• Title, Summary, Keyword: Milk Composition

Search Result 523, Processing Time 0.038 seconds

Effect of Replacing Corn Silage with Whole Crop Rice Silage in Total Mixed Ration on Intake, Milk Yield and Its Composition in Holsteins

  • Ki, K.S.;Khan, M.A.;Lee, W.S.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, S.B.;Yang, S.H.;Baek, K.S.;Kim, J.G.;Kim, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.22 no.4
    • /
    • pp.516-519
    • /
    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing whole crop corn silage (WCCS) with whole crop rice silage (WCRS) in the total mixed ration (TMR) on nutrient intake, milk yield and its composition in Holstein cows. The Chucheong rice variety (Oryza sativa L. Japonica) and corn (Pioneer 32 P75) were harvested at yellow-ripe stage and were ensiled in round bales and in trench silos, respectively. Two TMR containing either WCCS or WCRS were prepared. These diets were randomly assigned to 16 midlactating Holstein cows (8 cows per treatment) and were fed for 120 days. The first 20 days were used for dietary adaptation and for the next 100 days daily feed intake, milk yield and its composition were recorded. The pH, lactic acid, NDF, ADF, CP, Ca and P contents were similar in WCRS and WCCS. The DM, ash and EE contents of WCRS were greater compared with WCCS. Nutrient (DM, NDF, TDN and CP) intakes were similar in cows fed WCCS- and WCRS-based TMR. Daily and 4% fat corrected milk yield were not affected by the treatments. Milk composition (percent milk fat, protein, lactose and total solids) was similar in cows fed either WCCS- or WCRSbased TMR. The concentration of milk urea N was greater in cows fed WCRS-based TMR than those fed WCCS-based TMR. In conclusion, round-baled WCRS can replace WCCS in the diet of mid- to late-lactating Holsteins without any deleterious effects on feed consumption, milk yield and its composition. The present findings raise the possibility that WCRS can be used as an alternative roughage source in the diets of dairy cows in countries with surplus rice production.

A Comparative Study on the Composition of Preterm and Fullterm Human Milk in colostrum -I. Comparison of the Lactpse, Protein and Mineral Contents in Contents in Closterum from Mothers of Premature and Fullterm Infants (조산모와 정상모의 초유성분에 관한 비교연구 -제1보 : 조산모와 정상모 초유의 당질, 단백질 및 무기질 성분에 관한 비교)

  • 이윤욱
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.28 no.2
    • /
    • pp.127-136
    • /
    • 1995
  • In this study, the nutritional composition of colostrum milk obtained from 22 mothers delivering perterm infants and 17 mothers delivering term infants was analyzed. The energy content of colostrum was yielded based on nitrogen, lactose, and lipid data. Preterm milk is more close the nutritional needs of the preterm infant than dose other breast milk. The results are as follows : 1) Protein concentration was significantly higher, but carbohydrate and lipid concentration were lower in preterm milk than fullterm milk. Energy content yielded from total nitrogen, lactose and lipid concentration was higher in the fullterm milk than preterm milk. 2) Calcium was higher in the preterm milk than fullterm colostrum. Phosphate was lower in fullterm milk than pretem milk. Calcium/Phosphate ratio were 2.61/1 in the preterm and 2.06/1 in the fullterm milk. Magnesium was higher in the preterm milk than fullterm milk. Zinc, Copper and Manganese concentrations were tended to lower in the preterm milk than fullterm milk.

  • PDF

Composition and Yield of Korean Breast Milk and Maternal Intakes of Foods and Nutrients (수유부의 식품 및 영양소 섭취와 유즙 생성량 및 조성)

  • 이정아
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.27 no.8
    • /
    • pp.794-804
    • /
    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between lactational capacity and intakes of energy and energy-yielding nutrients. Food consumption, intakes of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy and quantity and proximate composition of milk of 11 lactating Korean mothers were determined at 1, 2 and 3 months postpartum longitudinally. Food consumption was estimated using a 24-hour recall method ; intakes of energy and energy-yielding nutrients were calculated according to the Food Composition Table. Daily milk production was estimated using a 72-hour test-weighing method ; protein, fat, lactose and energy concentrations were analyzed. Average intakes of energy and protein were 1974$\pm$386㎉/day and 67.0$\pm$12.3㎉/day, these were 73% and 74% of the Korean Recommended Allowances, respectively. Average milk yield was 720.1$\pm$123.3ml/day containing energy 59.6$\pm$9.5㎉/dl, protein 1.1$\pm$0.1g/dl, fat 2.7$\pm$0.8g/dl, and lactose 6.3$\pm$0.3g/dl. No relationship existed between the intakes of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy and the quantity and proximate composition of the milk. However, the intakes of energy, carbohydrate and vegetable protein were inversely related to the concentrations of energy and lactose in the milk. This result indicates that lactational capacity may be affected by the other factors excluding intakes of energy and energy-yielding nutrients and a high intake of energy may not guarantee optimal lactational capacity.

  • PDF

Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Lunsin, R.;Wanapat, Metha;Rowlinson, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.25 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1364-1373
    • /
    • 2012
  • Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of $418{\pm}5$ kg and $36{\pm}10$ d in milk were randomly assigned according to a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g $Ca(OH)_2$ (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, $NH_3$-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production and composition in dairy cows, while fatty acid composition of milk was influenced by RBO supplementation, and resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) concentrations of both short-chain and medium-chain FA, and increased (p<0.05) the proportion of long-chain FA in milk fat, as well as significantly increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA. In conclusion, RBO or CH exhibited specific effects on DMI, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition in lactating dairy cows, which were not interactions between CH and RBO in the diets. Feeding lactating dairy cows with RBO could improve fatty acid in milk fat by increasing cis-9, trans-11 CLA.

EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON MILK YIELD, MILK COMPOSITION AND BLOOD METABOLITE CONCENTRATIONS IN HEREFORD × FRIESIAN CATTLE

  • Matthewman, R.W.;Merrit, J.;Oldham, J.D.;Horgan, G.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.6 no.4
    • /
    • pp.607-617
    • /
    • 1993
  • Three experiments were carried out in which lactating Hereford ${\times}$ Friesian cattle walked up to ten kilometers a day for three periods of five days with two non-walking days between each walking period and in which the animals were fed different diets. Measurements were made of milk yield, milk constituent yields and concentrations and blood metabolite concentrations. Exercise caused significant reductions in milk yield and in the yields of lactose and milk protein. Milk fat yield was not reduced when animals were exercised. During exercise the concentrations of ${\beta}-OH$ butyrate and free fatty acids increased, whereas the concentrations of glucose, magnesium and inorganic phosphorus decreased. Diet influenced the effect of exercise on some blood metabolite concentrations.

Current Trends of Research and Developments of Infant Formula in Korea (국내산 조제분유의 최근 연구 개발 동향)

  • Jeon, Jeong-Wook;Lee, Keon-Won;Kim, Yong-Ki;Yun, Sung-Seob
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2008
  • Human milk contains the nutrients for the growth and the development of the newborn. It contains specific proteins, lipids, and other components designed to be easily digestible and which play important roles in infant nutrition. However, when the lactation is failure or milk secretion is not enough, bovine milk based dried formulations, which is called infant formula, have been widely used for infant feeding. In this study, we investigated protein composition and amino acids profile related to easy digestion; fatty acids composition and LCPUFA(DHA and ARA) related to brain and eye development; synbiotics which take advantage of both probiotics and prebiotics; and colostrum-originated functional micronutrient as major issues in the recent infant formula. Domestic infant formulas, which are based on the research of human and bovine milk rich in functional components for immunity, growth, anti-allergenicity, digestion and brain development, have been developed to be similar to human milk.

  • PDF

Development of Imitation Milk (II). Feed Efficiency Ratio and Over-All Nutritive Value (대용우유 제조에 관한 연구 (제2보). 대용우유의 조성과 영양가)

  • Y. J. Yoo;T. Y. Kim;J. K. Lee;S. H. Kim;T. J. Kim
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.125-131
    • /
    • 1977
  • Soymilk prepared from soaked beans under processing conditions indicating in table 2, mixed with vegetable oil, carbohydrate, whey powder, and sodium-caseinate, and fortified with essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals and then made the imitation milk by spray drying. The Feed Efficiency Ratio (FER) and Over-All Nutritive value of spray dried imitation milk were tested with weanling Albino Rats and by chemical analysis methods. The FER of imitation milk M-2, and humanized milk, were respectively 0.24, 0.25 and that of cow's milk, imitation milk M-1 were 0.21, 0.20, compared with 0.24 for imitation milk M-2. The amino acid and fatty acid composition in imitation milk were analyzed by Gaschromatography and Amino Acid Autoanalyzer. The present paper describes the result of studies on the Feed Efficiency Ratio and Over-All Lutritive value concerning amino acid and fatty acid composition in imitation milk. We found that quality of essential amino acids and polyunsaturate fatty acid composition in imitation milk have an strong effect on Feed Efficiency Ratio.

  • PDF

Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk production and milk composition of Etawah grade goats

  • Supriyati, Supriyati;Budiarsana, I. Gusti Made;Praharani, Lisa;Krisnan, Rantan;Sutama, I. Ktut
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.58 no.8
    • /
    • pp.30.1-30.12
    • /
    • 2016
  • Background: The effect of choline chloride supplementation through forced drinking combined with concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil on milk production and milk composition of Etawah Grade goats was evaluated. Choline chloride is an essential component in ruminant diets as it is required for fat metabolism. Method: The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three types of treatments and eight replications. The trial had two successive experimental periods; the first, during the eight weeks of late pregnancy, and the second, during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Twenty-four Etawah Grade does in the second gestation period were divided into three treatment groups. Commercial choline chloride 60 % in corncobs-based powder was used as a source of choline chloride. The treatments were no supplementation (control) and supplemented with either 4 g or 8 g/2days of choline chloride. Choline chloride was given to the animals through a forced drinking technique, after dissolving it in 60 ml drinking water. The initial body weight of does was $38.81{\pm}3.66kg$. The does were penned individually, and were given fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum and 700 g/day of concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil, starting eight weeks prior to expecting kidding and continuing for 12 weeks of parturition. Results: All nutrient intakes were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the treatments during the late pregnancy and the lactation periods. Supplementation did not affect (p > 0.05) the average daily gains and feed conversion ratio during pregnancy but gave effects (p < 0.05) on the average daily gains, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost during lactation. The highest average daily milk yields and 4 % fat corrected milk yields were found in goats supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride and increased by 17.00 % and 24.67 %, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, milk composition percentage and milk constituent yields improved significantly (p < 0.05) in those supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride. Conclusion: The supplementation of 4 g/2days of choline chloride through forced drinking increased milk yields, the 4 % fat corrected milk yields, milk composition, milk constituent yields, and improved feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost of Etawah Grade goats.

The Yield and Composition of Milk from Transgenic Rabbits

  • Chrenek, P.;Chrastinova, L.;Kirchnerova, K.;Makarevich, A.V.;Foltys, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.4
    • /
    • pp.482-486
    • /
    • 2007
  • Basic objective of this research was to compare the milk yield and composition of New Zealand White transgenic rabbit females expressing recombinant human factor VIII (hFVIII) in mammary gland during lactation with that of non-transgenic rabbit females of the same age during 30 days of lactation. Transgenic founders were generated by the microinjection of foreign DNA (mWAP-hFVIII gene construct) into the egg. F1, F2 and F3 generations of transgenic rabbits were obtained after mating of transgenic founder rabbits with non-transgenic rabbits. The amount of milk rejected was measured by weight-suckle-weight method at $10^{th}$, $20^{th}$and $30^{th}$ day of lactation. Quality of milk (content of fat, protein, lactose, dry ash, and some minerals) from transgenic and non-transgenic rabbit was also determined. Comparison of milk yield, determined by weight-suckle-weight method, showed significantly higher (p<0.05) milk production at day 20 of first lactation in non-transgenic females, but on the same day of second lactation higher milk yield was measured in transgenic ones. Significantly higher (p<0.05) content of milk fat and protein was determined in transgenic milk whilst higher content of lactose was found in non-transgenic milk. The content of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium) did not differ in both experimental and control groups. Our results showed that milk yield and composition of transgenic rabbit females (mammary specific transgenic over-expression of hFVIII) over several generations is only slightly and transiently different from milk yield of non-transgenic females, which had no significant consequence on the litter size and viability.

Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Suksombat, Wisitiporn;Thanh, Lam Phuoc;Meeprom, Chayapol;Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.27 no.7
    • /
    • pp.951-959
    • /
    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow's diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9,trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows' diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9-C18:1, cis-9,trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and UFA were increased while saturated FA were decreased by WLS supplementation. Therefore, it is recommended that the addition 300 g/d of oil from whole linseed should be used to lactating dairy cows' diets.