• Title, Summary, Keyword: Modified SPT

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A Study on Beam Error Method of Coherent Interference Signal Estimation using Optimum Covariance Weight Vector (최적 공분산 가중 벡터를 이용한 상관성 간섭 신호 추정의 빔 지향 오차)

  • Cho, Sung Kuk;Lee, Jun Dong;Jeon, Byung Kook
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Digital Industry and Information Management
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, we proposed covariance weight matrix using SPT matrix in order to accurate target estimation. We have estimated a target using modified covariance matrix and beam steering error method. We have minimized beam steering error in order to estimation desired a target. This method obtain optimum covariance weight using modified SPT matrix. This paper of proposal method is showed good performance than general method. We updated a weight of covariance matrix using modified SPT matrix. We obtain optimum covariance matrix weight to application beam steering error method in order to beam steering toward desired target. Through simulation, we showed that compare proposal method with general method. It have improved resolution of estimation target to good performance more proposed method than general method.

Modification of SPT-Uphole Method using Two Component Surface Geophones (2방향 지표면 속도계를 활용한 SPT-업홀 기법 개선 연구)

  • Bang, Eun-Seok;Kim, Jong-Tae;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.26 no.2C
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    • pp.109-120
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    • 2006
  • SPT-Uphole test is a seismic field test using receivers on ground surface and a SPT (Standard penetration test) source in depth. Even though this method is simple and economic, it makes hesitate to apply in real field that it is difficult to obtain reliable travel time information of shear wave because of the characteristics of SPT impact source. To overcome this shortcoming, in this paper, modified SPT-Uphole method using two component surface geophones was suggested. Numerical analysis was performed using finite element method for understanding the characteristics of surface motion induced by in-depth vertical source, and comparison study of the various methods which determine the travel time information in SPT-Uphole method was performed. In result, it is thought that the most reasonable method is using the first local maximum point of the root mean square value signals of vertical and horizontal component in time domain. Finally, modified SPT-Uphole method using two component surface geophones was performed at the site, and the applicability in field was verified by comparing wave velocity profiles determined by the SPT-Uphole method with the profiles determined by SASW method and SPT-N values.

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Effects of Verbal Cue for Scapular Depression During Scapular Posterior Tilt Exercise on Scapular Muscle Activities and Clavicular Tilt Angle in Subjects With Rounded Shoulder Posture and Upper Trapezius Myofascial Pain

  • Choi, Sil-ah;Cynn, Heon-seock;Shin, A-reum;Kim, Da-eun
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.30-39
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    • 2017
  • Background: Scapular posterior tilt (SPT) is important in the prevention of abnormal scapular movement and pain during elevation of the arm. However, previous studies have overlooked increased upper trapezius (UT) muscle activity interrupting the normal force couple of scapular motion and compensation of levator scapulae (LS) muscle activated simultaneously with UT during SPT exercise. Objects: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of modified SPT with depression exercise versus SPT exercise on serratus anterior (SA), lower trapezius (LT), UT, and LS muscle activities and the clavicular tilt angle, in subjects with rounded shoulder posture (RSP) and myofascial pain in the UT muscle region. Methods: Eighteen subjects with RSP were recruited and randomly allocated to 2 groups; 9 in the SPT group and 9 in the SPT with depression group. All subjects met the specific RSP criteria and had myofascial pain of UT region. Depending on the allocated group, subjects performed the assigned SPT exercise and EMG data were recorded during the each exercise. Clavicular tilt angle was defined as the angle between the line joining the medial and lateral end of the clavicle and a horizontal line. Results: The SA muscle activity was significantly greater in SPT with depression than with SPT exercise (p<.05). The UT, LS muscle activity and the clavicular tilt angle was significantly lower in SPT with depression than with SPT exercise (p<.05). Conclusion: These findings were insightful because the potential risk of pain from overactivation of the UT and LS was considered, in contrast with SPT exercise. SPT with depression exercise can be implemented as an effective method to facilitate scapular muscle activity for stability and to prevent myofascial pain in the neck and shoulder.

Characteristics of Undrained Shear Strength and Development of Modified SPT on Very Soft Ground in Korea (국내 초연약지반의 비배수전단강도 특성 및 개량표준관입시험기 개발)

  • Jung, Hyuksang;Cho, Changkoo;Chun, Byungsik
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.105-115
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    • 2009
  • In this study, SPT, FV, and CPT tests were performed at five very soft grounds in southern coast of Korea to characterize the $S_u$ of very soft ground. In addition, a new modified SPT that is applicable to very soft ground was developed. Tests results showed that in very soft ground (N<2), the $S_u$ was lower than 12.5 kPa using the empirical N-Su correlation, and lower than 50 kPa and 65 kPa using vane shear test and CPT, respectively. It was shown that the results of in-situ tests were higher than those estimated from the N-Su correlation, and it was also demonstrated that the range of estimated $S_u$ was quite wide. New correlations that relate the modified SPT $N_m$ with Su from FV and CPT were developed, which are $S_u=1.76N_m-10.47$ and $S_u=1.82N_m-9.71$, respectively.

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Association of chairside salivary aMMP-8 findings with periodontal risk assessment parameters in patients receiving supportive periodontal therapy

  • Schmalz, Gerhard;Kummer, Max Kristian;Kottmann, Tanja;Rinke, Sven;Haak, Rainer;Krause, Felix;Schmidt, Jana;Ziebolz, Dirk
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.251-260
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to evaluate whether salivary findings of active matrix-metalloproteinase 8 (aMMP-8) chairside (point of care; POC) tests were associated with periodontal risk assessment parameters in patients receiving supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). Methods: A total of 125 patients receiving regular SPT were included, and their records were examined. The following inclusion criteria were used: a diagnosis of chronic periodontitis, at least 1 non-surgical periodontal treatment (scaling and root planning) with following regular SPT (minimum once a year), at least 6 remaining teeth, and clinical and aMMP-8 findings that were obtained at the same appointment. In addition to anamnestic factors (e.g., smoking and diabetes), oral hygiene indices (modified sulcus bleeding index [mSBI] and approximal plaque index), periodontal probing depth simultaneously with bleeding on probing, and dental findings (number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth) were recorded. Salivary aMMP-8 levels were tested using a commercial POC test system (Periomarker, Hager & Werken, Duisburg, Germany). Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test, and ${\chi}^2$ test, as appropriate (P<0.05). Results: Only the mSBI was significantly associated with positive salivary aMMP-8 findings (aMMP-8 positive: $27.8%{\pm}20.9%$ vs. aMMP-8 negative: $18.0%{\pm}14.5%$; P=0.017). No significant associations were found between aMMP-8 and smoking, diabetes, periodontal parameters, or parameters related to the maintenance interval (P>0.05). Conclusions: Salivary aMMP-8 chairside findings were not associated with common parameters used for periodontal risk assessment in patients receiving SPT. The diagnostic benefit of POC salivary aMMP-8 testing in risk assessment and maintenance interval adjustment during SPT remains unclear.

SPT Rod Energy Ratios for Three Types of SPT Hammers (표준관입시험 해머의 종류에 따른 롯드 에너지 전달률)

  • An, Shin-Whan;Lee, Won-Je;Lee, Woo-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.119-129
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    • 2000
  • 국내에서 가장 많이 사용되는 현장조사방법인 표준관입시험의 결과로 얻어지는 N값에 대해 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 롯드 에너지 전단률(깽 Energy Ratio)을 지반조건이 상이한 3개 현장에서 항타분석기(Pile Driving Analyzer)를 이용하여 실측하였다. 에너지 전달률에 영향을 미치는 요인들 중엣 해머의 종류, 로프의 상태, 자아틀에 감은 횟수 등의 조건을 달리하여 롯드 에너지 전달률에 미치는 영향을 측정/분석하였다. 실험결과에 의하면 도넛해머, 안전해머, 개량형 도넛해머(Modified Automatic Donut Hammer)는 롯드에너지 전달률이 각각42%, 66%, 57% 정도로 측정되었으며 로프의 상태와 자아틀에 감은 횟수는 상대적으로 영향이 적은 것으로 측정되었다. 실험결과를 바탕으로 실측된 N값을 해머의 이론적 위치에너지의 60%에 해당하는 에너지가 롯드에 전달되었을 때의 N값(N60)으로 변환하기 위한 식을 제안하였다.

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A Study of QoS(Quality of Service) Improvement for Host Multicast Using Modified SPT(Shortest Pass Tree) Algorithm (변형된 SPT(Shotest Pass Tree) 알고리즘을 활용한 호스트 멀티캐스트 QoS 향상 기법 연구)

  • Im, Donggee;Nam, Yun-Seung;Nam, Ji-Seung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.1148-1150
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    • 2009
  • 호스트 멀티캐스트는 IP 멀티캐스트에 비해 지연시간이나 대역폭 사용의 측면에 있어서 비효율적이다. 실시간 방송 서비스에서 사용자들에게 QoS를 보장하기 위해 호스트 멀티캐스트의 이런 비효율성을 줄여야할 필요가 있다. 본 연구에서는 각 호스트들의 제한된 자원과 네트워크 환경을 고려하여 실시간 방송 서비스에 적합한 호스트 멀티캐스트 트리를 구성하는 알고리즘을 제안하고 적용하여 시뮬레이션 한다.

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A Study on the Applicability of Settlement Evaluation for Sandy Layer by Elastic Theory (사질지반에서 탄성론에 의한 침하량 산정 적용성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Won-Cheul;Ahn, Chang-Yoon
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.61-70
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    • 2004
  • N-value by the SPT is one of the key parameter for settlement evaluation. However, if the ground is firm, the usual N-value is not blow count of 30cm depth penetration. In such case, if N-value is more than 50 with 30cm penetration, the N-value 50 is applied for settlement analysis. Therefore, in this study, the modified method of N-value estimation is suggested and compared the settlement by Elastic Theory, and the measured field data by Plate Load Test. As the result of this study, it is shown that the settlement by Elastic Theory with the modified N-value is more accurate than settlement by usual N-value. The application of Elastic Theory for pure sand is also evaluated in this paper.

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A Study on the Modified N-value by the Comparison Plate Load Test with Calculated Settlement (평판재하시험과 이론적 침하량 예측식의 비교를 통한 N치 보정방법 검토)

  • Ahn, Chang-Yoon;Kim, Won-Cheul;Hwang, Young-Cheol;Nam, Hyun-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2005
  • The governing design point of shallow foundation is not its bearing capacity but its settlemen and N-value by the SPT is one of the key parameters for settlement estimation. However, if the N-value is more than 50/30, such as 50/10 or 50/20, the N-vlaues are not blow count of 30cm depth penetration. In these cases, the estimated settlements have big difference with the measured values because the applied maximum N value for the settlement estimation is 50. Therefore, in this study, the modified method for N-value estimation is suggested. The settlements by four methods, which are based on Elastic Theory with application of modified N-value, are compared with the Origina Plate Load Test data. The same comparision was carried out with another seven Empirical Methods. The result of this study showed that the error range of settlement is decreased from 260.4~2136.5% to 20.3~272.7%. Among four methods which are based on Elastic Theory, the original method by Elastic Theory is the most accurate with the application of modified N-value. Among Empirical Methods, Terzaghi-Peck's(1948, 1967) modified method 1 is the most accurate with the application of modified N-value. The differences between the original method by Elastic Theory and Terzaghi-Peck's(1948, 1967) modified method 1 are neglectable.

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Design and Performance Analysis of Magnetic Resonant Wireless Power Transfer Receiver for Implant Medical Device (인체 삽입형 자기 공진 무선전력전송 수신기 설계 및 성능 분석)

  • Kim, Sungjae;Ku, Hyunchul
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.29 no.12
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    • pp.935-941
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we propose a suitable magnetic resonant wireless power transfer(WPT) system topology for size-limited implant medical devices(IMDs). The proposed modified series-parallel topology(mSPT) can be implemented by adding an inductor in series to the parallel-connected Rx coil and a capacitor. The topology achieves high efficiency when the Rx coil has a small inductance. The validity and operating conditions of the system are verified theoretically through circuit analysis. Experiments were conducted with bio-blocks, which are made of pork fat and muscle. When the Rx coils were inserted into the blocks at a depth of 2.5~10 mm, mSPT showed 17.79 % improved efficiency on average compared with the conventional series-series topology(SST). In the case of 32 dBm WPT in air, the Rx coil's heating rate for the mSPT was $0.18^{\circ}C/s$, whereas the SST was $0.75^{\circ}C/s$. It was confirmed that the mSPT is more suitable for an IMD-targeted WPT system.