• Title, Summary, Keyword: Modification

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Analysis on the Home Modification related System for the Elderly (고령자 주택개조 관련 제도 현황 분석)

  • Kwon, Oh-Jung;Kim, Jin young;Lee, Yong min
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.24-36
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    • 2018
  • Implementing a home modification to enable elderly's safe and independent living is the key plan to realize their aging in place. South Korea in which had entered an aged society is not yet vitalized in home modification for the elderly compared to that of welfare-developed countries, and South Korea provides support that is limited to the low-income elderly. Therefore, this purpose of this study was to analyze the laws related to the home modification, the present condition of home modification support, the standards and guidelines in home modification, the support in house modification cost, and supporting organization and working force in the home modification. Through the analyzing process, this study examined the current situation and problems of institutional support in the home modification for elderly and the proposed plan for institutional improvement. The suggestions based on the results are as in the following. 1) Home modification support law(act or regulation) is required to be improved 2) Home modification support system correspondent to aging process should be provided regardless of their income levels. 3) Delicate plan standard and guideline are necessary for a process of implementing the home modification for the elderly. 4) Information on life behavior is in need for the implementation of elderly-customized home modification. 5) Cost for the home modification should be considered to cover by the Act on Long-Term Care Insurance for the Aged. 6) Housing Welfare Center and Housing Welfare Professional should be actively utilized for the home modification support institution and work force.

Study on the Polymorphism of Acetaminophen (아세트아미노펜의 결정다형에 관한 연구)

  • Sohn, Young-Taek
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 1990
  • The metastable modification of acetaminophen was prepared in industry scale. It was found that the dissolution rate of the metastable modification was greater than that of the original powder. The metastable modification was transformed to the stable modification by grinding, but it was not transformed by compression. Starch and lactose inhibited this transformation of the metastable modification to the stable modification by grinding.

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Case-based Software Project Network Generation by the Least Modification Principle (사례의 수정최소화 기법에 의한 소프트웨어 프로젝트 네트워크 생성시스템)

  • Lee, No-Bok;Lee, Jae-Kyu
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.103-118
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    • 2003
  • Software project planning is usually represented by a project activity network that is composed of stages of tasks to be done and precedence restrictions among them. The project network is very complex and its construction requires a vast amount of field knowledge and experience. So this study proposes a case-based reasoning approach that can generate the project network automatically based on the past cases and modification knowledge. For the case indexing, we have adopted 17 factors, each with a few alternative values. A special structure of this problem is that the modification effort can be identified by each factor independently. Thus it is manageable to identify 85 primitive modification actions(add and delete activities) and estimate its modification efforts in advance. A specific case requires a combination of primitive modifications. Based on the modification effort knowledge, we have adopted the Least Modification approach as a metric of similarity between a new project and past cases. Using the Least Modification approach and modification knowledge base, we can automatically generate the project network. To validate the performance of Least Modification approach, we have compared its performance with an ordinary minimal distance approach for 21 test cases. The experiment showed that the Least Modification approach could reduce the modification effort significantly.

A Practical Hull Form Optimization Method Using the Parametric Modification Function (파라메트릭 변환함수를 이용한 선형최적화의 실용화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hee-Jung;Choi, Hee-Jong;Chun, Ho-Hwan
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.542-550
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    • 2007
  • A geometry modification is one of main keys in achieving a successful optimization. The optimized hull form generated from the geometry modification should be a realistic, faired form from the ship manufacturing point of view. This paper presents a practical hull optimization procedure using a parametric modification function. In the parametric modification function method, the initial ship geometry was easily deformed according to the variations of design parameters. For example, bulbous bow can be modified with several parameters such as bulb area, bulb length, bulb height etc. Design parameters are considered as design variables to modify hull form, which can reduce the number of design variables in optimization process and hence reduce its time cost. To verify the use of the parametric modification function, optimization for KCS was performed at its design speed (FN=0.26) and the wave making resistance is calculated using a well proven potential code with fully nonlinear free surface conditions. The design variables used are key design parameters such as Cp curve, section shape and bulb shape. This study shows that the hull form optimized by the parametric modification function brings 7.6% reduction in wave making resistance. In addition, for verification and comparison purpose, a direct geometry variation method using a bell-shape modification function is used. It is shown that the optimal hull form generated by the bell-shaped modification function is very similar to that produced by the parametric modification function. However, the total running time of the parametric optimization is six times shorter than that of the bell shape modification method, showing the effectiveness and practicalness from a designer point of view in ship yards.

Surface Modification of Colloidal Silica Nanoparticles: Controlling the size and Grafting Process

  • He, Wentao;Wu, Danhua;Li, Juan;Zhang, Kai;Xiang, Yushu;Long, Lijuan;Qin, Shuhao;Yu, Jie;Zhang, Qin
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.9
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    • pp.2747-2752
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    • 2013
  • Surface modification of colloidal silica nanoparticles without disrupting the electric double layer of nanoparticles is a major challenge. In the work, silane was employed to modify colloidal silica nanoparticles without inducing bridge flocculation obviously. The effect of pH value of the silica sol, the amount of silane in feed, and reaction temperature on the graft amount and the final size of modified particles was investigated. The increased weight loss by TG and the appearance of $T_2$ and $T_3$ except for $Q_2$ and $Q_3$ signals by CP/MAS $^{29}Si$ NMR of the modified samples verified the successful grafting of silane. The graft amount reached 0.57 mmol/g, which was slightly lower than theory value, and the particle size remained nearly the same as unmodified particles for acidic silica sol at the optimum condition. For alkaline silica sol after modification, aggregates composed of several nanoparticles connected together with silane moleculars as the bridge appeared.

Langer Modification in WKB Quantization for Translationally Shape Invariant Potentials

  • Sun, Ho-Sung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.818-824
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    • 2012
  • When the Langer modification is applied to Coulomb potential, the standard WKB quantization yields an exact energy spectrum for the potential. This Langer modification has been known to be related to the centrifugal term appearing in Coulomb potential. But we find that a similar modification exists for all translationally shape invariant potentials without referring to the centrifugal term. The characteristic shape of the potentials accounts for the generalized version of Langer modification that makes the WKB quantization valid for all translationally shape invariant potentials.

Surface modification of polymeric membranes for low protein binding

  • Higuchi, Akon;Tamai, Miho;Tagawa, Yoh-Ichi;Chang, Yung;Ling, Qing-Dong
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.103-120
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    • 2010
  • Surface modification of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes has been widely used to improve the protein adsorption resistance and permeation properties of hydrophobic membranes. Several surface modification methods for converting conventional membranes into low-protein-binding membranes are reviewed. They are categorized as either physical modification or chemical modification of the membrane surface. Physical modification of the membrane surface can be achieved by coating it with hydrophilic polymers, hydrophilic-hydrophobic copolymers, surfactants or proteins. Another method of physical modification is plasma treatment with gases. A hydrophilic membrane surface can be also generated during phase-inverted micro-separation during membrane formation, by blending hydrophilic or hydrophilic-hydrophobic polymers with a hydrophobic base membrane polymer. The most widely used method of chemical modification is surface grafting of a hydrophilic polymer by UV polymerization because it is the easiest method; the membranes are dipped into monomers with and without photo-initiators, then irradiated with UV. Plasma-induced polymerization of hydrophilic monomers on the surface is another popular method, and surface chemical reactions have also been developed by several researchers. Several important examples of physical and chemical modifications of membrane surfaces for low-protein-binding are summarized in this article.

A Study on the Direction for Customized Home modification Through the Process for a case of Visually Impaired Person in Rural Area (농촌거주 시각장애인의 주택개조사례 과정을 통해 본 맞춤형 개조 방향도출연구)

  • Lee, Yeun-Sook;An, So-Mi;Kim, Min-Ju;Hyun, Ji-won
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.55-67
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    • 2018
  • There is a growing interest on and expansion of rights of people with disabilities. Among them, people with visual impairment show high adaptation to environments in comparison to people with other types of disabilities, thus a large percentage of them live in their own houses rather than residing in a care facility. According to the housing status of people with visual impairment, the ratio of their residence in rural areas is high. In rural areas people who have disabilities often live in poor residential environments, requiring much improvement. However, such improvement is too costly for them to pay, and home modification that does not fully consider the user, may cause less efficiency and another dangerous situation to people with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to delineate empirical lessons for direction of customized home modification for people with disabilities through analysis of process of home modification including the execution as a intervention. This study used qualitative method to examine and analyzed the entire customized home modification process. The conclusion of this study is as follows. First, home modification measures should be derived considering the suitability of the target building for the specific condition of residents. Second, discussions with various stakeholders from the early stage during which proper home modification measure is searched are essential for realizing appropriate customized home modification. This study has significance in that it provides the direction for customized home modification for people with disabilities as well as empirical data that could reduce trials and errors in the future.

Characteristics of Basalt Materials Derived from Recycling Steel Industry Slags (철강산업 슬래그를 이용하여 제조한 바잘트 소재의 특성)

  • Jung, Woo-Gwang;Back, Gu-Seul;Yoon, Mi-Jung;Lee, Jee-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.281-288
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    • 2017
  • In this study, Fe-Ni slag, converter slag and dephosphorization slag generated from the steel industry, and fly ash or bottom ash from a power plant, were mixed at an appropriate mixing ratio and melted in a melting furnace in a mass-production process for glass ceramics. Then, glass-ceramic products, having a basalt composition with $SiO_2$, $Al_2O_3$, CaO, MgO, and $Fe_2O_3$ components, were fabricated through casting and heat treatment process. Comparison was made of the samples before and after the modification of the process conditions. Glass-ceramic samples before and after the process modification were similar in chemical composition, but $Al_2O_3$ and $Na_2O$ contents were slightly higher in the samples before the modification. Before and after the process modification, it was confirmed that the sample had a melting temperature below $1250^{\circ}C$, and that pyroxene and diopside are the primary phases of the product. The crystallization temperature in the sample after modification was found to be higher than that in the sample before modification. The activation energy for crystallization was evaluated and found to be 467 kJ/mol for the sample before the process modification, and 337 kJ/mol for the sample after the process modification. The degree of crystallinity was evaluated and found to be 82 % before the process change and 87 % after the process change. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength and bending strength were evaluated and found to be excellent for the sample after process modification. In conclusion, the samples after the process modification were evaluated and found to have superior characteristics compared to those before the modification.

Examining the Gm18 and $m^1G$ Modification Positions in tRNA Sequences

  • Subramanian, Mayavan;Srinivasan, Thangavelu;Sudarsanam, Dorairaj
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.71-75
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    • 2014
  • The tRNA structure contains conserved modifications that are responsible for its stability and are involved in the initiation and accuracy of the translation process. tRNA modification enzymes are prevalent in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. tRNA Gm18 methyltransferase (TrmH) and tRNA $m^1G37$ methyltransferase (TrmD) are prevalent and essential enzymes in bacterial populations. TrmH involves itself in methylation process at the 2'-OH group of ribose at the 18th position of guanosine (G) in tRNAs. TrmD methylates the G residue next to the anticodon in selected tRNA subsets. Initially, $m^1G37$ modification was reported to take place on three conserved tRNA subsets ($tRNA^{Arg}$, $tRNA^{Leu}$, $tRNA^{Pro}$); later on, few archaea and eukaryotes organisms revealed that other tRNAs also have the $m^1G37$ modification. The present study reveals Gm18, $m^1G37$ modification, and positions of $m^1G$ that take place next to the anticodon in tRNA sequences. We selected extremophile organisms and attempted to retrieve the $m^1G$ and Gm18 modification bases in tRNA sequences. Results showed that the Gm18 modification G residue occurs in all tRNA subsets except three tRNAs ($tRNA^{Met}$, $tRNA^{Pro}$, $tRNA^{Val}$). Whereas the $m^1G37$ modification base G is formed only on $tRNA^{Arg}$, $tRNA^{Leu}$, $tRNA^{Pro}$, and $tRNA^{His}$, the rest of the tRNAs contain adenine (A) next to the anticodon. Thus, we hypothesize that Gm18 modification and $m^1G$ modification occur irrespective of a G residue in tRNAs.