• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mean Stress

Search Result 1,949, Processing Time 0.045 seconds

Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Properties in Spring Steel (스프링강의 피로 특성에 미치는 평균 응력의 영향)

  • Seok, Chang-Sung;Kim, Hyung-Ick;Chang, Pil-Soo;Joo, Jae-Man;Kang, Jeong-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.255-260
    • /
    • 2003
  • Most of the fatigue test were achieved in fully reversed condition that mean stress is zero. But, generally, mean stress can not be zero. This research was achieved the bending fatigue test that changes mean stress to spring steel and was studied relation with the mean stress and the fatigue life. The method to search effect about mean stress was extended S-N graph in two cases. One method was extended S-N graph using modified Miner's rule with considering damage. Another was extended using tendency of S-N graph. The exponential value(${\alpha}$) of mean stress-alternating stress equation is converged between the Goodman's and the Gerber's value even if fatigue life increases.

  • PDF

Fatigue Life Prediction and Ratcheting behavior of the Elbrodur-NIB under Fatigue loading with mean stress (평균응력을 포함한 피로하중 하에서 Elbrodur-NIB의 피로수명예측 및 Ratcheting 거동)

  • Lim, Chang-Bum
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
    • /
    • v.39 no.7
    • /
    • pp.612-617
    • /
    • 2011
  • An experimental study was carried out for the Elbrodur-NIB(copper alloy) at room temperature under stress-controlled uniaxial fatigue loading with and without mean stress. As a result, the effects of stress amplitude, mean stress and stress rate on ratcheting behavior were investigated. The ratcheting strain increased with increasing stress amplitude for a given mean stress, and with mean stress for a given stress amplitude. But, the ratcheting strain decreased as the stress rate increased. The three mean stress models were investigated and the mean stress models of Smith-Watson-Topper and Walker yielded good correlation of fatigue lives in the life range of $10^2-10^5$cycles.

Influence of stress level on uniaxial ratcheting effect and ratcheting strain rate in austenitic stainless steel Z2CND18.12N

  • Chen, Xiaohui;Chen, Xu;Chen, Haofeng
    • Steel and Composite Structures
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.89-94
    • /
    • 2018
  • Uniaxial ratcheting behavior of Z2CND18.12N austenitic stainless steel used nuclear power plant piping material was studied. The results indicated that ratcheting strain increased with increasing of stress amplitude under the same mean stress and different stress amplitude, ratcheting strain increased with increasing of mean stress under the same stress amplitude and different mean stress. Based on least square method, a suitable method to arrest ratcheting by loading the materials was proposed, namely determined method of zero ratcheting strain rate. Zero ratcheting strain rate occur under specified mean stress and stress amplitudes. Moreover, three dimensional ratcheting boundary surface graph was established with stress amplitude, mean stress and ratcheting strain rate. This represents a graphical surface zone to study the ratcheting strain rates for various mean stress and stress amplitude combinations. The graph showed the ratcheting behavior under various combinations of mean and amplitude stresses. The graph was also expressed with the help of experimental results of certain sets of mean and stress amplitude conditions. Further, experimentation cost and time can be saved.

A Study of Low Cycle Fatigue Characteristics of 11.7Cr-1.1Mo Heat Resisting Steel with Mean Stress (Mean Stress를 고려한 11.7Cr-1.1Mo강의 고온저주기 피로특성에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, Sang-Hyuk;Hong, Chun-Hyi;Lee, Hyun-Woo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
    • /
    • v.14 no.3
    • /
    • pp.133-141
    • /
    • 2006
  • The Low cycle fatigue behavior of 11.7Cr-1.1Mo heat-resisting steel has been investigated under strain-controlled conditions with mean stresses at room temperature and $300^{\circ}C$. For the tensile mean stress test, the initial high tensile mean stress generally relaxed to zero at room temperature, however, at $300^{\circ}C$ initial tensile mean stress relaxed to compressive mean stress. Low cycle fatigue lives under mean stress conditions are usually correlated using modifications to the strain-life approach. Based on the fatigue test results from different stain ratio of -1, 0, 0.5, and 0.75 at room temperature and $300^{\circ}C$, the fatigue damage of the steel was represented by using cyclic strain energy density. Total strain energy density considering mean stress indicated well better than not considering mean stress at $300^{\circ}C$. Predicted fatigue life using Smith-Watson-Topper's parameter correlated fairly well with the experimental life at $300^{\circ}C$.

Effects of loading conditions on the fatigue failure characteristics in a polycarbonate

  • Okayasu, Mitsuhiro;Yano, Kei;Shiraishi, Tetsuro
    • Advances in materials Research
    • /
    • v.3 no.3
    • /
    • pp.163-174
    • /
    • 2014
  • In this study, fatigue properties and crack growth characteristics of a polycarbonate (PC) were examined during cyclic loading at various mean stress (${\sigma}_{amp}$) and stress amplitude (${\sigma}_{mean}$) conditions. Different S vs. N and da/dN vs. ${\Delta}K$ relations were obtained depending on the loading condition. The higher fatigue strength and the higher resistance of crack growth are seen for the PC samples cyclically loaded at the higher mean stress and lower stress amplitude due to the low crack driving force. Non-linear S - N relationship was detected in the examination of the fatigue properties with changing the mean stress. This is attributed to the different crack growth rate (longer fatigue life): the sample loaded at the high mean stress with lower stress amplitude. Even if the higher stress amplitude, the low fatigue properties are obtained for the sample loaded at the higher mean stress. This was due to the accumulated strain energy to the sample, where severe plastic deformation occurs instead of crack growth (plasticity-induced crack closure). Shear bands and discontinuous crack growth band (DGB) are observed clearly on the fracture surfaces of the sample cyclically loaded at the high stress amplitude, where the lower the ${\sigma}_{mean}$, the narrower the shear band and DGB. On the other hand, final fracture occurred instantly immediately after the short crack growth occurs in the PC sample loaded at the high mean with the low ${\sigma}_{amp}$, i.e., tear fracture, in which the shear bands and DGB are not seen clearly.

The Relationship between Stress and pain in patient Undergoing Angiocardiography (심혈관조영술 환자의 스트레스와 통증과의 관계)

  • Kwon, Kyung-Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Industry Convergence
    • /
    • v.7 no.4
    • /
    • pp.317-324
    • /
    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for nursing intervention in patient undergoing angiocardiography. Method: The subjects of this study were 60 patients undergoing angiocardiography. The data were analyzed using mean, percentage and pearson correlation Coefficient. Result 1) The mean score of the affective stress(anxiety) was $48.00{\pm}12.24$ and behavioral stress was $1.98{\pm}1.97$. The mean score of the physiologic stress(vital sign) was systolic pressure $124.10{\pm}17.72$, diastolic pressure $79.71{\pm}12.68$, pulse: $81.03{\pm}12.16$, respiration: $21.21{\pm}1.40$ 2) The mean score of the pain was $1.40{\pm}0.67.$ 3) There was a significant positive correlation between stress and pain. Conclusion : The result of this study show that stress is very important factor that effect on the pain therefore it will be considered stress in patient undergoing angiocardiography.

  • PDF

Mental Stress and Stress Factors of Female Workers (여성근로자 정신스트레스와 스트레스 부하요인에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Min Seon
    • Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.141-155
    • /
    • 1999
  • For the purpose of disclosing the mental health status as well as its stress factors of female workers in industry, a questionaire survey was carried out on 283 female workers, namely. 134 of a service industry(department store) in seoul and 149 of a manufacturing industry(food) in Kyunggi-do district from 24 to 29 January, 1994. The result were as follows : 1. The mean scores of poor mental health indicator showed no significant difference between service industry and manufacturing industry, while the mean scores of good mental health indicator showed a significant difference between those two industries. 2. The mean scores of work stress as social stress factors showed a significant difference between service industry and manufacturing industry. However, no significant difference was observed between the mean scores of personal stress factor between those two industries. 3. In general, the work stress factor was more significantly contributed by marital status, while the social stress as well as the personal stress factor were contributed more by monthly income. 4. The major contributing factor to the poor mental health was the personal stress factor in general, followed by the work stress factor. However, the weight of these two stress factors was reversed according to the type of industries.

  • PDF

MEAN LOAD EFFECT ON FATIGUE OF WELDED JOINTS USING STRUCTURAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS APPROACH

  • Kim, Jong-Sung;Kim, Cheol;Jin, Tae-Eun;Dong, P.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
    • /
    • v.38 no.3
    • /
    • pp.277-284
    • /
    • 2006
  • In order to ensure the structural integrity of nuclear welded structures during design life, the fatigue life has to be evaluated by fatigue analysis procedures presented in technical codes such as ASME B&PV Code Section III. However, existing fatigue analysis procedures do not explicitly consider the presence of welded joints. A new fatigue analysis procedure based on a structural stress/fracture mechanics approach has been recently developed in order to reduce conservatism by erasing uncertainty in the analysis procedure. A recent review of fatigue crack growth data under various mean loading conditions using the structural stress/fracture mechanics approach, does not consider the mean loading effect, revealed some significant discrepancies in fatigue crack growth curves according to the mean loading conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of the stress intensity factor range ${\Delta}K$ characterized with loading ratio R effects in terms of the structural stress. We demonstrate the effectiveness in characterizing fatigue crack growth and S-N behavior using the well-known data. It was identified that the S-N data under high mean loading could be consolidated in a master S-N curve for welded joints.

Stress Effects on Activity of Primary Cracks Initiating at Stress Concentrator (응력 집중원에서 발생하는 초기 균열의 거동에 미치는 응력장의 영향)

  • Song, Sam-Hong;Kim, Jin-Bong
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.145-153
    • /
    • 1999
  • This study has been performed to investigate the stress distribution around defects that behave as stress concentrators and fracture mechanical analysis for cracks initiatiating at stress concentrators. The stress distribution was analyzed using Finite Element Method and non dimensional stress intensity factor was determined by the mean stress method. In addition, stress interaction effects around defects and cracks were compared.

  • PDF

Prediction of Residual Stress Distribution in Multi-Stacked Thin Film by Curvature Measurement and Iterative FEA

  • Choi Hyeon Chang;Park Jun Hyub
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.19 no.5
    • /
    • pp.1065-1071
    • /
    • 2005
  • In this study, residual stress distribution in multi-stacked film by MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical System) process is predicted using Finite Element method (FEM). We evelop a finite element program for residual stress analysis (RESA) in multi-stacked film. The RESA predicts the distribution of residual stress field in multi-stacked film. Curvatures of multi­stacked film and single layers which consist of the multi-stacked film are used as the input to the RESA. To measure those curvatures is easier than to measure a distribution of residual stress. To verify the RESA, mean stresses and stress gradients of single and multi layers are measured. The mean stresses are calculated from curvatures of deposited wafer by using Stoney's equation. The stress gradients are calculated from the vertical deflection at the end of cantilever beam. To measure the mean stress of each layer in multi-stacked film, we measure the curvature of wafer with the left film after etching layer by layer in multi-stacked film.