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Multi-dimensional Security Threats and Holistic Security - Understanding of fusion-phenomenon of national security and criminal justice in post-modern society - (다차원 안보위협과 융합 안보)

  • Yun, Min-Woo;Kim, Eun-Young
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.31
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    • pp.157-185
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    • 2012
  • Today, the emergence of cyberspace and advancement of globalization caused not only the transformation of our productive and conventional life but also the revolutionary transition of use of destructive violence such as crime and warfare. This transition of environmental condition connects various security threats which separatedly existed in individual, local, national, and global levels in the past, and transformed the mechanical sum of all levels of security threats into the organic sum of multi-dimensional security threats. This article proposes that the sum of multi-dimensional security threats is caused by the interconnectivity of various different levels of security threats and the integrated interdisciplinary perspective is essential to properly understand the fundamental existence of today's security problem and the reality of fear that we face today. The holistic security, the concept proposed here, is to suggest the mode of networked response to multi-dimensional security threats. The holistic security is suggested to overcome the conventional divisional approach based on the principle of "division of labor" and bureaucratic principles, which means more concretely that national security and criminal justice are divided and intelligence, military, police, prosecution, fire-fighting, private security, and etc. are strictly separated into its own expertise and turf. Also, this article introduces integrated security approaches tried by international organization and major countries overseas with the respect of the holistic security. The author have spent some substantial experience of participant observation, meetings, seminar, conference, and expert interviews regarding the issues discussed in the article in various countries including the United States, Russia, Austria, Germany, Canada, Mexico, Israel, and Uzbekistan for the last ten years. Intelligence and information on various levels of security threats and security approaches introduced in this paper is obtained from such opportunities.

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A review of Deepwater Horizon Oil Budget Calculator for its Application to Korea (딥워터 호라이즌호 유출유 수지분석 모델의 국내 적용성 검토)

  • Kim, Choong-Ki;Oh, Jeong-Hwan;Kang, Seong-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.322-331
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    • 2016
  • Oil budget calculator identifies the removal pathways of spilled oil by both natural and response methods, and estimates the remaining oil required response activities. A oil budget calculator was newly developed as a response tool for Deepwater Horizon oil spill incident in Gulf of Mexico in 2010 to inform clean up decisions for Incident Comment System, which was also successfully utilized to media and general public promotion of oil spill response activities. This study analyzed the theoretical background of the oil budget calculator and explored its future application to Korea. The oil budge calculation of four catastrophic marine pollution incidents indicates that 3~8% of spilled oil was removed mechanically by skimmers, 1~5% by in-situ burning, 4.8~16% by chemical dispersion due to dispersant operation, and 37~56% by weathering processes such as evaporation, dissolution, and natural dispersion. The results show that in-situ burning and chemical dispersion effectively remove spilled oil more than the mechanical removal by skimming, and natural weathering processes are also very effective to remove spilled oil. To apply the oil budget calculator in Korea, its parameters need to be optimized in response to the seasonal characteristics of marine environment, the characteristics of spilled oil and response technologies. A new algorithm also needs to be developed to estimate the oil budget due to shoreline cleanup activities. An oil budget calculator optimized in Korea can play a critical role in informing decisions for oil spill response activities and communicating spill prevention and response activities with the media and general public.

Variation in Heading States of Korean Winter Wheat under Winter Temperature Rise of Toluca in Mexico (멕시코 톨루카 지역의 겨울 기온상승에 따른 한국 밀 품종의 출수생태 변이)

  • Park, TaeIl;Chung, Uran
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2016
  • The shuttle breeding of Korean winter wheat has been able to develop high-yielding and day-length-intensive varieties with a wide range of ecologic adoption. However, the phenology of winter wheat has been changed due to recent rises in the winter temperature of Toluca and increasing frequency of high temperatures. We defined two wheat groups (group II and III) with vernalization and evaluated the impact of cold exposure duration and heading ratio due to changes in sowing dates by measuring changes in cold exposure duration and corresponding heading states of each group. The wheat cultivars were sown on three dates in two years. The cold exposure requirement of wheat sown on 6 November 2013 was unfulfilled. The cold exposure requirement of wheat sown on 22 November and 6 December 2013 was fulfilled. However, in 2014, the cold exposure requirement of wheat sown on 5 and 20 November was fulfilled, but that of wheat sown on 5 December was unfulfilled. The differences for the two early November sowings were because winter temperature rises, which caused high temperatures in 2013, whereas early November 2014 saw normal temperatures for the area. The heading ratio of group II did not show a clear difference among the three sowing dates, while the heading ratio of group III was reduced by about half. This implies that the efficiency of shuttle breeding of group III will be high since it showed strong sensitivity to changes in sowing dates. We calculated future sowing dates of each group under near future climate scenarios; the future available sowing dates of group II were projected, but the dates of group III were never estimated in the temperature rise scenario in Toluca. Our findings suggest that change of sowing dates should be considered in the strategy for shuttle breeding of Korean winter wheat.

A. Artaud or the Prisoner of Language (앙토냉 아르토 혹은 언어의 수형자)

  • Park, Hyung-Sub
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.45
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    • pp.219-243
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    • 2016
  • The life of Antonin Artaud exactly reproduces a very cruel drama. He lived in constant anguish and suffered from severe mental pain. This research will trace his thoughts in his writings while he was a prisoner of language. Artaud was a poet filled with anxiety about language, things, being, and thought. Whenever he tried to explain the mystery of being by means of mundane language, he experienced psychological agony. His poetic thoughts began to break down, because of his identity loss. Nevertheless, he was destined to grasp the world through language. Artaud had suffered from mental illness during his youth. His mental illness was associated with his difficulty in creating poetry. In this research, the letter, Correspondance avec Jacques $Rivi{\grave{e}}re$, is analyzed. The poet refers to "the collapse of the spirit's core, and the erosion of the fundamental thought that slips away" to convey his linguistic incompetence. Hereafter, he constantly demonstrated anxious mental symptoms. Even though he became mentally deranged, he maintained his consciousness, as is apparent in his writings. Also, his spiritual belief is reflected in his mental uneasiness. While he was traveling through the Tarahumaras area in Mexico, he was obsessed with its primitive belief in the Peyote rituals, and he immersed himself in performing them. His unchristian belief was the product of his mystical personality. Until his last breath, he did not give up writing. Artaud's mental derangement does not mean lunacy, but if one insists in calling it so, that is a metaphor. His derangement comes from his refusal to accept his limitations and from his aspiring to regard his body in the same light as his intellectual perceptions. His intellect could manifest more easily when his mind was elevated to the extreme. Artaud's lunacy is no different from that of a profound philosopher. The lives of poets who suffer from mental derangement are more poetic than the lives of those who do not. Artaud's atypical emotions provide a way of to measure our own limitations, helplessness, and resignation. His scream is nonsegmental but different from that of a mental patient. That difference is why people are interested in his works and wish to delve into his writings.

Regional Characteristics of Global Warming: Linear Projection for the Timing of Unprecedented Climate (지구온난화의 지역적 특성: 전례 없는 기후 시기에 대한 선형 전망)

  • SHIN, HO-JEONG;JANG, CHAN JOO
    • The Sea
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.49-57
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    • 2016
  • Even if an external forcing that will drive a climate change is given uniformly over the globe, the corresponding climate change and the feedbacks by the climate system differ by region. Thus the detection of global warming signal has been made on a regional scale as well as on a global average against the internal variabilities and other noises involved in the climate change. The purpose of this study is to estimate a timing of unprecedented climate due to global warming and to analyze the regional differences in the estimated results. For this purpose, unlike previous studies that used climate simulation data, we used an observational dataset to estimate a magnitude of internal variability and a future temperature change. We calculated a linear trend in surface temperature using a historical temperature record from 1880 to 2014 and a magnitude of internal variability as the largest temperature displacement from the linear trend. A timing of unprecedented climate was defined as the first year when a predicted minimum temperature exceeds the maximum temperature record in a historical data and remains as such since then. Presumed that the linear trend and the maximum displacement will be maintained in the future, an unprecedented climate over the land would come within 200 years from now in the western area of Africa, the low latitudes including India and the southern part of Arabian Peninsula in Eurasia, the high latitudes including Greenland and the mid-western part of Canada in North America, the low latitudes including Amazon in South America, the areas surrounding the Ross Sea in Antarctica, and parts of East Asia including Korean Peninsula. On the other hand, an unprecedented climate would come later after 400 years in the high latitudes of Eurasia including the northern Europe, the middle and southern parts of North America including the U.S.A. and Mexico. For the ocean, an unprecedented climate would come within 200 years over the Indian Ocean, the middle latitudes of the North Atlantic and the South Atlantic, parts of the Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ross Sea, and parts of the Arctic Sea. In the meantime, an unprecedented climate would come even after thousands of years over some other regions of ocean including the eastern tropical Pacific and the North Pacific middle latitudes where an internal variability is large. In summary, spatial pattern in timing of unprecedented climate are different for each continent. For the ocean, it is highly affected by large internal variability except for the high-latitude regions with a significant warming trend. As such, a timing of an unprecedented climate would not be uniform over the globe but considerably different by region. Our results suggest that it is necessary to consider an internal variability as well as a regional warming rate when planning a climate change mitigation and adaption policy.