• Title, Summary, Keyword: Modal Split

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Deeper Underground Greater Metropolitan Express Train Network Effect (긴급제언 - 대심도 광역지하급행철도 네트워크 효과)

  • Lee, Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Professional Engineers Association
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2009
  • The modal split structure of the Korea's transportation system has been dominated by road-oriented structure. The shortage of the inftrastructure to accommodate the rapidly increasing travel demand has brought about socio-economic losses such as severe traffic congestion and high logistic costs, and thereby weakened the competitiveness of the country. Highway transportation sector is more vulnerable to energy consumption comparing with railway sector since the highway sector is dependent mostly on fossil fuels for its energy source. In 2006 annual road cogestion costs in Korea reached 24.6 trillion won, with an average annual growth rate of 5.4%. The annual road congestion cost of intercity highways were 9.2 trillion won. As the new cities that recently developed are located far from Seoul area, the boundary of commuting in Seoul metropolitan area is extended. It makes passengers have longer trips with longer travel time, and the congestion problem to be more serious. In this regards, Gyeonggi Provincial Government proposed a deeper underground metropolitan express train system for the greater Metropolitan area. which is named as GTX. Gyeonggi Province suggested 3 key underground lines, based on the outcome of the feasibility study conducted by the Korea Society of Transportation, and submitted to the Ministry of Land Transportation and Maritime Affairs for its review. If the project is approved for construction and completed in 2016, the daily volume of surface traffic bound for Seoul will be reduced substantially and therefore the users will be benefitted for time savings by an annual amount of 2 trilion won every year.

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A Continuous Network Design Model for Target-Oriented Transport Mode Choice Problem (목표지향 교통수단선택을 위한 연속형 교통망설계모형)

  • Im, Yong-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.157-166
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    • 2009
  • A network design problem (NDP) is to find a design parameter to optimize the performance of transportation system. This paper presents a modified NDP, called target-oriented NDP, which contains a target that we try to arrive in real world, and also proposes a solution algorithm. Unlike general NDP which seeks an optimal value to minimize or to maximize objective function of the system, in target-oriented NDP traffic manager or operator can set a target level prior and then try to find an optimal design variable to attain this goal. A simple example for mode choice problem is given to test the model.

Feeding Habits of Larval Clupea pallasii from the Nakdong River Estuary, Korea (낙동강 하구역에 출현하는 청어(Clupea pallasii) 자치어의 식성)

  • Choi, Hee Chan;Park, Joo Myun;Youn, Seok Hyun;Huh, Sung Hoi
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.498-506
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    • 2015
  • We examined the feeding habits of larval Clupea pallasii using 148 specimens collected from December 2010 to April 2011 in the Nakdong River estuary, Korea. We found that larval C. pallasii [8.3-26.0 mm NL (notochord length)] are carnivorous, consuming mainly copepods, rotifers, cirripeds, and free-living flatworms (Macrostomida). Their diet also include small quantities of shrimp nauplii, tintinnids, cladocerans, and larval bivalves, among other food sources. To evaluate ontogenetic changes in dietary composition, we split larvae into four size groups: 8-12 mm, 12-16 mm, 16-20 mm, and > 20 mm NL. Rotifers were the most important prey items for the smallest group, but all other groups predominantly consumed copepods. The largest group frequently preyed on rotifers, cirripeds and flatworms, in addition to copepods. Larvae also showed bi-modal feeding, with peaks in the late afternoon and at midnight, wherein the mean number of prey per individual peaked at 1,800-1,900 h.

Equilibrium of transport mode choice in logit model (로짓 수단선택모형의 균형연구)

  • Im, Yong-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.131-139
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    • 2010
  • The transport mode choice problem is to determine which of the alternative transport modes connecting an origin and destination will be used by a traveler. Most of the research relating to transport mode choice have mainly been focused on modeling, properties, and applications of the model, but rarely were concerned with equilibrium among the modes. This paper proves the equilibrium among the modes by using a logit mode choice model, and then verifies it with the Korean Transport Database (KTDB). In order to obtain such an equilibrium, this paper also presents a solution algorithm based on the fixed point theorem. The algorithm was tested with an example and confirmed the equilibrium solution.

A New Approach of Modal Split Model Based on The Trip length (Gyeongbu High-Speed Railway) (통행거리에 따른 합리적인 통행수단선택 모형 구축방안 연구 (경부고속철도 대상))

  • Cho, Hang-Ung;Lee, Seung-Yeung;Kim, Kang-Seob
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.773-790
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    • 2009
  • The Korea high speed train was launched from Seoul to Busan of 1st construction phase at 1st April, 2004. This huge project will be lead to a great change in korean society such as existing mode choice behavior change and the concentrating on KTX station zone lifestyle pattern's change. With the result to opening high speed train railway was diminished train journey time between Seoul to Busan from 4 hours 10 minute to 2 hours 40 minutes, and has been change population movement, favorite location of corporation headquarters, existing metropolitan transportation pattern and so on. In the middle of this study, I choose to analyse Seoul-Cheonan/Asan stations, Seoul-Deajeon stations, Seoul-Deagu stations, Seoul-Pusan stations. This study have a information to analyse among as like movement of population, status of employee structure, usage of land, movement inland transportation mode. I sure that this study will lead to helpful prediction both 2nd phase of Kyoung-bu high-speed railway and Ho-nam high-speed railway in advance.

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A Study on Improvement of Demand Estimation in Urban Railway through Segmentations of Station Influence Areas (역세권 세분화를 통한 도시철도 수요예측 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Sangmin;Chung, Sungbong;Kim, Sigon;Cho, Hangung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.32 no.6D
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    • pp.673-678
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    • 2012
  • Accurate demand estimating process in the construction of urban railway is very important, and precise validation is required. Existing model formula in the 4 phase model is limited in the estimation of the demand the administrative boundary-based zone system reflects no spatial railway demand characteristics around railway stations. The purpose of this study is improving the accuracy of urban rail demand estimation through segmentations of station influence areas and modal split characteristics within the areas. According to the case analysis, it is possible to set up the ststion influence area with a radius of 500m in the urban region and 1,000m in the suburban. And eastablishing proper segmentations of the ststion influence area shows more accurate results to the real demand of railway stations.

Developing a Latent Class Model Considering Heterogeneity in Mode Choice Behavior : A Case of Commuters in Seoul (수단선택의 이질성을 고려한 잠재계층모형(Latent Class Model) 구축: 서울시 통근자를 사례로)

  • Kim, Sung Hoo;Choo, Sangho
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.44-57
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    • 2019
  • It is crucial to understand how people make decisions on mode choice and to accurately predict their behaviors in transportation planning. One of avenues for advancing modeling is, in particular, taking into account for taste heterogeneity in modeling that can incorporate different decision-making processes across group. In this study, we hypothesize that how people make decisions on mode choice would differ by destination in that land use characteristics are heterogeneous by zone even if zones are all in the same area. To this end, we apply Latent Class Modeling (LCM) to commute trips in Seoul by using 2010 household travel diary survey, investigate types of latent classes with the aid of characteristics of destination, and analyze how those classes differently response to factors. The LCM identifies two classes: in the first one, modal split of auto and public transit (bus and metro) is almost half-and-half and the trip destinations are characterized by relatively more residence facilities and less business/commercial facilities; in the second one, public transit has a notably high share and trip destinations are characterized by relatively more business/commercial facilities. In addition, it turns out that demographic and socio-economic variables affect mode choice differently by class.

Estimation of Trip Matrices from Traffic Counts : An Equilibrium Approach (교통망 평형 조건하에서 링크 교통량 자료를 이용한 기종점 통행표 추정방법에 관한 연구)

  • 오재학
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 1992
  • 교통수요는 교통정책 및 교통시설 계획의 수립 및 평가에 중요한 영향을 미치게 되므로 교통수요의 예측은 교통연구에서 중요한 부문을 차지하고 있다. 도로밑에 설치된 전자차량감지기(Electronic Vehicle Detector)로부터 자동 수집된 링크 교통량 자료(Traffic Counts)를 주요 입력자료로 이용하여 계획지역의 기종점 통행표(Origin Destination Trip Matrix)를 작성할 수 있는 기법 들이 최근 수년동안 많이 발달하게 되었다. 이러한 새로운 기법들은 가구조사(Home Inteview), 노변면접조사(Road-Side Interview)등을 토하여 조사된 자료를 기초로하는 전통적은 4단계 교통수요추정방법(Conventional 4-Stage Estimation Method)-통행발생(Generation), 통행분포(Distribution), 수단선택(Modal Split), 교통배분(Assignment)-과 비교하여 첫째로 정확도가 높은 링크 교통량 자료를 별도의 조사를 거치지 않고서도 수집이 가능하기 때문에 조사비용이 거의 들지 않아도 되어 경제적이고, 둘째로 전통적인 수요예측방법들에서 요구되어지는 복잡한 모형수립 및 계수조정(Parameter Calibration)이 필요하지 않아 간편하고 셋째로 오래전에 작성된 기종점 통행표를 단순히 링크 교통량 자료만을 이용하여 쉽게 보완할 수 있어 지속적인 자료의 축적(Data Age-ing)이 가능하며 더 나아 가서 소위 연속적인 교통 계획 및 교통시설관리(Continuous Transport Planning and Management)를 가능케 하는 등의 여러 장점 때문에 많은 주목을 받아 오고 최근 몇 년이 꾸준히 실무에 유용하게 적용이 되고 있는 실정이다. 본 연구는 링크 교통량자료를 이용하여 기종점 통행표를 작성하기 위하여 개발된 기존의 여러 기법들 가운데 특히 용량제약조건(Capacity-Restrained Condition)하에서 기존의 방법들을 상호 검토한 후 Wardrop의 교통망 평형원칙(Wardrop's First Network Equilibrium Principle)을 만족하는 새로운 추정기법을 제의하고 이의 시험결과를 논의하는 것을 주요내용으로 한다. 링크 교통량 자료를 이용하여 기종점 통행표를 작성하는 기법들의 근본 목표는 조사된 링크 교통량(Ob-served Traffic Counts)에 가장 근접한 교통망 통행 배정 링크 교통량(Assigned Link Volumes)을 재현(Re-producing)할 수 있는 기종점 통행표들 중에서 최적의 기종점 통행표를 발견하는 것이다. 따라서 교통망에서 통행자의 여행 경로 배정을 가장 잘 반영할 수 있는 현실적인(Realistic) 교통망 통행 배정 모형(Net-work Traffic Assignment Model)의 선택은 중요한 요소가 되며 특히 교통망에 교통체증(Traffic Conges-tion)이 심할 경우 교통망 통행자 평형조건(Network Traffic Equilibrium Condition)을 고려하기 위한 특별한 처리가 요구되어진다. 본 연구는 Whllumsen(Hall, Van Vliet and Willumsen, 1980)에 의하여 개발된 ME2(Maximum Entropy Matrix Estimation)기법에서 반복식 추정방법(Sequential Estimation Method)을 사용할 경우 Wardrop의 평형조건을 만족하는 기종점 통행표를 구할 수 없다는 단점을 극복하기 위한 방안으로서 엔트로피 극대화문제와 교통망 평형 조건(Entropy Maximisation and Network Equilibrium Condition)의 두 문제를 동시에 해결할 수 있는 새로운 수식모형과 이를 풀기 위한 알고리즘(Simultaneous Solution Algorithm)을 제의하였다. 제의된 수식모형과 알고리즘을 예제 교통망(Example Network)을 이용한 시험하고 그 결과를 ME2 의 반복식 추정 방법으로부터 구한 기종점 통행표와 비교 검토하였다.

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The Study on Determination of Benefit Factor as Constructing Traffic Facilities Using ANP (ANP기법을 이용한 교통시설 건설사업의 편익항목 선정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Man Kyeong;Jung, Hun Young;Lee, Sang Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.26 no.1D
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2006
  • The construction of traffic facilities has generated a variety of problems in the equality and efficiency when it would be planed and evaluated. One of the reasons for these phenomena isn't the definition of an objective standard about benefit items. Thus, results of evaluation couldn't give a demonstration of confidence. But, the traffic facility construction and its operation costs are securely appeared. Therefor, it will be demonstrated to decide the benefit items in this study. Before deciding the items, user's satisfaction evaluation and economic analysis would be carried. We find out subway user's satisfaction higher than load traffic mode user in satisfaction evaluation, while subway's economic feasibility is lower than load facility, as a result of B/C analysis. In this inconsistent results, we found out that the benefit value is a little lower because of indefinite standard of it's items as comparing Busan Metropolitan City's population with subway's modal split ratio. Accordingly, we enumerate some benefit items in the case of feasibility evaluation as constructing traffic facility. And each of evaluation items' weight is estimated by using ANP. We found out that the weight value of accessibility has the highest one, that of punctuality has second, that of travel time has third, and benefit items according to improvement of user's traffic condition have much more important than those which were considered in the existence economic analysis.

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Compact Design and Fabrication of 'Improved QS-MMI' Demultiplexer (Improved QS-MMI' 1.31/1.55μm 파장분리기의 최적화 설계 및 제작)

  • Kim, Nam-Kook;Kim, Jang-Kyum;Choi, Chul-Hyun;O, Beom-Hoan;Lee, Seung-Gol;Park, Se-Gun;Lee, El-Hang
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.248-253
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    • 2005
  • We designed and fabricated a compact multi-mode interference (MMI) wavelength demultiplexer using the concept of 'Improved Quasi-State' modes. The output power and extinction ratio were improved by utilizing modal phase error which is specially occurred in low-index contrast. For a designed demultiplexer, the mode propagation analysis with effective index approximation shows significant improvement of extinction ratio to -25 dB for both $1.31{\mu}m\;and\;1.51{\mu}m$ wavelength region and the split-length was reduced about 1/5 of other MMI devices. The fabricated device shows successful characteristics for both 1.31 and $1.55{\mu}m$ wavelengths. These results demonstrate the potential of low-index materials system and the embossing process for photonic integrated circuits.