• Title, Summary, Keyword: Milk Composition

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Total Lipid, Total Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Composition in Colostrum from Mothers with Preterm Delivery and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (조기분만과 임신성 고혈압 산모의 초유내 총지질, 총콜레스테롤 및 지방산 조정)

  • 안홍석
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.186-192
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    • 2000
  • In this study, total lipid and cholesterol contents and fatty acid composition of colostrum milk obtained from 30 normal mothers, 10 mothers who was delivered of preterm infant and 8 pregnancy induced hypertensive mothers were analyzed. While total cholesterol content in preterm colostrum was significantly lower than other groups (p<0.05), total lipid content was not different among three groups, ranged 2.24-.2.2g/dl. Composition of saturated fatty acide, such as lauric acid and myristic acid which are medium chain fatty acids in preterm milk were higher than those of normal-term and hypertensive mother's milk. There was no difference n total composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the rationh of $\omega$6/$\omega$3 among 3 group mother's colostrum, ranged 19.45-21.45% and 6.42-7.87, respectively. but the composition of arachidonic acid and DHA in colostrum of hypertensive mothers were significantly higher than those of normal and preterm mothers. These data indicates that gestational length and complications during pregnancy may change the lipid profile and fatty acid composition of hyman milk colosstrum.

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Influence of Varying Level of Sodium Bicarbonate on Milk Yield and Its Composition in Early Lactating Nili Ravi Buffaloes

  • Sarwar, M.;Shahzad, M. Aasif;Nisa, Marhr-un
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1858-1864
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    • 2007
  • Influence of varying level of sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation on milk yield and its composition was examined in a randomized complete block design in early lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes during summer. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were formulated. The diet 0B contained 0 while LB, MB and HB diets contained 0.50, 1.0 and 1.50% SB levels, respectively. The diets were randomly allotted to twenty buffaloes, five in each group. A linear increase in nutrient and water intake was recorded with increasing SB level. Buffaloes fed MB and HB diets showed higher nitrogen balance than those fed 0B and LB diets. A significant increase in blood pH and serum bicarbonate was noticed with increasing SB level. Urine pH increased significantly with increased SB level. A linear increase in milk yield was also noticed with increasing SB level. Milk fat% increased significantly in buffaloes fed MB and HB diets compared with those fed 0B and LB diets. Buffaloes fed HB diet had higher conception rate and less services per conception than those fed 0B diet. This study indicated that a high SB diet not only increased dry matter and water intake, milk yield, milk fat% but also increased conception rate in early lactating buffaloes during summer.

Milk Yield and Its Fat Content as Affected by Dietary Factors: A-Rewiew

  • Sawal, R.K.;Kurar, C.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.217-233
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    • 1998
  • Milk yield and its composition is governed by level of nutrition and the composition of diet. Higher concentrate input improves milk yield, whereas its input at moderate levels improves yield of milk fat. High level of dietary protein improves dry matter intake and milk production, however, CP content above 14% has less advantage. Milk yield is enhanced by the feeding of cottonseed and soyabean meal, whereas milk fat increases by the supplementation of cottonseed. Dietary fat increases energy intake, production of milk and milk fat. Quality and quantity of feeds consumed affect fermentation patterns in rumen. Among the rumen metabolites, volatile fatty acids (VFA) content and propionate proportion have been related positively with milk yield, whereas proportion of acetate and butyrate have been related positively with milk fat content. Dietary carbohydrates through the source of sugar, starch, roughage and fibre affect VFA concentration in rumen. Therefore, concentration of volatile fatty acids could be altered to the advantage of consumer through judicious manipulation of diet.

Effects of Genetic Variants of ${\kappa}$-casein and ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin and Heat Treatment of Milk on Cheese and Whey Compositions

  • Choi, J.W.;Ng-Kwai-Hang, K.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.732-739
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    • 2002
  • Milk samples with different phenotype combination of $\{kappa}$-casein and ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin and different preheating temperatures of 30, 70, 75 and $80^{\circ}C$ were used for cheesemaking under laboratory conditions. For the 853 batches of cheese, mean composition was 59.64% total solids, 30.24% fat and 23.66% protein, and the whey contained 6.93% total solids, 0.30% fat and 0.87% protein. Least squares analysis of the data indicated that heating temperature of the milk and ${\kappa}$-CN/${\beta}$-LG phenotypes had significant effects on cheese and whey compositions. The total solids, fat and protein contents of cheese were negatively correlated with preheating temperatures of milk. Cheese from BB/BB phenotype milk had the highest and those from AA/AA phenotype milk had the lowest concentrations of total solids, fat and protein. Mean recoveries of milk components in the cheese were 53.71% of total solids, 87.15% of fat, and 80.32% of protein. For the 10 different types of milk, maximum recoveries of milk components in cheese occurred with preheating temperature of $70^{\circ}C$ or $75^{\circ}C$ and lowest recoveries occurred at $80^{\circ}C$. The whey averaged 6.94% total solids, 0.30% fat and 0.87% protein. Losses of milk components in the whey were lowest for milk preheated at $80^{\circ}C$ and for milk containing the BB/BB phenotype.

Effect of Cattle Breeds on Milk Composition and Technological Characteristics in China

  • Yang, T.X.;Li, H.;Wang, F.;Liu, X.L.;Li, Q.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.896-904
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    • 2013
  • Cattle breeds have a striking effect on milk, including milk composition and technological characteristics. This study aims to compare milk composition, acidification activity, viscosity, milk dispersion system stability and casein molecular weight among three buffalo breeds in China. The technological characteristics of milk produced by three cattle breeds of river buffalo (Murrah), crossbreed 1st generation ($F_1$), crossbreed multiple generation ($F_H$, $H{\geq}3$) buffaloes were investigated. Cattle breeds showed evident effect on milk protein, fat and total solids content, but little effect on most of buffalo casein molecular weight. Milk fat, protein content and the viscosity of buffalo milk from river buffalo were lower than those of $F_1$ and $F_H$, so was the buffer capacity. The viscosity was negatively correlated to temperature and concentration. Results of stability coefficient showed that milk dispersion system had the best dynamic stability characteristics under pH 6.6 and 6 times dilution, while zeta potential of Murrah milk was slightly higher than that of hybrid offspring ($F_1$, $F_H$). SDS-PAGE results showed that buffalo ${\alpha}_s$-casein had a slightly faster mobility than standard ${\alpha}_s$-casein; while buffalo ${\beta}$-casein showed a slightly slower mobility than standard ${\beta}$-casein. There is no clear differences in molecular weight of ${\alpha}_s$-, ${\beta}$-, and ${\kappa}$-casein among Murrah, $F_1$ and $F_H$.

Effects of Replacement of Concentrate Mixture by Broccoli Byproducts on Lactating Performance in Dairy Cows

  • Yi, X.W.;Yang, F.;Liu, J.X.;Wang, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1449-1453
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    • 2015
  • The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of feeding pelletized broccoli byproducts (PBB) on milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. In Trial 1, an in vitro gas test determined the optimal replacement level of PBB in a concentrate mixture in a mixed substrate with Chinese wild ryegrass hay (50:50, w/w) at levels of 0, 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% (dry matter basis). When the concentrate was replaced by PBB at a level of 20%, no adverse effects were found on the gas volume or its rate constant during ruminal fermentation. In trial 2, 24 lactating cows (days in milk = $170.4{\pm}35$; milk yield = $30{\pm}3kg/d$; body weight = $580{\pm}13kg$) were divided into 12 blocks based on day in milk and milk yield and randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a basic diet with or without PBB replacing 20% of the concentrate mixture. The feeding trial lasted for 56 days; the first week allowed for adaptation to the diet. The milk composition was analyzed once a week. No significant difference in milk yield was observed between the two groups (23.5 vs 24.2 kg). A significant increase was found in milk fat content in the PBB group (p<0.05). Inclusion of PBB did not affect milk protein, lactose, total solids or solids-not-fat (p>0.05). These results indicated that PBB could be included in dairy cattle diets at a suitable level to replace concentrate mixture without any adverse effects on dairy performance.

Performance and milk composition of dairy goats as affected by the dietary level of stoned olive cake silages

  • Keles, Gurhan;Yildiz-Akgul, Filiz;Kocaman, Veli
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.363-369
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The current study compared the effects of dietary levels of two phase stoned olive cake (OC) in form of silage (OCS) on milk production and quality of Saanen goats. Methods: The OCS included in total mixed ration (TMR) at dry matter proportions of 0.0 (OC0), 0.10 (OC10), and 0.20 (OC20). The TMR were fed to a total of 18 goats in a completely randomized design for a period of 5 weeks. Results: Dietary treatments had no effect on the milk yield of Saanen goats, but the daily milk fat production was greater (p<0.05) at feeding OC20. The total phenolic (TP) compounds contents increased (p<0.01) in each increment of OCS in TMR and this was also reflected in the TP contents of milk. The C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0 saturated fatty acids (FAs) in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) with increasing dietary level of OCS, but the decrease (p<0.001) in C16:0 and the increase (p<0.01) in C18:0 in milk fat occurred similarly at each inclusion level of OCS. Only OC20 reduced (p<0.05) the total saturated FA, yet the reduction (p<0.01) in n6/n3 ratio and atherogenicity index occurred in both OC10 and OC20. Conclusion: Two phase stoned OCS increases milk quality not only through modifying the milk FA composition, but also by increasing the milk TP content. These favorable changes in milk quality are closely associated with the dietary level of OCS.

Effects of Dietary Protein Level on Milk Composition and Postnatal Growth in Rats (흰쥐에서 식이 단백질 수준이 유즙 성분과 새끼의 영양상태에 미치는 영향)

  • 김화영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.855-863
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    • 1999
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary protein level throughout gestation and lactation on milk composition and on postnatal growth in infants, using rats as an animal model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with either high(25% ISP(Isolated Soy Protein)diet) or low protein diet(10% ISP diet) throughout gestation and lactation. Milk samples were taken for analysis from the lactating rats at days of 7, 14, 21, of lactation. Dams and some pups were killed after 4 weeks from parturtion (Experiment 1). Pups from dams of each diet groups were randomly selected and reared with 25% or 10% ISP diet for 4 more weeks (Experiment 2). In experiment 1, maternal protein intake and body weight gain throughout gestation and lactation was higher in 25% ISP group. Serum protein, Ca, Fe, Zn, K concentrations were significantly higher in 25% ISP group. There was no difference in birth weight between two groups, however the mean body weight at 4 weeks postpartum were significantly higher in 25% ISP group. Serum profiles of pups at weaning were similar to that of dams. Milk compositions were changed during lactation processes and were affected by dietary protein level. Lactose and Ca, Cu, Fe concentrations in milk were higher in 25% ISP group, whereas, lipid, triglyceride were higher in 10% ISP group. In experiment 2, food intake was higher in milk were higher in 25% ISP group but was unaffected by pup's dietary protein level after weaning. The weights of liver and kidney were affected by maternal protein intake. The weight of intestine was affected by pup's dietary protein level after weaning. The weight of femur and scapula were affected by maternal protein intake. There were no differences between four groups in serum profiles. Therefore, as mentioned above, it seemed that the effect of maternal protein malnutrition to fetus was able to be overcome to some extent by high protein diet intake after weaning. In conclusion, 1) Dietary protein level throughout gestation and lactation affected both nutritional status of dams and pups and milk composition: 25% ISP groups supported better nutritional status than 10% ISP group 2) It seemed that effect of dietary protein level after weaning on pups was able to be overcome the influence of maternal diet in fetus to some extent.

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Effects of the Milking System and Supplemental Fat Feeding on Milk and Milk Fat Characteristics (착유방식 및 지방 보충급여가 원유 및 지방특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Moon, Ju Yeon;Lee, Jin-Sung;Chang, Kyeong-Man;Park, Seong-Min;Park, Seung-Yong;Jung, Mun Yhung;Son, Yong-Suk
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.209-214
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different milking systems (AMS, automatic milking system and CMS, conventional milking system) and of supplemental fat feeding on milk composition and milk fat characteristics. The composition, MFG (milk fat globule) size, fatty acids (FAs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) of the milk from 4 AMS and 4 CMS dairy farms were analyzed on the basis of the milking system and feeding of protected fat. The milking system did not affect milk composition, MFG size, and milk FAs, but FFA content of AMS milk were significantly higher than that of CMS milk. Feeding of protected fat resulted in the production of milk much higher in LCFAs (long chain FAs); however, the milk composition was not affected by fat supplementation. Cows administered protected fat supplements produced milk containing MFGs with a large average diameter.

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Effect of Broussonetia papyrifera L. (paper mulberry) silage on dry matter intake, milk composition, antioxidant capacity and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cows

  • Si, Bingwen;Tao, Hui;Zhang, Xiaoli;Guo, Jiangpeng;Cui, Kai;Tu, Yan;Diao, Qiyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1259-1266
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the possible application of Broussonetia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) silage as a functional feeding stuff in dairy cattle. Methods: Seventy-two Holstein cows were divided into four groups randomly and allocated to 6 pens with 3 individuals in each group and fed the original total mixed ratio (TMR) in the dairy farm or the new TMR with 5%, 10%, and 15% B. papyrifera silage, separately. Feed intake were recorded, milk and blood samples were collected, and milk composition, blood metabolites and milk fatty acids composition were measure at the end of the experiment. Results: Dry matter intake of cows decreased when they fed on diet with B. papyrifera, but no differences were observed in body condition score, milk yield, milk protein and lactose, feed efficiency and serum metabolites between groups. Both 10% or 15% of B. papyrifera silage in the diet significantly increased the immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG in serum, 15% of B. papyrifera silage increased the content of serum catalase, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, and decreased the content of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Furthermore, 10% or 15% of B. papyrifera silage resulted in a significant decrease in the milk somatic cell count, and increased the polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the milk. Conclusion: The diets with 10% to 15% of B. papyrifera silage might enhance the immune and antioxidant function of dairy cows and increase the polyunstaturated fatty acid concentration in the milk.