• Title, Summary, Keyword: Milk Composition

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Comparative Studies on the Composition of Korean Human and Cow's Milk (I) -Amino Acid Composition of Human and Cow's Milk of Korea- (한국인(韓國人) 모유(母乳)와 우유(牛乳)의 성분(成分) 조성(組成)에 관(關)한 비교(比較) 연구(硏究) (I) -한국인(韓國人) 모유(母乳)와 우유중(牛乳中)의 Amino산(酸) 조성(組成)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)-)

  • Ko, Young-Su;Kim, Jung-Ja;Han, In-Ja
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 1970
  • The amino acid composition of human and cow's milk represents a standard of reference in infantnutrition. The amino acid compositions determined by automatic amino acid analyzer, Yanagimote Model LC-5. Protein in the human and cow's milk were found to be hydrolyzed to yield free amino acids. Qualitative data for free amino acids in the milk are as follows: 1) Amounts of acidic amino acids such as glutamic and aspartic acid in cow's milk were obserbed to be about 2 times compared with human milk and it is considered that the abundance in these amino acids may contribute significantly to the specific flavor of cow's milk. 2) It is much interesting that in the human milk the contents of sulfur-containing amino acids were high comparatively better than cow's milk; cystine was found to be 3 times ana methionine, 2 times. 3) In the human milk a high content of some essential amino acids such as threonine, isoleucine and leucine was demonstrated and a specific flavor sweet amino acids. 4) Large amounts of basic amino acid such as histidine was found to occur in human milk and arginine in cow's milk.

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Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

  • Rafiq, Saima;Huma, Nuzhat;Pasha, Imran;Sameen, Aysha;Mukhtar, Omer;Khan, Muhammad Issa
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.1022-1028
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    • 2016
  • Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat ($6.82%{\pm}0.04%$), solid-not-fat ($11.24%{\pm}0.02%$), total solids ($18.05%{\pm}0.05%$), protein ($5.15%{\pm}0.06%$) and casein ($3.87%{\pm}0.04%$) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk ($0.80%{\pm}0.03%$), buffalo ($0.68%{\pm}0.02%$) and sheep ($0.66%{\pm}0.02%$) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow ($108{\pm}2.3mg/g$), camel ($96{\pm}2.2mg/g$) and buffalo ($90{\pm}2.4mg/g$) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products.

Amino Acid Composition of Human and Cow's Milk (모유 및 우유의 아미노산 조성에 관한 비교연구)

  • 고영수
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 1986
  • The composition of human milk was compared with that of cow's milk. The contents of amino acids were analyzed by amino acid autoanalyzer. The content of glutamic acid in cow's milk was three times as much as that in human milk. The content of essential amino acid in human colostrum was twice as much as that in mature milk.

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Changes in Contents of Total Lipid, Total Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Composition of Preterm Milk during Lactation (Preterm Milk의 총지질, 총콜레스테롤 함량 및 지방산 조성 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 안홍석
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.215-227
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    • 1994
  • Changes in total lipid content, total cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of preterm milk were investigated during early lactation. Milk samples were collected from Korean mothers of 16 premature(34 to 36 weeks gestation age) infants on day 2 to 5(colostrum) and at 6 weeks(mature) postpartum. We estimated the lipid nutrition of preterm milk by comparing with the lipids of term milk. The total lipid content of preterm colostrum was significantly lower than the lipid content of preterm mature milk(p<0.001). Lipid content, determined gravimetrically in colostrum and matured milk, was 1.50g/이 and 3.2g/dl, respectively. Also the total cholesterol content(mg/dl) in preterm milk tends to increase from 14.16mg/dl to 15.20mg/dl, while the total cholesterol(mg/g lipid) concentration higher significantly in colostrum(12.36mg/g) than in mature(5.73mg/g)(p<0.001). The total unsaturated fatty acid contents in preterm milk were higher in colostrum than in mature milk and the total saturated fatty acids were higher in mature milk. The average DHA contents of colostrum and matured milk was 0.64%, 0.53% and the P/M/S ratio of preterm milk were 0.63 : 1.05 : 1.00, 0.47 : 0.79 : 1.00, respectively. Also, $\omega$6/$\omega$3 ratio of preterm milk were 2.35 in colostrum and 5.81 in mature. Therefore, colostrum in preterm milk contained higher amounts of $\omega$3 PUFA than mature milk. The levels of total lipid in preterm milk were higher than term milk. Also, preterm milk is richer in cholesterol, and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid than term. It appears that the milk secreted by mothers who delivered prematurely differs from milk in several important respect. These components may serve as precursors for membrane, myelin development in the preterm infants. Therefore, it would be necessary to study further into the machanism of how the gestation age might affect to the lipid composition in human milk. These data may provide a basis for better construction of infant formaulas to provide more adequately for the lipid requirements of the Korean premature infant.

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Seasonal and Regional Effects on Milk Composition of Dairy Cows in South Korea

  • Nam, Ki-Taeg;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Nam, In-Sik;Abanto, Oliver D.;Hwang, Seong-Gu
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.537-542
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    • 2009
  • For a period of over 6 years, more than 160,000 milk samples were collected and analyzed to determine the influence of different seasonal temperatures and geographic regional location on milk composition in South Korea. Fat, protein, lactose, non fat milk solids (NFMS) and total solids (TS) contents were significantly higher among dairy cows milked in winter season than other seasons (p<0.05). In contrast, freezing point (FP), milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and somatic cell count (SCC) were significantly higher in summer season than other seasons (p<0.05). The average SCC in the autumn season was $358{\times}10^3$/ml, which was lower than any other seasons (p<0.05). These results may be due to the changes in temperature during different seasons. Meanwhile, milk produced by dairy cows in central region had higher fat, protein, lactose, NFMS, TS and MUN and had lower SCC compared to other regions (p<0.05). Fat, TS, FP, MUN and citric acid in northeast region were lower than other regions (p<0.05). The SCC was significantly higher in southeast region than those of other regions (p<0.05). As a result, it might be possible that the differences in feeding management in each different region may affect the milk composition. In conclusion, present results indicated that milk composition is clearly influenced by both season and regional location. Therefore, based on these results, development of different feeding systems, according to season and region is needed to produce high quality and satiable milk production.

Dietary Fatty Acid Supplementation during Transitional Period Increases Milk Production in Dairy Cows

  • Nagao, K.;Takahara, Y.;Asai, H.;Hayashi, N.;Kitayama, T.;Yoshimura, Y.;Yokota, H.;Kita, Kazumi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1105-1109
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    • 2005
  • The effect of dietary fatty acid supplementation on milk production, milk composition and plasma constituents in dairy cows was examined. Dietary fatty acids including mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid were given to cows from 2 weeks before and 8 weeks after parturition. Weekly gain of daily milk production was increased gradually during early lactation period and reached a plateau at 4 weeks after parturition. Weekly gain of daily milk production in lactating cows received dietary fatty acids was significantly higher than that of cows given a control diet alone. Although milk lactose concentration was slightly decreased by dietary fatty acid supplementation, milk fat and protein were not significantly influenced by dietary fatty acid supplementation. Dietary fatty acids did not affect plasma concentrations of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose during postpartum. It is suggested that dietary fatty acid supplementation has the potency to enhance energy balance and improve milk yield without any adverse effects on milk composition.

Effect of Supplementing Cultured Wild Ginseng Roots in the Diet of Organic Saanen Dairy Goats on Milk Composition and Ginsenoside Profiles in Blood and Milk (유기농 산양유 사료에 산삼배양근 첨가가 산양유와 혈액 내 진세노사이드 함량 및 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Gui-Seck
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.485-495
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    • 2016
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of dietary cultured wild ginseng root (CWGR) supplementation on goat milk composition and ginsenoside profiles. Sixteen Saanen dairy goats were allocated to two balanced groups based on lactation period, body weight ($38.6{\pm}3.2kg$), and dairy milk yield ($2.85{\pm}1.2kg$), and were kept in separate pens. Goats were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) feed (2.3 kg/d, dry matter basis) and 1.5 g of CWGR powder was supplemented in the experimental diet. The total feeding period was 3 weeks, and milk and blood samples were collected on the last three days of the experimental period. There was no effect of CWGR on daily milk yield and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, and solid-not-fat). However, the CWGR-treatment group had significantly higher plasma IgG and protein contents than the control group (P < 0.05). Significant amounts of ginsenosides were observed in the milk of the CWGR-treatment group, whereas ginsenosides were not detected in the milk of the control group. In conclusion, dietary CWGR was a useful regimen to produce functional goat milk enriched in ginsenosides.

Variations of Serving Sizes and Composition of Manufactured Milk and Soymilk Products and Implications for Dietary Assessment (시판되는 우유와 두유 제품의 제공량 및 성분의 다양성이 식이섭취조사에 미치는 영향)

  • Noh, Hwa-Young;Jang, Eun-Joo;Shim, Jae-Eun;Park, Min-Kyung;Paik, Hee-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 2008
  • Accuracy of dietary assessment depends on correct estimation of quantity as well as correct data on composition of the products. Milk and soymilk were considered quite homogeneous in items of package size and composition. One serving size of fluid milk and soymilk is considered 200 mL but there are products with different amounts on the market. This study was conducted to investigate variations of amounts and composition of fluid milk and soymilk products of one portion siz on Korean market. Twenty-nine milk products were purchased and categorized into 8 groups-regular, low-fat, skim, chocolate, strawberry-flavored, banana-flavored, and black soybean-added. Sixteen fluid soymilk products were purchased and categorized into 4 groups-regular, infant, black sesame or black soybean added and others. Actual volume of each product was measured by mass cylinder and compositions of major nutrients on the package were compared to the values in the most widely used nutrient DB in Korea. Amounts of milk specified on the package of purchased products were 182.3-318.5 ml, the largest being banana-flavored milk. Amounts of soy milk were 184.3-240.5 mL, the largest being regular soymilk. Measured amount of each products were close to the amount on the package (<5%). Contents of macronutrients on the package were different from the food composition table in several products. The amounts of calcium varied greatly among the products due to the popularity of adding calcium to milk and soymilk products recently. These variations in the amount and contents of major nutrients in milk and soymilk products can lead to considerable error to the results of dietary assessment unless the amount and the composition of each product are regularly updated in the food composition table whenever the new products are introduced in the market.

Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

  • Morsy, T.A.;Kholif, S.M.;Kholif, A.E.;Matloup, O.H.;Salem, A.Z.M.;Elella, A. Abu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.1116-1122
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    • 2015
  • This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

Serum Cholesterol-lowering Effect of Fermented Milk and Effect of Intestinal Microflora Composition on Function of Fermented Milk (발효유의 혈중 콜레스테롤 조절 기능과 발효유 기능성에 대한 장내 균총 구성의 영향)

  • Kim, Yujin;Yoon, Yohan;Lee, Soomin
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2019
  • Fermented milk has been developed with its functionalities, and its health-promoting ability has been spotlighted due to its relationship with diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, and gut microbiota. As national burden of cardiovascular disease increases over time, there is a need to prevent hypercholesterolemia. To achieve that, gut microbiota, which is altered by host's diet and environment, plays important roles in lowering cholesterol in the blood. Moreover, fermented milk may be effective as a cholesterol-lowering agent by altering gut microbiota composition. Gut microbiota may alter not only functions of the fermented milk but also bio-accessibility of functional materials. These results suggested that gut microbiota composition influences the impact of fermented milk. Thus, we should understand how functional materials are degraded by gut microbiota and absorbed into the gut.