• Title, Summary, Keyword: Milk Quality Characteristics

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Quality Characteristics of Bechamel Sauce with Different Ratios of Soy Milk to Milk (두유와 우유의 첨가비율에 따른 Bechamel Sauce의 품질 특성)

  • Choi, Soo-Keun;Cha, Joon-Ho;Park, Ki-Hong
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2013
  • This study tested the development of bechamel sauce with different ratios of soy milk to milk(0:4, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1, 4:0) to examine changes in quality characteristics. Proximate composition analysis showed a decrease in salinity with increasing amounts of soy milk, while the moisture content and, density increases. The highest pH values were found for a 1:1 ratio of soy milk to milk (S2) and the lowest pH values were found for a 0:4 ratio of soy milk to milk (CON). The L-value decreased, while a and b values increased with increasing amounts of soy milk. In the stability test, segregation occurred in CON after 5 days, while the highest segregation occurred at a 4:0 ratio of soy milk to milk (S4). The sensory evaluation results showed that the color, thickness, savory flavor, and savory taste increased with increasing amounts of soy milk. In the acceptance test, a 1:3 ratio of soy milk to milk (S1) and a 1:1 ratio of soy milk to milk (S2) had the highest acceptance scores (p<0.001) for appearance, taste, texture, and overall acceptance.

The Quality Characteristics of Milk Tofu with Added Black Garlic Concentrate (흑마늘 농축액을 첨가한 우유두부의 품질특성)

  • Kim, Ae-Jung;Rho, Jeong-Ok
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.386-391
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    • 2012
  • The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of black garlic milk tofu prepared with five different levels (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2.0%) of black garlic concentrate (BG0~BG4). We conducted the pH, total phenol and flavonoids, Hunter's color values, mechanical characteristics, and a sensory evaluation analysis of black garlic milk tofu. The total phenol and flavonoid content of black garlic concentrate were 1.67mg/100 g and 1.07 mg/100 g. The more black garlic concentrate increased, the more lightness (L) decreased, but redness(a) and yellowness (b) increased. The hardness, gumminess, and chewiness scores significantly increased (p<0.05) in all black garlic milk tofu samples. In color, taste, flavor, texture, and overall quality, the score of milk tofu with 1.0% black garlic concentrate (BG2) increased the most.

The Nutritive Value of Live Yeast Culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Its Effect on Milk Yield, Milk Composition and Some Blood Parameters of Dairy Cows

  • Yalcin, Sakine;Yalcin, Suzan;Can, Plnar;Gurdal, Arif O.;Bagci, Cemalettin;Eltan, Onder
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1377-1385
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to determine the nutritive value of live yeast culture (RumiSacc, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and to investigate its effects on milk yield, milk composition and some blood parameters in lactating cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were allocated to two groups of three cows and assigned randomly to one of two diets in a cross-over experiment. Daily 50 g RumiSacc was top dressed at the p.m. feeding for the treatment group. RumiSacc supplied a high protein and energy with high organic matter digestibility values (83.35%) determined by in vitro enzymatic analysis. Yeast culture supplementation significantly increased milk yield, tended to increase fat yield, protein yield and lactose yield of milk. Methylated fatty acid level of 18:3 (n-3) in milk fat was increased by yeast culture supplementation. The concentrations of methionine, phenyalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan and taurine were significantly increased with dietary inclusion of yeast culture. Live yeast culture supplementation did not affect other performance characteristics, milk quality characteristics and blood parameters. As a conclusion live yeast culture (RumiSacc, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) had high nutritive value and positive effects on milk production and some milk quality characteristics in lactating cows under field conditions.

Quality Characteristics of Cholesterol Free UHT Pasteurized Milk (Cholesterol Free 우유의 품질특성)

  • Jeon, Jeong-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.524-528
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality characteristic of cholesterol free milk helping the reduction of serum cholesterol. Cholesterol free milk stored at $10\pm1^{\circ}C$ was evaluated with general analysis, stability, cholesterol, microorganism, aflatoxin $M_1$, antibiotic, antibacterial agent, color, and sensory evaluation. Animal fat contents were significant (p<0.05), but normal values. Quality characteristics of alcohol test, freezing point, and somatic cell count were general milk data with stability. Cholesterol content, microorganism, and aflatoxin MI were not detected. Also antibiotic and antibacterial agent residues were not detected by Parallux, Charm II, TTC II, and Eclipse method. Color of CFM1 was significant, while CFM2 was similar with conventional milk. Compared to control milk made by conventional way, QDA scores of color and mouthfeel in CFM1 were significantly different, whereas CFM2 did not show any significant. These Quality characteristic results suggested that health-oriented cholesterol free milk would be made by food additive.

Changes in Quality Characteristics of Commercial Milk with Different Physical Treatments during Storage

  • Choi, Jinyoung;Kim, Youngsung;Kwon, Taeeun
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2018
  • In this study, the fatty acid content and quality characteristics of the massless enegy treated commercial milk products stored at $30^{\circ}C$ were investigated. The pH of pasteurized milk decreased significantly. UHT milk showed also significant decrease in pH to 4.70~5.72 on the 8th day of storage which was higher than control even there was no significant differences. The acidity of pasteurized milk decreased significantly from the 2nd day of storage to 0.13~0.65% in treatments and control and control was 0.94% at the 8th day of storage and 0.35% in the treatment of ultra high temperature milk. The solid content of pasteurized milk was $7.5^{\circ}Bx$ at 1 day after storage, which showed significant differences from the $11.2^{\circ}Bx$ in the treatment. Pasteurized milk showed more bacterial growth in the treatment than in the control. After 4 days of storage, there was no bacterial count in pasteurized milk but it increased significantly $1.9{\times}10^8$ and $4.5{\times}10^6$ each in UHT milk. Lactic acid bacteria were detected in the curd $2.0{\times}10^6$ in the control and $2.0{\times}10^8$ in the treatment at the 4th day. Palmitic acid content in the saturated fatty acid was the highest at 35.4~41.4% in both pasteurized and ultra high temperature milk. In the UHT milk, linolenic acid was significantly increased to 3.8% in the treatment compared with 2.9% in the control at the 4th day of storage. Therefore, commercial ultra high temperature milk with physical treatment to increase beneficial bacteria showed significant difference compared to the control after 5 days of storage in this experiment.

Quality characteristics of soybean cheese prepared with low lipoxidase soybean variety and defatted soybean meal by fermenting after proteolytic enzyme hydrolysis (진품콩과 탈지대두박의 배합비율 및 단백분해효소처리를 달리하여 제조한 콩치즈의 품질특성)

  • 최애진;이숙영
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.65-79
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    • 2001
  • The effects of ${\alpha}$-chymotrypsin and trypsin treatments on the functional properties (degree of hydrolysis, solubility, and emulsifying capacity) of the soy protein isolate prepared from Jinpum soybean milk(JS milk) which has been developed as low lipoxidase-active soybean variety in Korea and extracted from commercially defatted soybean meal milk(DSM milk). The mixing ratios of JS milk to DSM milk were adjusted to 10:0, 7:3, and 5:5, respectively. The general quality attributes(yield, pH, titrable acidity, moisture contents, crude protein contents, color, textural properties, and sensory characteristics) of soybean cheese which has been prepared with the resulting soy protein hydrolysates were evaluated. Jinpum SPI was better subjected to trypsin than ${\alpha}$-chymotrypsin hydrolyses as indicated by better solubility and emulsifying capacity of the hydrolysates. The degree of hydrolysis and solubility of Jinpum SPI were higher than the soybean isolates from DSM milk. The increased ratios of DSM milk in the mixture resulted in the reduced yields and crude protein content along with the lowered titratable acidity while the pH values and moisture contents showed the opposite trends. In color characteristics, the increased amount of DSM milk brought about the significantly lower Hunter color reflectance values of lightness of the cheese products, along with the higher redness and total color difference value(ΔE). However, the enzyme treatment alone was not enough to cause any color differences. The increased ratios of DSM milk also caused the significantly lowered textural parameters such as hardness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness of the soybean cheese. Between the enzyme treatments, the ${\alpha}$-chymotrypsin treated samples resulted in the higher hardness and cohesiveness values of the products than those from the trypsin-treated ones. In organoleptic properties of the product, the better mouthfeel and overall quality scores were obtained from the trypsin treatments as compared with those from the ${\alpha}$-chymotrypsin ones. The mixing ratios of 10:0 and 7:3 were more favored than that of 5:5 as far as mouth-feel, yellowness and overall quality of the products were concerned. On the overall, the mixing ratio of 7:3(JS milk: DSM milk) and the trypsin treatment of the mixture was recommended for better manufacturing of high-quality soybean cheese.

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A Study on the Sensory Characteristics of Various Heat Treated Milks (살균 온도에 따른 시판 우유의 관능적 특성 비교 연구)

  • 박신인
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.19-22
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    • 1995
  • Sensory characteristics of various milk samples-low-temperature long-time(LTLT) milk, high-temperature short-time (HTST) milk and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk-were investigated using chemical analysis and sensory evaluation. The chemical composition was not much different among the milk samples. The results of evaluation of preference for color, flavor, taste and overall desirability of the milk samples by scoring and ranking tests indicated that significant difference on the sensory quality was recognized at 0.01 percent level. UHT milk samples (especially sample F and H) had better sensory acceptability than LTLT milk HTST milk samples.

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Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) for Monitoring the Quality of Milk, Cheese, Meat and Fish - Review -

  • Ru, Y.J.;Glatz, P.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.1017-1025
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    • 2000
  • The traditional methods for determining the quality of milk, cheese and meat are tedious and expensive, with a significant wastage of chemicals which pollute the environment. To overcome these disadvantages, the potential of near infrared spectrophotometry (NIR) for monitoring the quality of milk and meat has been evaluated by a number of researchers. While most studies indicate that NIR can be used to predict chemical composition of milk and meat, and to monitor the cutting-point during cheese manufacturing, one study demonstrated the potential of NIR to predict sensory characteristics (e.g. hardness and tenderness) of beef. These calibrations were developed on a small number of samples, limiting their value for adoption by the industries. Now that the sophisticated computer software is available, more robust calibrations need to be developed to monitor both chemical and physical characteristics of meat and meat products simultaneously.

Quality Characteristics of Soybean Milk Added with Stevia Leaf Powder (스테비아잎 분말을 첨가한 두유의 품질 특성)

  • Choi, Soon-Nam;Joo, MiK-Kyoung;Chung, Nam-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) leaf powder on soybean milk quality. Soybean milk was prepared with the addition of 0.1 g (SP1), 0.2 g (SP2), 0.3 g (SP3), 0.4 g (SP4) of stevia leaf powder. The pH of soybean milk added with stevia leaf powders ranged from 7.90 to 7.98, whereas that of control was 7.88. The viscosity of soybean milk added with stevia leaf powder was 11.13~12.71 cp while that of control was 11.09 cp. Soymilk added with stevia leaf powder yielded values of Hunter L (59.40~64.94), a (-7.63~-6.45), and b (18.71~19.63), whereas that of control were 67.45, -4.74 and 20.13, respectively. There was decrease upon addition of stevia leaf powder. During storage, the pH, viscosity, L, and b values were decreased continuously. According to sensory evaluation, taste, and flavor of SP3 were better than the other groups. Quality characteristics between control and SP3 showed no significant differences. Therefore, this study showed the possibility of substituting 0.3 g of stevia leaf powder instead of sugar for creating a standard quality soybean milk with low calories. Upon the results of this study, it may be assumed that there are consequences positive responses to health-oriented consumers when using stevia leaf powder.

Effect of Sterilizing Method on the Quality Change of Iron Fortified Market Milk during Storage (살균방법이 철분강화 우유의 저장중 품질변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 김윤지;김기성
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.755-759
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    • 1999
  • To evaluate the effect of sterilizing method on the quality of iron fortified market milk, HTST(high temperature, short time) or LTLT(low temperture, long time) method was adopted after addition of 100ppm ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate, ferric ammonium citrate, or ferrous lactate in market milk. Sterilized iron fortified market milk was stored at 4oC and then pH, lipid oxidation, color change, and sensory quality were observed. The range of pH change in iron fortified market milk sterilized by HTST or LTLT was 6.51~6.74. The order of pH was control>ferric ammonium citrate>ferrous lactate>ferrous sulfate>ferric citrate. Oxygen consumption of ferric ammonium citrate and ferric citrate was lower than ferrous lactate and ferrous sulfate. This trend was same in HTST and LTLT method, but generally oxygen consumption was lower in iron fortified market milk sterilized by LTLT method than by HTST. In total color change, ferrous lactate treatment was closer to control than other treatments. Also sensory characteristics of ferrous lactate treatment was showed better quality than other treatment. From these results, LTLT method was more suitable than HTST method for iron fortified market milk and ferrous lactate was comparably suitable among iron salts used in this study.

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