• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mid infrared spectroscopy

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INVESTIGATION OF PAHs IN GALACTIC PLANETARY NEBULAE WITH THE AKARI/IRC AND THE SPITZER/IRS

  • Ohsawa, R.;Onaka, T.;Sakon, I.;Mori, T.I.;Yamamura, I.;Matsuura, M.;Kaneda, H.;Bernard-Salas, J.;Berne, O.;Joblin, C.
    • Publications of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.259-260
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    • 2012
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) are investigated by means of the unidentified infrared (UIR) bands. Continuous near- to mid-infrared spectra of PNe are obtained with the AKARI/IRC and the Spitzer/IRS. All 19 PNe in the present study show prominent dust emissions and we investigate the variation in the intensity ratios among the UIR bands. The ionization fraction and the size distribution of PAHs in PNe are derived using the UIR band ratios. We find that the ionization fraction of PAHs in PNe is around 0.0-0.6 and that small PAHs are scarce. The present result indicates a systematic trend of the $3.4{\mu}m$ aliphatic feature to become weak as the PAH ionization fraction increases.

SH 2-128, AN H II AND STAR FORMING REGION IN AN UNLIKELY PLACE

  • BOHIGAS JOAQUIN;TAPIA MAURICIO
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.285-288
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    • 2004
  • Near-infrared imaging photometry supplemented by optical spectroscopy and narrow-band imaging of the H II region Sh 2-128 and its environment are presented. This region contains a developed H II region and the neighboring compact H II region S 128N associated with a pair of water maser sources. Midway between these, the core of a CO cloud is located. The principal ionizing source of Sh 2-128 is an 07 star close to its center. A new spectroscopic distance of 9.4 kpc is derived, very similar to the kinematic distance to the nebula. This implies a galactocentric distance of 13.5 kpc and z = 550 pc. The region is optically thin with abundances close to those predicted by galactocentric gradients. The $JHK_s$ images show that S 128N contains several infrared point sources and nebular emission knots with large near-infrared excesses. One of the three red Ks knots coincides with the compact H II region. A few of the infrared-excess objects are close to known mid- and far-infrared emission peaks. Star counts in J and $K_s$ show the presence of a small cluster of B-type stars, mainly associated with S 128N. The $JHK_s$ photometric properties together with the characteristics of the other objects in the vicinity suggest that Sh 2-128 and S 128N constitute a single complex formed from the same molecular cloud, with ages ${\~}10^6$ and < $3 {\times} 10^5$ years respectively. No molecular hydrogen emission was detected at 2.12 ${\mu}m$. The origin of this remote star forming region is an open problem.

Mid-infrared Cavity Ringdown Spectrometer Using Difference - frequency Generation (차주파수 생성을 이용한 중적외선 공동 광자감쇠 분광장치)

  • 이동훈;윤일선;이용훈;김봉수
    • Proceedings of the Optical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.204-205
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    • 2003
  • 미량기체의 흡수스펙트럼을 높은 감도로 측정하는 공동 광자감쇠 분광법(cavity ringdown spectroscopy; CRDS)을 나노초 레이저 펄스의 차주파수 생성(difference-frequency generation; DFG)을 광원으로 이용하여 파장 3 ~ 4 $\mu\textrm{m}$ 영역에서 구현하였다. CRDS는 고반사율 거울로 이루어진 광학적 공동에 단일 파장의 빛을 가두었다가 그 에너지의 시간적 감소율을 측정하여 공동 속 기체의 흡수율을 알아내는 방법이다. (중략)

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Sharp-Line Electronic Spectroscopy and Ligand Field Analysis of [Cr(trans-diammac)](ClO4)3 1

  • Choi, Jong-Ha;Oh, In-Gyung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 1997
  • The luminescence and excitation spectra of [Cr(trans-diammac)](ClO4)3 (trans-diammac=trans-6, 3-dimethyl-l, 4, 8, 11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-6, 13-diamine) taken at 77 K are reported. The mid and far-infrared spectra at room-temperature are also measured between 4000 cm-1and 50 cm-1. In the excitation spectrum the 2Eg components are splitted by 102 cm-1. Using the observed electronic transitions, a ligand field analysis was performed to determine more detailed bonding properties of the coordinated atoms toward chromium(Ⅲ). According to the results, we can confirm that the six nitrogen atoms have a strong σ-donor character, and the trans-diammac secondary amine has a greater value of eσ than does the primary amine.

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A Small Star Forming Region in the Molecular Cloud MBM 110

  • Sung, Hwankyung;Bessell, M.S.;Song, Inseog
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.51.3-51.3
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    • 2018
  • MBM 110 is one of the molecular clouds at high Galactic latitude discovered by Magnani et al., and is one of a dozen cometary clouds in the Orion-Eridanus superbubble. We have conducted optical photometry and spectroscopy for a comprehensive study of the region. Recently released Gaia DR2 astrometric data as well as WISE mid-infrared data were used for the complete census of member stars. We select 17 member stars with $H{\alpha}$ emission and/or Li absorption. The total mass of stars in the region is only about $16M{\odot}$. We found that the star formation efficiency in the region is less than 5%. We discuss the origin of the cloud and the star formation history in MBM 110.

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A case report : Iguana iguana with cystic calculus (녹색 이구아나의 방광결석증)

  • ;;Michael Fehr
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.472-475
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    • 1998
  • A female Green iguana (Iguana iguana) was brought to the small animal clinic in Hannover Veterinary school because of anorexia and convulsion. Two months ago, the owner bought two iguanas, one female and one male and had to take a female to the one of local small animal clinic because she, born in 19931 didn't eat well and showed the tremor of the legs. The veterinarian suspected it to have a calcium deficiency and gave an injection of calcium and vitamin D3. But still during the last two months, the female iguana did only eat some lettuce while the other male ate lettuce, fruits and commercial cat-food ($Whiskas^{\circledR}$, Effem, Verden). It was not possible to evaluate the rations of these different "food-components". They are kept in the terrarium with water container. By palpation of the abdomen, hard thing like stone was palpated in the mid-region. The blood test wasn't carried out because of the difficulties of getting blood and because of her bad condition. It was firmly diagnosed as cystic calculus through radiography. Since the animal is in shock state already, the prognosis after surgery was bad. It was assumed to be too late to expect its surviving with the surgery carried out or without it. Cystotomy was performed in the cranial ventral paramedian incision in order to preserve the large ventral abdominal vein in the linen alba region. After two stay sutures ("holding suture" ) with 5-0 polyglactin 910 ($Vicryl^{\circledR}, Ethicon$) on the bladder, cystotomy was carried out and the stone inside was removed. Then, the bladder was closed in one-layer sutures. The abdomen was closed in simple interrupted suture with same material after the instillation of 10 ml saline solution into the abdominal cavity. The cystic calculus was in a size of $5.8{\times} 5.O{\times} 3.5 cm$. The analysis of the stone was carried out in two ways which are the infrared spectroscopy of the stone and quick analysis by $Merckognost^{\circledR}$(Diagnostica Merck, Merck). In the result of the infrared spectroscopy, the stone wee composed of 10% ammonium urate and 90% dihydrated uric acid. This iguana wasn't able to survive.n't able to survive.

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Characteristics of InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs Double Barrier Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors

  • Park, Min-Su;Kim, Ho-Seong;Yang, Hyeon-Deok;Song, Jin-Dong;Kim, Sang-Hyeok;Yun, Ye-Seul;Choe, Won-Jun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.324-325
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    • 2014
  • Quantum wells infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) have been used to detect infrared radiations through the principle based on the localized stated in quantum wells (QWs) [1]. The mature III-V compound semiconductor technology used to fabricate these devices results in much lower costs, larger array sizes, higher pixel operability, and better uniformity than those achievable with competing technologies such as HgCdTe. Especially, GaAs/AlGaAs QWIPs have been extensively used for large focal plane arrays (FPAs) of infrared imaging system. However, the research efforts for increasing sensitivity and operating temperature of the QWIPs still have pursued. The modification of heterostructures [2] and the various fabrications for preventing polarization selection rule [3] were suggested. In order to enhance optical performances of the QWIPs, double barrier quantum well (DBQW) structures will be introduced as the absorption layers for the suggested QWIPs. The DBWQ structure is an adequate solution for photodetectors working in the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) region and broadens the responsivity spectrum [4]. In this study, InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double barrier quantum well infrared photodetectors (DB-QWIPs) are successfully fabricated and characterized. The heterostructures of the InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs DB-QWIPs are grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is used to examine the heterostructures of the InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs DB-QWIP. The mesa-type DB-QWIPs (Area : $2mm{\times}2mm$) are fabricated by conventional optical lithography and wet etching process and Ni/Ge/Au ohmic contacts were evaporated onto the top and bottom layers. The dark current are measured at different temperatures and the temperature and applied bias dependence of the intersubband photocurrents are studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) system equipped with cryostat. The photovoltaic behavior of the DB-QWIPs can be observed up to 120 K due to the generated built-in electric field caused from the asymmetric heterostructures of the DB-QWIPs. The fabricated DB-QWIPs exhibit spectral photoresponses at wavelengths range from 3 to $7{\mu}m$. Grating structure formed on the window surface of the DB-QWIP will induce the enhancement of optical responses.

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ADVANTAGES OF USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES TO NEAR-INFRARED AGRICULTURAL DATA

  • Buchmann, Nils-Bo;Ian A.Cowe
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.1032-1032
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    • 2001
  • Artificial Neural Network (ANN) calibration techniques have been used commercially for agricultural applications since the mid-nineties. Global models, based on transmission data from 850 to 1050 nm, are used routinely to measure protein and moisture in wheat and barley and also moisture in triticale, rye, and oats. These models are currently used commercially in approx. 15 countries throughout the world. Results concerning earlier European ANN models are being published elsewhere. Some of the findings from that study will be discussed here. ANN models have also been developed for coarsely ground samples of compound feed and feed ingredients, again measured in transmission mode from 850 to 1050 nm. The performance of models for pig- and poultry feed will be discussed briefly. These models were developed from a very large data set (more than 20,000 records), and cover a very broad range of finished products. The prediction curves are linear over the entire range for protein, fat moisture, fibre, and starch (measured only on poultry feed), and accuracy is in line with the performance of smaller models based on Partial Least Squares (PLS). A simple bias adjustment is sufficient for calibration transfer across instruments. Recently, we have investigated the possible use of ANN for a different type of NIR spectrometer, based on reflectance data from 1100 to 2500 nm. In one study, based on data for protein, fat, and moisture measured on unground compound feed samples, dedicated ANN models for specific product classes (cattle feed, pig feed, broiler feed, and layers feed) gave moderately better Standard Errors of Prediction (SEP) compared to modified PLS (MPLS). However, if the four product classes were combined into one general calibration model, the performance of the ANN model deteriorated only slightly compared to the class-specific models, while the SEP values for the MPLS predictions doubled. Brix value in molasses is a measure of sugar content. Even with a huge dataset, PLS models were not sufficiently accurate for commercial use. In contrast an ANN model based on the same data improved the accuracy considerably and straightened out non-linearity in the prediction plot. The work of Mr. David Funk (GIPSA, U. S. Department of Agriculture) who has studied the influence of various types of spectral distortions on ANN- and PLS models, thereby providing comparative information on the robustness of these models towards instrument differences, will be discussed. This study was based on data from different classes of North American wheat measured in transmission from 850 to 1050 nm. The distortions studied included the effect of absorbance offset pathlength variation, presence of stray light bandwidth, and wavelength stretch and offset (either individually or combined). It was shown that a global ANN model was much less sensitive to most perturbations than class-specific GIPSA PLS calibrations. It is concluded that ANN models based on large data sets offer substantial advantages over PLS models with respect to accuracy, range of materials that can be handled by a single calibration, stability, transferability, and sensitivity to perturbations.

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Extragalactic Sciences from SPICA/FPC-S

  • Jeong, Woong-Seob;Matsumoto, Toshio;Im, Myungshin;Lee, Hyung Mok;Lee, Jeong-Eun;Tsumura, Kohji;Tanaka, Masayuki;Shimonishi, Takashi;Lee, Dae-Hee;Pyo, Jeonghyun;Park, Sung-Joon;Moon, Bongkon;Park, Kwijong;Park, Youngsik;Han, Wonyong;Nam, Ukwon
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.36.2-36.2
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    • 2013
  • The SPICA (SPace Infrared Telescope for Cosmology & Astrophysics) project is a next-generation infrared space telescope optimized for mid- and far-infrared observation with a cryogenically cooled 3m-class telescope. The focal plane instruments onboard SPICA will enable us to resolve many astronomical key issues from the formation and evolution of galaxies to the planetary formation. The FPC-S (Focal Plane Camera - Sciecne) is a near-infrared instrument proposed by Korea as an international collaboration. Owing to the capability of both low-resolution imaging spectroscopy and wide-band imaging with a field of view of $5^{\prime}{\times}5^{\prime}$, it has large throughput as well as high sensitivity for diffuse light compared with JWST. In order to strengthen advantages of the FPC-S, we propose the studies of probing population III stars by the measurement of cosmic near-infrared background radiation and the star formation history at high redshift by the discoveries of active star-forming galaxies. In addition to the major scientific targets, to survey large area opens a new parameter space to investigate the deep Universe. The good survey capability in the parallel imaging mode allows us to study the rare, bright objects such as quasars, bright star-forming galaxies in the early Universe as a way to understand the formation of the first objects in the Universe, and ultra-cool brown dwarfs. Observations in the warm mission will give us a unique chance to detect high-z supernovae, ices in young stellar objects (YSOs) even with low mass, the $3.3{\mu}$ feature of shocked circumstance in supernova remnants. Here, we report the current status of SPICA/FPC project and its extragalactic sciences.

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