation showed significant differences in the viscosity, color, nutty taste, bitterness, appearance and overall preference. In particular, the black sesame gruel was most preferred when 50g of non-glutinous rice flour was added. The addition of 7g(9%) of salt to the black sesame gruel showed the highest brightness. The redness and yellowness was the highest when 5g(6%) of salt was added. This observation showed a significant difference in the viscosity, color, nutty taste, bitterness, appearance and overall preference. The highest preference was observed when 2.5g(3%) of salt was added. Adding more materials increased the viscosity of the black sesame gruel. With increasing temperature, the viscosity became lower, and vice versa. The intensity of sweetness and spreadability was found to be proportional to the amount of additive material. In conclusion, the optimum recipe for black sesame gruels was obtained 33g(40%) of black sesame, 50g(60%) of glutinous rice (flour), 2.5g of salt, and 500$m\ell$ of water.


  • Lee Eung-Ho;Park Yeung-Ho;Pyeun Jae-Hyeung;Kim Se-Kweun;Yang Sung-Tack;Song Yeung-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.25-37
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    • 1978
  • Since 1976 the catches of sardine increased rapidly in Korea. However due to the poor facilities of preservation, most sardine landed was used only for fish meal as feeds. The aims of this study are to investigate the processing of sardine as a protein. concentrate and to solve related problems under our particular circumstances. Using the ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol, the storage effect for further processing, the optimum processing conditions of sardine protein concentrate and amino acid composition of the product were determined. The utilization of sardine protein ,concentrate as a supplement of bread and noodles was also studied. Chopped sardine meat could be stored in isopropyl and ethyl alcohol without significant deterioration as a raw material for tile further processing. High qualify sardine Protein concentrate could be produced by the method, that is five times five minutes extraction with isopropyl or ethyl alcohol at $80^{\circ}C$ under adequate mixing. In the first step of the extraction, the solvent was added as much as 10 times tile sample amount and the equal volume of additional solvent was also used for the second to fifth step extraction. In the products extracted using isopropyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol, the yields of sardine protein concentrate were $21.2\%$ and $20.3\%$ respectively, and the dry basis contents of protein in the two products were $80.5\%$ and $75.8\%$, the lipid being $0.22\%$ and $0.27\%$ respectively. Isoproyl alcohol was superior to superior alcohol for the extraction of fresh sardine. In amino acid composition of sardine protein concentrate, no difference was found between the products of isopropyl and ethyl alcohol extraction except a little difference in the amount of amino acid between them. In the supplementation of bread and noodles, taste panel showed that supplemented bread and noodles were well accepted when $3\%$ of wheat flour was replaced by sardine protein concentrate.

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  • Kim, Ji-Hoon;Shin, Dong-Hoon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2009
  • This study was done to determine if there is any difference in microleakage between experimental composite resins, in which various proportions of three component photoinitiators (Camphoroquinone, OPPI, Amine) were included. Four kinds of experimental composite resin were made by mixing 3.2% silanated barium glass (78 wt.%, average size; 1 ${\mu}m$) with each monomer system including variously proportioned photoinitiator systems used for photoinitiating BisGMA/BisEMA/TEGDMA monomer blend (37.5:37.5:25 wt.%). The weight percentage of each component were as follows (in sequence Camphoroquinone, OPPI, Amine): Group A - 0.5%, 0%, 1% / Group B - 2%, 0.2%, 2% / Group C - 0.2%, 1%, 0.2% / Group D - 1%, 1%, 2%. Each composite resin was used as a filling material for round class V cavities (diameter: 2/3 of mesiodistal width; depth: 1.5 mm) made on extracted human premolars and they were polymerized using curing light unit (XL 2500, 3M ESPE) for 40 s with an intensity of 600 mW/$cm^2$. Teeth were thermocycled fivehundred times between $50^{\circ}C$and $550^{\circ}C$for 30s at each temperature. Electrical conductivity (${\mu}A$) was recorded two times (just after thermocycling and after three-month storage in saline solution) by electrochemical method. Microleakage scores of each group according to evaluation time were as follows [Group: at first record / at second record; unit (${\mu}A$)]: A: 3.80 (0.69) / 13.22 (4.48), B: 3.42 (1.33) / 18.84 (5.53), C: 4.18 (2.55) / 28.08 (7.75), D: 4.12 (1.86) / 7.41 (3.41). Just after thermocycling, there was no difference in microleakage between groups, however, group C showed the largest score after three-month storage. Although there seems to be no difference in microleakage between groups just after thermocycling, composite resin with highly concentrated initiation system or classical design (Camphoroquinone and Amine system) would be more desirable for minimizing microleakage after three-month storage.

Preparation of Birnessite (δ-MnO2) from Acid Leaching Solution of Spent Alkaline Manganese Batteries and Removals of 1-naphthol (폐 알칼리망간전지의 산 침출액으로부터 버네사이트(δ-MnO2)의 제조 및 1-naphthol 제거)

  • Eom, Won-Suk;Lee, Han-Saem;Rhee, Dong-Seok;Shin, Hyun-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.38 no.11
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    • pp.603-610
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    • 2016
  • This work studies the synthesis of birnessite (${\delta}-MnO_2$), a catalyst of oxidative-coupling reactions, from the powder of spent alkaline manganese batteries (SABP, <8 mesh) and evaluate its reactivity for 1-naphthol (1-NP) removals. Manganese oxides using commercial reagents ($MnSO_4$, $MnCl_2$) and the acid birnessite (A-Bir) by McKenzie method were also synthesized, and their crystallinity and reactivity for 1-NP were compared with one another. 96% Mn and 98% Zn were extracted from SABP by acid leaching at the condition of solid/liquid (S/L) ratio 1:10 in $1.0M\;H_2SO_4+10.5%\;H_2O_2$ at $60^{\circ}C$. From the acid leaching solution, 69% (at pH 8) and 94.3% (pH>13) of Mn were separated by hydroxide precipitation. Optimal OH/Mn mixing ratio (mol/mol) for the manganese oxide (MO) synthesis by alkaline (NaOH) hydrothermal techniques was 6.0. Under this condition, the best 1-NP removal efficiency was observed and XRD analysis confirmed that the MOs are corresponding to birnessite. Kinetic constants (k, at pH 6) for the 1-NP removals of the birnessites obtained from Mn recovered at pH 8 (${Mn^{2+}}_{(aq)}$) and pH>13 ($Mn(OH)_{2(s)}$) are 0.112 and $0.106min^{-1}$, respectively, which are similar to that from $MnSO_4$ reagent ($0.117min^{-1}$). The results indicated that the birnessite prepared from the SABP as a raw material could be used as an oxidative-coupling catalyst for removals of trace phenolic compounds in soil and water, and propose the recycle scheme of SAB for the birnessite synthesis.