• Title, Summary, Keyword: Melting temperature

Search Result 1,592, Processing Time 0.054 seconds

Fluid Inclusions Trapped in Tourmaline from the Daeyou Pegmatite Deposit, Jangsu-Gun, Jeollabukdo (전북 장수군 대유 페그마타이트광산의 전기석에 포획된 유체포유물)

  • Lee, Ju-Youn;Eom, Young-Bo;Nam, Bok-Hyun;Hwang, Byoung-Hoon;Yang, Kyoung-Hee
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.7-19
    • /
    • 2007
  • Four types of fluid inclusions are trapped within tourmaline from Daeyou pegmatite, Jangsu-Gun, Jeonllabukdo. They range $5{\sim}100\;{\mu}m$ in size and are grouped into I, II, III, and IV based on the phase behavior at the room temperature: (1) Type I inclusions are liquid-rich and NaCl equivalent salinity ranged $0{\sim}12\;wt%$, and the homogenization temperatures (Th) ranged $181{\sim}230^{\circ}C$ with eutectic temperatures (Te) $-54{\sim}-22^{\circ}C$. (2) Type II inclusions are vapor-rich and salinity ranged $3{\sim}8\;wt%$ NaCl, and Th ranged $177{\sim}304^{\circ}C$ also showing Te $-54{\sim}-29^{\circ}C$. (3) Type III inclusions contain a halite daughter mineral with $31{\sim}40\;wt%$ NaCl, Th $230{\sim}328^{\circ}C$. More than 90% of Type III homogenize by halite dissolution and are spatially associated with silicate melt inclusions. (4) Type IV inclusions are $CO_{2}$-bearing containing various daughter minerals such as sylvite and/or halite. The density of $CO_{2}$ system within the Type IV is $0.80{\sim}0.75\;g/cm^{3}$, Th $190{\sim}317^{\circ}C$, and salinity $2{\sim}35\;wt%$ NaCl. Type III fluid inclusions, considered as the earliest fluid, formed from the fluid exsolved from the crystallizing pegmatite. It is suggested that Type II fluid in the central part of tourmaline were exsolved earlier than Type I fluids in the margin indicating salinity fluctuation during the growth of tourmaline. It implies the fluctuation of the pressure since the salinity of fluid exsolved from the crystallizing melt is governed by the pressure. The last fluid was Type IV, which may be derived from the nearby limestone and metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that Daeyou pegmatite containing muscovite without miarolitic cavities was formed by the partial melting resulted from the regional metamorphism. Subsequently, the exsolving fluids from the crystallizing melt were trapped in tourmaline at high pressure condition. The exsolved fluids contain various components such as $CaCl_{2}\;and\;MgCl_{2}$ as well as NaCl and KCl. The exsolution began at least at $2.7{\sim}5.3\;kbar\;and\;230{\sim}328^{\circ}C$ with the pressure fluctuation.

Thermal history of the Jecheon granite pluton in the Ogcheon Fold Belt, South Korea (남한의 옥천습곡대에 분포되어 있는 제천화강암체의 열역사)

  • Jin Myung-Shik;Kim Seong-Jae;Shin Seong-Cheon;Choo Seung-Hwan;Chi Se-Jung
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.49-57
    • /
    • 1992
  • Whole rock and mineral ages for the Jecheon Granite distributed in the Ogcheon Fold Belt were dated by three radiometric methods, and its thermal history was elucidated as follows, on the basis of isotopic age data. Rb and Sr isotopic compositions of three whole rock and seven mineral concentrates made an isochron of 202.7${\pm}$ 1.9 Ma with a strontium initial ratio of 0.7140. Different age data of twelve mineral concentrates agree closely with the retention temperature of each mineral in K-Ar and Fission Track methods. The Jecheon granitic magma was generated by partial melting of crustal materials (S-type), or by mixins between mantle and crustal materials, intruded into the katazone or mesozone (7∼9 km) of the Ogcheon Fold Belt, at least in the Early Jurassic (about 203 Ma), and then crystallized and cooled down rapidly from about 600$^{\circ}C$ to 300$^{\circ}C$ (more than 20$^{\circ}C$/Ma), owing to thermal differences between the magma and the wall-rock. During the Middle to Late Jurassic (190∼140 Ma), the cooling of the granite was likely to stop and keep thermal equilibrium with the wall-rock. The severe tectonism associated with igneous activities and active weathering on the surface in Early to Late Cretaceous time (140∼70 Ma) might have accelerated the granite pluton to uplift rapidly (40∼60 m/Ma in average) up to 3∼4 km and cooled down from 300$^{\circ}C$ to 200$^{\circ}C$ (1.4 $^{\circ}C$/Ma). The granite pluton was likely to keep different uplifting and cooling rate of about 120 m/Ma and 5$^{\circ}C$/Ma in average from the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (70∼50 Ma), and about 60 m/Ma and 2$^{\circ}C$/Ma in average from about 50 Ma up to the present, respectively.

  • PDF

Growth of $LiTaO_3$ and Fe doped-LiTaO3 single crystal as holographic storage material (홀로그래피 소자재료 $LiTaO_3$단결정 성장)

  • 김병국;윤종규
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.193-204
    • /
    • 1998
  • The single crystal of the $LiTaO_3$has large electro-optic effects, so it is applied to optical switch, acousto-optic deflector, and optical memory device as hologram using photorefractive effect. In this study, optic-grade undoped $LiTaO_3$and Fe:LiTaO$LiTaO_3$single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method and optical transmission and absorption spectrums were measured in the wavelength of UV-VIS range. The curie temperature was determined with DSC and by measuring capacitance for the grown undoped crystal and ceramic powder samples of various Li/Ta ratio. In case of having a 48.6 mol% $Li_2O$ as a starting Li/Ta ratio, the results of concentration variations were below 0.01 mol% $Li_2O$ all over the crystal, so it was confirmed that $LiTaO_3$single crystals were grown under congruent melting composition having optical homogeneity. The curie temperature of the Fe:$LiTaO_3$crystal was increased with increased with increased doped Fe concentrations;by the ratio of $7.5^{\circ}C$ increase per Fe 0.1 wt%. Also, the optical transmittance was about 78 %, which was sufficient for optical device.

  • PDF

Characterization of SiC nanowire Synthesized by Thermal CVD (열 화학기상증착법을 이용한 탄화규소 나노선의 합성 및 특성연구)

  • Jung, M.W.;Kim, M.K.;Song, W.;Jung, D.S.;Choi, W.C.;Park, C.J.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.307-313
    • /
    • 2010
  • One-dimensional cubic phase silicon carbide nanowires (${\beta}$-SiC NWs) were efficiently synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) with mixtures containing Si powders and nickel chloride hexahydrate $(NiCl_2{\cdot}6H_2O)$ in an alumina boat with a carbon source of methane $(CH_4)$ gas. SEM images are shown that the growth temperature (T) of $1,300^{\circ}C$ is not enough to synthesize the SiC NWs owing to insufficient thermal energy for melting down a Si powder and decomposing the methane gas. However, the SiC NWs could be synthesized at T>$1,300^{\circ}C$ and the most efficient temperature for growth of SiC NWs is T=$1,400^{\circ}C$. The synthesized SiC NWs have the diameter with an average range between 50~150 nm. Raman spectra clearly revealed that the synthesized SiC NWs are forming of a cubic phase (${\beta}$-SiC). Two distinct peaks at 795 and $970 cm^{-1}$ in Raman spectra of the synthesized SiC NWs at T=$1,400^{\circ}C$ represent the TO and LO mode of the bulk ${\beta}$-SiC, respectively. XRD spectra are also supported to the Raman spectra resulting in the strongest (111) peaks at $2{\Theta}=35.7^{\circ}$, which is the (111) plane peak position of 3C-SiC. Moreover, the gas flow rate of 300 sccm for methane is the optimal condition for synthesis of a large amount of ${\beta}$-SiC NW without producing the amorphous carbon structure shown at a high methane flow rate of 800 sccm. TEM images are shown two kinds of the synthesized ${\beta}$-SiC NWs structures. One is shown the defect-free ${\beta}$-SiC NWs with a (111) interplane distance of 0.25 nm, and the other is the stacking-faulted ${\beta}$-SiC NWs. Also, TEM images exhibited that two distinct SiC NWs are uniformly covered with $SiO_2$ layer with a thickness of less 2 nm.

Adhesion Performance of Plywoods Prepared with Different Layering Methods of Thermoplastic Resin Films (열가소성수지 필름의 적층방법에 따른 합판의 접착성능)

  • Kang, Eunchang;Lee, Sang-Min;Park, Jong-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.45 no.5
    • /
    • pp.559-571
    • /
    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to determine the adhesive performances of plywoods affected by layering direction and the amounts of thermoplastic films. The face and back layers of veneer were hardwood species (Mixed light hardwood) and core layer veneer was radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). Thermoplastic film used as adhesive were polypropylene (PP) film and polyethylene (PE) film. Thermal analysis and tensile strength were investigated on each films. As a result, the melting temperature of PP and PE films were $163.4^{\circ}C$ and $109.7^{\circ}C$, respectively, and the crystallization temperature were $98.9^{\circ}C$ and $93.6^{\circ}C$, respectively. Tensile strength and elongation of each films appeared higher on the width direction than length direction. Considering the characteristics of the thermoplastic films, the test for the amount of film used was carried out by layering film to the target thickness on veneer. The effecting of layering direction of film on plywood manufacturing was conducted by laminating in the length and width directions of the film according to the grain direction of veneer. Tensile-shear strength of plywood in wet condition was satisfied with the quality standard (0.7 MPa) of KS F 3101 when the film was used over 0.05 mm of PP film and over 0.10 mm of PE film. Tensile-shear strength of plywood after cyclic boiling exceeded the KS standard when PP film was used 0.20 mm thickness. Furthermore, higher bonding strength was observed on a plywood made with width direction of film according to grain direction of veneer than that of length direction of film. Based on microscopic analysis of the surface and bonding line of plywood, interlocking between veneers by penetration of a thermoplastic film into inner and cracks were observed.

Study on the Effect of Blending Ratios on the Antibacterial Activities of Chitosan/Gelatin Blend Solutions (혼합비율에 따른 키토산/젤라틴 혼합용액의 항균활성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Byung-Ho;Park, Jang-Woo;Hong, Ji-Hyang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.37 no.3
    • /
    • pp.405-411
    • /
    • 2005
  • Chitosan, second largest biomass after cellulose on earth, has potential for use as functional food package due to its antibacterial activity. However, due to high melting temperature of chitosan, chitosan films have been made by casting method. Because gelatin has relatively low molting temperature depending upon amount of plasticizer added, it was added to chitosan to produce commercially feasible film. The objective of the current study was to determine optimum blend ratio and amount of chitosan/gelatin blend solutions against antibacterial activities for extruder resin. Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313) and -negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis IFO 3313) were used. Paper (8 mm) diffusion and optical density methods were used to evaluate effect of different blending ratio solutions on the inhibition of bacterial growth. Measured clear none size ranged from 8 mm to 18.07 mm in paper diffusion test. For B. cereus, E. coli, and S. enteritidis, addition of $50\;{\mu}L$ blend solution (chitosan/gelatin = 2/8: 0.3 mg) resulted in clear zone on paper disc. In L. monocytogenes, inhibition effect was observed with 0.6 mg chitosan (chitosan/gelatin=4/6). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of B. cerues, L. monocytogenes, E. coli, and S. enteritidis with addition of chitosan were 0.1461, 0.2419, 0.0980, and 0.0490 mg/mL, respectively, These results indicate possibility of producing commercially feasible film with addition of optimum chitosan/gelatin amount.

CONDITIONS FOR CONGER EEL AND HAGFISH SKIN GLUE PROCESSING AND THE QUALITY OF PRODUCT (붕장어피 및 먹장어피를 이용한 피교의 가공조건에 제품의 성상)

  • LEE Eung-Ho;KIM Se-Kwon;CHO Duck-Jae;KIM Jin-Dong;no Sudibjo;KIM Soo-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.11 no.4
    • /
    • pp.189-195
    • /
    • 1978
  • Using the skins of conger eel, Astroconger myriaster, and hagfish, Eptatretus burzeri, from fillet manufactory, the optimum conditions of skin glue processing were investigated and physical ana chemical properties of the product were also determined. The yields of conger eel and hagfish skin to the total body weight were $10.6\%$ and $11.4\%$, respectively. The optimum processing conditions for conger eel skin glue were the extraction of skins which were previously tinted with $0.3\%$ calcium hydroxide solution for one hour, in water at pH 5.5 and $60^{\circ}C$ for four hours. The additional water was six times sample weight. In case of the hagfish skin glue, the liming time with $0.3\%$ calcium hydroxide solution was suitable for three hours, and the skins were extracted with water as much as nine times sample weight at pH 5.0 and $60^{\circ}C$ for three hours. The contents of crude protein of conger eel and hagfish skin glue were $91.5\%$ and $90.2\%$, respectively. The content of crude lipid was slightly higher than that of chemical grade gelatin. Relative viscosity, melting point, gelation temperature and jelly strength of conger eel skin glue were 13.6, $15.2^{\circ}C$, $6.2^{\circ}C$ and 13.0g respectively and those of hagfish skin glue were 12.9, $14.8^{\circ}C$, $4.3^{\circ}C$ and 23.3g respectively. The turbidity of conger eel skin glue and hagfish skin glue were slightly superior to those of dry glue.

  • PDF

CONDITIONS FOR ALASKA POLLACK AND FILE FISH SKIN GLUE PROCESSING AND THE QUALITY OF PRODUCT (명태피 및 말쥐치피를 이용한 피교의 최적가공조건과 품질에 대하여)

  • LEE Eung-Ho;HA Jin-Whan;HEO Woo-Deock
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.10 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-9
    • /
    • 1977
  • The purpose of this study is to complish a method of fish glue malting with residual products such as fish head and skin discarded from sea food processing. Using the skins of Alaska pollack and file fish from fillet packers, the optimum conditions of skin glue processing were investigated and physical and chemical properties of the product were also determined. The yields of Alaska pollack, Thelagra calcogramma, skin and file fish, Novodon modestus, skin to the total body weight were $4.6\%\;and\;5.0\%$ respectively. The optimum conditions for a $49.3\%$n yield Alaska pollack skin glue processing were considered the extraction of previously tinted in $0.1\%$ calcium hydroxide solution for 3 hours with the additional water as much as 3 times of sample weight at $70^{\circ}C$ for 3 hours under the controlled pH 5.0. The conditions for file fish skin glue were similar to those of Alaska pollack except the addition of five times of water to the weight of sample skin needed for extraction. The content of crude protein of Alaska pollack and file fish skin glue were $98.0\%\;and\;96.0\%$ respectively. The contents of crude ash and crude lipid were not different from that of chemical grade gelatin. Relative viscosity, melting point, gelation temperature and jelly strength of Alaska pollack skin glue marked 5.84, $21.8^{\circ}C,\;7.1^{\circ}C\;and\;10.0g$ respectively and those of file fish skin glue showed $5.79,\;25.0^{\circ}C,\;7.4^{\circ}C\;and\;11.6g$ respectively.The color and turbidity of Alaska pollack skin glue are slightly superior to those of file fish skin glue. It is supposed that the extract residue of skin glue is valuable for use the animal feeds by the results of amino acid composition. And the ratio of each amino acid content to the total amino acid of Alaska pollack and file fish skin glue is similar to that of chemical grade gelatin.

  • PDF

A Study on the Carbothermic Reduction and Refining of V, Ta and B Oxides by Ar/Ar-H2 Plasma (Ar/Ar-H2 플라즈마에 의한 V, Ta, B 산화물의 탄소용융환원 및 정련)

  • Chung, Yong-Sug;Park, Byung-Sam;Hong, Jin-Seok;Bae, Jung-Chan;Kim, Moon-Chul;Baik, Hong-Koo
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.81-92
    • /
    • 1996
  • The Ar/Ar-$H_2$ plasma method was applied to reduce oxides and refine metals of V, Ta and B. In addition, the high temperature chemical reaction in Ar plasma and of the refining reaction in the Ar-(20%)$H_2$ plasma were analyzed. The crude V of 96wt% purity was obtained at the ratio of $C/V_{2}O_{5}=4.50$ by the Ar plasma reduction grade and the maximum reduction was obtained at $C/V_{2}O_{5}=4.50$ due to the $O_{2}$ loss from the thermal decomposition of vanadium oxide. In the Ar-(20%)$H_2$ plasma refining, the metallic V of 99.2wt% was produced at the ratio of $C/V_{2}O_{5}=4.40$. It was considered that a main refining reaction resulted from the chemical reaction between the residual carbon and residual oxygen. The metallic Ta of 99.8wt% was obtained at the ratio of $C/Ta_{2}O_{5}=5.10$ in a Ar plasma reduction and the Oz loss from the thermal decomposition of tantalum pentoxide did not take place. The deoxidation reaction was more significant than the decarburization reaction in the Ar-(20%)$H_2$ plasma refining and the metallic Ta of 99.9wt% was produced within the range of $C/Ta_{2}O_{5}$ ratio of 4.50 to 5.10. The Vickers hardness of Ta in the above mentioned range was about 220Hv due to the decrease in a residual oxygen by the deoxidation reaction. On the other hand, C is no suitable agent for the reduction of $B_{2}O_{3}$ by the Ar and Ar-$H_2$ plasma. But Fe-B-Si alloy was produced with the reduction of $B_{2}O_{3}$ in the melt when Fe, C, $B_{2}O_{3}$, and ferroboron mixtures were melted by the high frequency induction melting.

  • PDF

Physicochemical Characteristics of ${\beta}-Glucan$ Isolated from Barley (보리로부터 분리한 ${\beta}-Glucan$의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Sung-Ran;Choi, Hee-Don;Seog, Ho-Moon;Kim, Sung-Soo;Lee, Young-Tack
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.31 no.5
    • /
    • pp.1164-1170
    • /
    • 1999
  • The physicochemical characteristics of ${\beta}-glucan$ isolated from waxy and non-waxy barley were investigated. The hull-less waxy and non-waxy barley containing 6.5% and 5.3% of total ${\beta}-glucan$ respectively, were used as a starting material. The yield and ${\beta}-glucan$ content of crude ${\beta}-glucan$ from waxy barley was 5.54% and 62.9%, respectively, and those were higher than 3.34% and 59.2% from non-waxy barley. The crude ${\beta}-glucan$ purified with selective precipitation and enzymatic treatment to obtain the ${\beta}-glucan$ isolate of high purity (>99%). The total yield of purified ${\beta}-glucan$ from waxy and non-waxy barley was 4.46% and 2.59%, respectively. The surface appearance of the purified ${\beta}-glucan$ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed randomly entangled multi-net structure of ${\beta}-glucan$ microfibrils. The melting temperature of ${\beta}-glucan$ from waxy and non-waxy barley measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was $184.6^{\circ}C$, and $180.3^{\circ}C$, respectively. DSC endotherm of ${\beta}-glucan$ solution showed 2 peaks near $68^{\circ}C$ and $84^{\circ}C$. Enthalpy of phase transition was higher in non-waxy ${\beta}-glucan$ than waxy ${\beta}-glucan$, and the intrinsic viscosity of ${\beta}-glucan$ solution from waxy barley was higher than that of non-waxy ${\beta}-glucan$. The pasting viscosity of barley starch with the purified ${\beta}-glucan$ determined by Rapid Visco-Analyzer was higher than that of barley starch without ${\beta}-glucan$, and the effect of ${\beta}-glucan$ on increasing the paste viscosity was greater in non-waxy barley starch.

  • PDF