• Title, Summary, Keyword: Microgrids

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AC and DC Microgrids: A Review on Protection Issues and Approaches

  • Mirsaeidi, Sohrab;Dong, Xinzhou;Shi, Shenxing;Wang, Bin
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.2089-2098
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    • 2017
  • Microgrid is a convenient, reliable, and eco-friendly approach for the integration of Distributed Generation (DG) sources into the utility power systems. To date, AC microgrids have been the most common architecture, but DC microgrids are gaining an increasing interest owing to the provision of numerous benefits in comparison with AC ones. These benefits encompass higher reliability, power quality and transmission capacity, non-complex control as well as direct connection to some DG sources, loads and Energy Storage Systems (ESSs). In this paper, main challenges and available approaches for the protection of AC and DC microgrids are discussed. After description, analysis and classification of the existing schemes, some research directions including coordination between AC and DC protective devices as well as development of combined control and protection schemes for the realization of future hybrid AC/DC microgrids are pointed out.

A Feasibility Study on DC Microgrids Considering Energy Efficiency (에너지 효율분석을 통한 DC 마이크로그리드의 타당성 검토)

  • Yu, Cheol-Hee;Chung, Il-Yop;Hong, Sung-Soo;Chae, Woo-Kyu;Kim, Ju-Yong
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.60 no.9
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    • pp.1674-1683
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    • 2011
  • More than 80% of electric loads need DC electricity rather than AC at the moment. If DC power could be supplied directly to the terminal loads, power conversion stages including rectifiers, converters, and power adapters can be reduced or simplified. Therefore, DC microgrids may be able to improve energy efficiency of power distribution systems. In addition, DC microgrids can increase the penetration level of renewable energy resources because many renewable energy resources such as solar photovoltaic(PV) generators, fuel cells, and batteries generate electric power in the form of DC power. The integration of the DC generators to AC electric power systems requires the power conversion circuits that may cause additional energy loss. This paper discusses the capability and feasibility of DC microgrids with regard to energy efficiency analysis through detailed dynamic simulation of DC and AC microgrids. The dynamic simulation models of DC and AC microgrids based on the Microgrid Test System in KEPCO Research Institute are described in detail. Through simulation studies on various conditions, this paper compares the energy efficiency and advantages of DC and AC microgrids.

Optimal Configuration of Distribution System considering the Economic Operations of a Microgrid

  • Moon, Hyun-Ho;Lee, Jong-Joo;Choi, Sang-Yule;Shin, Myong-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.20-25
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    • 2010
  • With the diversification of distribution facilities, existing distributed generation can be subdivided into Microgrids, which are smaller units for application. These Microgrids, subdivided as such and connected to distribution systems, should operate under driving plans that will ensure their economic efficiency and, accordingly, the configuration of those distribution systems that include Microgrids should also be changed. The perception of the necessity to secure the economic efficiency of distribution systems is gradually increasing and studies intended to assess the economic efficiency of Microgrids and Smartgrids are ongoing. In this paper, the power generation capacity of an economically operative Microgrid was calculated using the MonteCarlo simulation, which is a method based on the probability theory considering the power generation cost of Microgrids linked with power supply systems and reverse sales costs, etc., and an optimum distribution systems was configured based on the results of these calculation.

Power Quality Improvement in Autonomous Microgrids Using Multi-functional Voltage Source Inverters: A Comprehensive Review

  • Miveh, Mohammad Reza;Rahmat, Mohd Fadli;Ghadimi, Ali Asghar;Mustafa, Mohd Wazir
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1054-1065
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    • 2015
  • Multi-functional voltage source inverters (VSIs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years for their advantageous auxiliary services for power quality enhancement in autonomous microgrids. These types of VSIs can not only achieve a proper control scheme in autonomous mode but also cope with the prescribed power quality and stability requirements. These functionalities are integrated within the same device, thereby significantly improving the cost-effectiveness of microgrids while decreasing the investment and bulk compared with those of multiple devices with independent functionalities. Control strategies for power quality enhancement in autonomous microgrids using multi-functional VSIs are comprehensively reviewed in this paper. In addition, such VSIs are discussed in detail, and comparisons of which are also provided. Lastly, a number of future research directions for multi-functional VSIs are recommended.

A Study on Real-time State Estimation for Smart Microgrids (스마트 마이크로그리드 실시간 상태 추정에 관한 연구)

  • Bae, Jun-Hyung;Lee, Sang-Woo;Park, Tae-Joon;Lee, Dong-Ha;Kang, Jin-Kyu
    • 한국태양에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.419-424
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    • 2012
  • This paper discusses the state-of-the-art techniques in real-time state estimation for the Smart Microgrids. The most popular method used in traditional power system state estimation is a Weighted Least Square(WLS) algorithm which is based on Maximum Likelihood(ML) estimation under the assumption of static system state being a set of deterministic variables. In this paper, we present a survey of dynamic state estimation techniques for Smart Microgrids based on Belief Propagation (BP) when the system state is a set of stochastic variables. The measurements are often too sparse to fulfill the system observability in the distribution network of microgrids. The BP algorithm calculates posterior distributions of the state variables for real-time sparse measurements. Smart Microgrids are modeled as a factor graph suitable for characterizing the linear correlations among the state variables. The state estimator performs the BP algorithm on the factor graph based the stochastic model. The factor graph model can integrate new models for solar and wind correlation. It provides the Smart Microgrids with a way of integrating the distributed renewable energy generation. Our study on Smart Microgrid state estimation can be extended to the estimation of unbalanced three phase distribution systems as well as the optimal placement of smart meters.

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Islanding detection algorithm for microgrid considering reactive power (무효전력을 고려한 마이크로그리드의 단독운전 판단 알고리즘)

  • Kang, Yong-Cheol;Jang, Sung-Il;Cha, Sun-Hee;Lee, Byung-Eun;Kim, Yeon-Hee;Lee, Ji-Hoon;Kim, Yong-Guen
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.236-237
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    • 2006
  • A microgrid is a new type of power system which is formed by the interconnection of small generator to distribution systems. Microgrids are able to supply electric power to their loads independently, which is called with islanding operation, even if they're separated from the power system. As a result, microgrids must be equipped with specific islanding detection schemes for the islanding operation of microgrids. This paper studies an islanding detection method considering reactive power. The proposed method is dealing with the reactive power of the cable which connects between a microgrid and a power system. To show the validity of the proposed method, many islanding operation cases are tested by varying the load conditions of microgrids.

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Power Allocation Method for Multiple ESS Control Considering SOC Balancing in Microgrids (마이크로그리드에서 SOC균형을 고려한 ESS의 충·방전 전력배분 방법)

  • Lee, Sang-Wook;Park, Juneho
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.66 no.2
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    • pp.292-299
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, multiple ESS(Energy Storage System) control strategy for microgrids is presented. Installation of ESS becomes mandatory when microgrids are used to supply high quality power to the loads. The one of main functions of the ESS is to maintain power balance. However ESS has limitation of its capacity and instantaneous injecting power. Power allocation method based on SOC(State Of Charge) of each ESS is proposed. P-Q control is employed as the basic control strategy for the distributed ESSs. By using the proposed method, the coefficients in the conventional P-Q control method are modified. The ESSs with higher SOC inject more active power, while those with lower SOC inject less, leading to more balanced SOC levels among the ESSs. The proposed method is demonstrated by simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC.

A Review of Power Electronics Based Microgrids

  • Wang, Xiongfei;Guerrero, Josep M.;Blaabjerg, Frede;Chen, Zhe
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.181-192
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    • 2012
  • The increased penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) is challenging the entire architecture of conventional electrical power system. Microgrid paradigm, featuring higher flexibility and reliability, becomes an attractive candidate for the future power grid. In this paper, an overview of microgrid configurations is given. Then, possible structure options and control methods of DER units are presented, which is followed by the descriptions of system controls and power management strategies for AC microgrids. Finally, future trends of microgrids are discussed pointing out how this concept can be a key to achieve a more intelligent and flexible power system.

Development of Low-voltage Seamless Transfer Microgrid on Grid-connected Type Islands by Autonomous Operation (자율운전에 의한 계통연계형 도서의 저압 무순단 마이크로그리드 구축)

  • Kim, Jeong Hun;Kwon, Jung-Min;Yun, Sang-Yun
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.66 no.4
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2017
  • This paper presents research on low-voltage microgrids to maintain a continuous power supply to critical loads on grid-connected islands in Korea. The low-voltage microgrids of this paper focused on that changes public office buildings into uninterrupted microgrids by autonomous operation. For this, a microgrid controller (MGC) and a power conditioning system (PCS) that allow a seamless transfer between grid-connected and grid-isolated operation are proposed. The proposed PCS operates with a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) switch and employs a simple structure. It supplies power continuously without operators through a coordinated operation between MGC and PCS. In addition, proposed MG has a schedule operation for minimizing electricity charges and provides ancillary services that enable the utilization of resources according to the operation purpose of utility distribution networks. To demonstrate the uninterrupted low-voltage microgrid proposed in this study, a microgrid was implemented and tested in a public office building in Anjwa Island, Jeollanam-do in Korea. A seamless, autonomous operation history, despite system disturbances, was obtained through a long-term demonstration of operation. The results showed that the proposed microgrid technology can be used to achieve energy resilience in grid-connected island areas.

A Communicationless PCC Voltage Compensation Using an Improved Droop Control Scheme in Islanding Microgrids

  • Ding, Guangqian;Gao, Feng;Li, Ruisheng;Wu, Bingxin
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.294-304
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    • 2017
  • This paper proposes a point of common coupling (PCC) voltage compensation method for islanding microgrids using an improved power sharing control scheme among distributed generators (DGs) without communication. The PCC voltage compensation algorithm is implemented in the droop control scheme to reduce the PCC voltage deviation produced by the droop controller itself and the voltage drop on the line impedance. The control scheme of each individual DG unit is designed to use only locally measured feedback variables and an obtained line impedance to calculate the PCC voltage. Therefore, traditional voltage measurement devices installed at the PCC as well as communication between the PCC and the DGs are not required. The proposed control scheme can maintain the PCC voltage amplitude within an allowed range even to some extent assuming inaccurate line impedance parameters. In addition, it can achieve proper power sharing in islanding microgrids. Experimental results obtained under accurate and inaccurate line impedances are presented to show the performance of the proposed control scheme in islanding microgrids.