• Title, Summary, Keyword: Medicinal Plant

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Effect of Hot Water Extracts of Roasted Rhus vemiciflua Stokes on Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity (볶음 처리한 옻나무 열수추출물의 항산화성 및 암세포 성장억제효과)

  • Kwak, Eun-Jung;Jo, Il-Jin;Sung, Ki-Seung;Ha, Tae-Youl
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.784-789
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    • 2005
  • The inhibitory effects of hot water extracts of Rhus verniciflua Stokes pith and peel roasted at 170, 200 and $220^{\circ}C$ on lipid peroxidation, formation of DPPH free radicals and growth of four human cancer cells such as HepG2 (liver cancer), SNU-1 (stomach cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and Widr (colon cancer) were examined. The antioxidant activities and growth inhibitory effects on cancer cells of hot water extracts of peel were higher than those of pith, and the activities were dose-dependent. The roasting temperature showing the highest antioxidant activities and growth inhibitory effects on cancer cells was in the range of $170\~200^{\circ}C$ The lipid peroxidation and formation of DPPH free radicals of hot water extracts of roasted pith and peel were inhibited to 50.9, $56.5\%\;and\;79.0,\;78.4\%$ at the concentration of $500\mu g/mL$, respectively. The growth inhibitory effects of roasted pith and peel on cancer cells were in the order of Widr (41.5, $36.0\%$) > HepG2 (61.5, $44.0\%$) > MCF-7 (92.0, $69.2\%$)> SNU-1 (100, $100\%$) cells at the concentration of $1,000\mu g/mL$ as compared with the control, respectively. These results suggest that roasted Rhus verniciflua Stokes could be an useful natural medicinal plant for colon cancer.

Cytotoxicity and Multidrug -Resistance Reversing Activity of Extracts from Gamma-Irradiated Coix Zachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf Seed (감마선 조사된 율무종자의 세포독성 및 다제내성 극복활성)

  • Cha, Young-Ju;Lee, Sook-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.613-618
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to examine the effects of gamma irradiation on the cytotoxicity and multidrug-resistance reversing activity of methanol extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. me-yuen Stapf seed. The seed was irradiated with doses of 1, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 Gy of the gamma radiation, and then extracted by methanol. The extracts were examined for cytotoxicity on the human cancer cell lines, MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma pleural effusion), Calu-6 (human pulmonary carcinoma) and SNU-601 (human gastric carcinoma) cells, and investigated for multidrug-resistance reversing activity using drug sensitive AML-2/WT and multidrug-resistant AML-2/D100 cells. The growth inhibitory activity of irradiated seed extracts on human cancer cell lines was higher than that of the control. In the case of Calu-6 cell line, the effect of cytotoxicity was observed in the extracts of 4, 8 and 16 Gy. $IC_{50}$ value in the MCF-7 cell line was measured in the only 8 Gy extract. And in the SNU-601 cell line as Calu-6, the effect of cytotoxicity was observed in the extracts of 4, 8 and 16 Gy. But the extracts of gamma-irradiated seed over 32 Gy showed little growth inhibitory effect against human cancer cell lines. In this result, 8 Gy extract had significant growth inhibitory in all human cancer cell lines $(Calu-6:\;633\;{\mu}g/mL,\;MCF-7:\;653\;{\mu}g/mL\;and\;SNU-601:\;683\;{\mu}g/mL)$. The extracts of 4, 8 and 16 Gy strongly potentiated vincristine cytotoxicity in AML-2/D100 cells. The reversal fold (RF) of 4, 8 and 16 Gy extracts was 1.7, 1.8 and 1.6, respectively. But their cytotoxicities to both sensitive AML-2/WT and resistant AML-2/D100 cells were in the same order of magnitude. These results indicate that the above samples would contain some principles which have cytotoxicity and multidrug-resistance reversing activity. Irradiation technology can be applied to promote physiological activities of medicinal plant seeds.

Effect of Dietary Siberian Ginseng and Eucommia on Broiler Performance, Serum Biochemical Profiles and Telomere Length (가시오갈피와 두충의 첨가 급여가 브로일러의 생산 능력, 혈장 생화학 지표 및 텔로미어 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Sohn, S.H.;Jang, I.S.;Moon, Y.S.;Kim, Y.J.;Lee, S.H.;Ko, Y.H.;Kang, S.Y.;Kang, H.K.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.283-290
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    • 2008
  • The Siberian ginseng and Eucommia are a kind of medicinal plant with powerful anti-oxidant activity. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Siberian ginseng leaf and Eucommia leaf at level of 0.5% and 1% per feed in Ross commercial broiler for 4 to 35 days of age on performance, organ weight, blood biochemical profiles and telomere quantity. Chickens consuming diets containing 1% Siberian ginseng had higher feed conversion ratio than the other treated chicken during experimental period whereas no significant differences were detected in body weight, weight gain and feed intake. The weight of bursa of fabricius was significantly increased in chickens with dietary supplementation compared with chickens fed control but this was not seen in liver, spleen and thymus. In blood biochemical profiles, chickens with dietary supplementation had higher concentration than chickens fed control in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose. The concentration of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin and total protein, however, was not significantly different between dietary supplemented chickens and control chickens. The relative amount of telomeric DNA of lymphocytes in chickens with dietary supplementation was significantly higher than that of control chickens but the difference was not found in liver, heart and testis tissues. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Siberian ginseng and Eucommia in broiler improved immune activity and telomere length without decreasing chicken growth performance.

Effect of Dietary Anti-oxidant Supplementation on Telomere Length and Egg Quality in Laying Hens (산란계에 항산화물질 급여가 텔로미어 함량 및 난질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, M.H.;Lee, S.H.;Kim, Y.J.;Ko, Y.H.;Jang, I.S.;Moon, Y.S.;Choi, Y.H.;Sohn, S.H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.267-274
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    • 2008
  • There are many kinds of anti-oxidant materials in natural plant resources. The Siberian ginseng and Eucommia are well known as anti-oxidant and medicinal plants. To investigate the effect of their anti-oxidant-like activity on telomere quantity and egg quality, diets containing Siberian ginseng leaf and Eucommia leaf at 0.5% and 1% were given Hyline Brown commercial laying hens during two periods of age: 20 to 30 wks and 60 to 70 wks. The amount of telomere in lymphocyte, liver, ovary, heart and lung was analyzed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization using telomeric DNA probe. Egg weight, albumin height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color, egg shell color, egg shell thickness, egg shell weight and egg shell density were measured to analyze egg quality. The chickens consuming diets Siberian ginseng and Eucommia had higher telomeric DNA in lymphocytes than control chickens in younger layers whereas no significant differences were detected in all target cells analyzed from older layers. Egg quality was increased in younger hens with dietary supplementation as determined by egg weight, albumin height and Haugh unit but there were no effects in older hens. These results imply that dietary supplementation of Siberian ginseng and Eucommia in layers improves bio-activity and egg quality at early laying stage.

A Critical Review of "Type Specimens Collected from Korea at the Herbarium of the University of Tokyo" and "Korean type Specimens Deposited in Foreign Herbaria and Museums" ("Type Specimens Collected from Korea at the Herbarium of the University of Tokyo"와 "Korean Type Specimens Deposited in Foreign Herbaria and Museums"의 오류에 대한 비평)

  • Eom, Hyun-Joo;Chang, Chin-Sung;Kim, Hui
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.99 no.4
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    • pp.447-469
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    • 2010
  • The recent publications of two major works from Ministry of Environment and Korea National Arboretum (Type specimens collected from Korea at the herbarium of the University of Tokyo, five volumes) and National Institute of Biological Resources (Korean type specimens deposited in foreign herbaria and museums, two volumes excluding other animal groups) on Korean vascular plants have resulted in discrepancies needing either correction or clarification. The former published the results of a portion of T. Nakai's collections deposited at TI, while the latter produced the results about collections of G. Koidzumi's, J. Ohwi's, and S. Kitamura's at Kyoto University and of E. H. Wilson's and H. Leveille's at Harvard University. Consequently some omissions, discrepancies, and conflicts resulted, such as the inclusion of conflicting designations of lectotype, isotype, syntype or holotype, erroneous citations of publications, and misinformation. Suh et al.'s publications about type specimens of Korean plants deposited at TI showed 47 conflicting typifications and 20 typographical and other errors. Type information offered by Yim et al. were discussed, and 75 conflicting typification and 30 typographical and other errors from these two volumes were also brought to notice. It is clear that Suh et al. and Yim et al. merely provided type information without consulting original description of each plant species. It is apparent that all these conflicting designation of types, erroneous citations of publications, and other types of misinformation were as a result of the disregard of original citation and the ignorance of basic type concept.

Immunological Activity of Solvent Fractions from $Epimedium$ $koreanum$ Nakai (삼지구엽초 용매별 분획 추출물의 면역관련 활성)

  • Park, Myoung-Su;Kim, Seo-Jin;Wang, Jun;Kim, Gwang-Hee;Oh, Deog-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.110-115
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    • 2012
  • $Epimedium$ $koreanum$ Nakai is a wild medicinal plant commonly consumed in South Korea due to its beneficial health effects. In this study, the antimutagenic and immunological activities of $E.$ $koreanum$ Nakai extracts were investigated for their use in food. In the immunomodulating activity, the effects of $E.$ $koreanum$ Nakai on the B cell (Rhamos) and T cell (Molt-4) were investigated. The results showed that the growth and viability of the B and T cells were increased and activated more in the ethylacetate (1.35 and 1.48 times) and water fraction (1.30 and 1.40 times), respectively. In the Ames test, none of the fractions produced a mutagenic effect on $Salmonella$. $typhimurium$ TA98 and TA 100. The ethylacetate fraction showed a strong antimutagenic effect (98%) on and a high butanol fraction (84%) of B(${\alpha}$)P in $S.$ $typhimurium$ TA98 and TA100, respectively. In 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), all the solvent fractions showed an over 70% antimutagenic effect, except for the chloroform extract. Especially, ethylacetate and butanol showed strong inhibition of the mutagenic effects (80 and 90%) on 4NQO in $S.$ $typhimurium$ TA98 and TA100, respectively. These results provide preliminary data for the development of $E.$ $koreanum$ Nakai as an edible food material.

Method Validation for the Determination of Eleutherosides and β-Glucan in Acanthopanax koreanum (탐라오가피의 Eleutheroside B, E 및 β-Glucan 함량 분석 및 분석법 검증)

  • Kim, Young-Hyun;Bae, Da-Bin;Park, Sun-Ok;Lee, Sang-Jong;Cho, Ok-Hyun;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.9
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    • pp.1419-1425
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the method validation for the determination of eleutherosides (B and E) and ${\beta}$-glucan in Acanthopanax (A.) koreanum. This medicinal plant reportedly mainly included eleutherosides which exhibit the pharmacological effects, and ${\beta}$-glucan substantially enhances the function of the immune system by activating macrophages. The specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3), and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) were measured by HPLC and enzymatic methods. Our results showed that the coefficient of calibration correlation ($R^2$) for eleutheroside B and E were 0.9997 and 0.9999, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) for eleutheroside B and E were $0.050{\mu}g/mL$ and $0.025{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. The recovery rate of eleutheroside B and E were revealed in the high range of 100.66~110.04% and 94.26~111.62%, respectively. The inter-day precision of eleutheroside B and E in the root and stem in A. koreanum were 1.4~5.0% and 1.1~2.5%, respectively. The intra-day precision of eleutheroside B and E in the root and stem in A. koreanum were 2.8~2.9% and 0.4~1.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the inter-day and intra-day precision of ${\beta}$-glucan in the stem, leaf, and fruit of A. koreanum were 1.32~5.67% and 8.01~11.76%, respectively. In conclusion, the methods were validated for the detection of eleutherosides and ${\beta}$-glucan in A. koreanum.

Effects of Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal Extracts on Adipocyte and Osteoblast Differentiation (감초추출물의 지방세포와 조골세포에 대한 분화효과)

  • Seo, Cho-Rong;Byun, Jong Seon;An, Jae Jin;Lee, JaeHwan;Hong, Joung-Woo;Jang, Sang Ho;Park, Kye Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.7
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    • pp.1015-1021
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    • 2013
  • Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal, an important species of licorice, is one of the most widely used medicinal plants for over 4000 years. Glycyrrhiza plant species has been well known for its various therapeutic activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-ulcer. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal ethanol extracts (GBE) on adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation. Mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells were treated with sub-cytotoxic doses of GBE, and its effects on adipocyte differentiation were assessed. We found that GBE dose-dependently increased lipid accumulation and also induced the expression of adipocyte markers, such as $PPAR{\gamma}$ and its target genes, aP2, and adiponectin, in C3H10T1/2 cells. Consistently, similar effects of GBE on lipid accumulation were also observed in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells that further supports the pro-adipogenic activities of GBE. We also investigated the effects of GBE on osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells. As a results, we found that GBE increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase in a dose-dependent manner and also promoted the expression of osteoblast markers, such as ALP and RUNX2, during osteoblast differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. Similar pro-osteogenic effects of GBE were also observed in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Finally, our data show that a major bioactive compound found in Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal, licochalcone A (LA) but not glycyrrhizic acid (GA), can mediate the pro-adipogenic and pro-osteogenic effects of GBE. Taken together, this study provides data to show the possibility of GBE and its bioactive component LA as putative strategies for type 2 diabetes and bone diseases.

Immunomodulatory Effects of Fermented Curcuma longa L. Extracts on RAW 264.7 Cells (RAW 264.7 세포에서 발효 울금 추출물의 면역조절 효과)

  • Yoo, Seon A;Kim, Ok Kyung;Nam, Da-Eun;Kim, Yongjae;Baek, Humyoung;Jun, Woojin;Lee, Jeongmin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.216-223
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    • 2014
  • Curcuma longa L. (CL) is a well known traditional medicinal plant that is also used in curries and mustards as a coloring and flavoring agent. However, CL is not usually used as a food source due to its bitter taste. We investigated the immunomodulatory effect of CL fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FCL) on RAW 264.7 cells. FCL was extracted with cold water (CW), hot water (HW), 20% ethanol (20% EtOH) and 80% ethanol (80% EtOH), after which its effects on phagocytic activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$), nitric oxide (NO) production, natural killer (NK) cell activity and mRNA expression of LP-BM5 eco were investigated. Phagocytic activity was increased in HW and 20% EtOH when compared to the control. The secretion of nitric oxide (NO) from RAW 264.7 cells did not change significantly relative to the control. However, TNF-${\alpha}$ was significantly increased by the addition of FCL extracts. Moreover, FCL 20% ethanol extract showed a four fold increase in NK cell cytotoxity relative to the control group. Finally, we observed suppressed mRNA expression of LP-BM5 eco in FCL extracts, especially in the 20% ethanol extracts group. These results indicate that the FCL extracts can be used as a functional material due to their effective immunomodulating activities.

Quality Evaluation of the Home-made Soy-Sauce Jangachi, Korean Traditional Pickle, Prepared by the Head-Families of Andong, Korea (안동지역 종가에서 전통적으로 제조된 간장 장아찌의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Deok-Jin;Kim, Mi-Sun;Lee, Ye-Seul;Sohn, Ho-Yong
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.311-319
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    • 2013
  • In an effort to characterize the physicochemical properties and microbial risks associated with the soy sauce jangachi (Korean traditional pickle), 15 different home-made products, which were prepared from medicinal plants and wild edible vegetables, from head-families of Andong, Kyungsangbuk-do Province in Korea, and 6 different commercial products sold at supermarket, were investigated. The average pH of the mature soaking solutions and plants soaked in the 21 jangachi were $3.99{\pm}0.38$ and $3.51{\pm}0.41$, and the average acidity of the mature soaking solutions and soaked plants were $1.59{\pm}0.54$ and $1.65{\pm}0.76$, respectively. The average brix of the mature soaking solutions and plants soaked were $27.67{\pm}8.38$ and $25.61{\pm}6.60$, respectively. In salinity, which is a major factor in jangachi industry production, the average salinity of the mature soaking solutions and soaked plants were $7.55{\pm}3.26$ and $5.75{\pm}2.23$, respectively. In particular, the hot-peppers, eusuri, du-rup, kaet-ip, kuji-ppong, myeng-i and sancho jangachi were amongst the home-made products, and the salinity was above 8.8%, which was 2 folds-higher than that of the commercial sterilized products, and 1/3-lower than commercial non-sterilized products. The color difference and turbidity of jangachi were dependent on the plant parts used. In microbial risk assessment, the microorganisms related with food-borne disease, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, and Shigella sp., were not detected. After some time, total cell count analysis revealed that the commercial products sold at supermarkets were more vulnerable than the home-made products.