• Title, Summary, Keyword: Molecular interactions

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Discovering Gene-Environment Interactions in the Post-Genomic Era

  • Naidoo, Nirinjini;Chia, Kee-Seng
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.356-359
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    • 2009
  • In the more than 100 genome wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in the past 5 years, more than 250 genetic loci contributing to more than 40 common diseases and traits have been identified. Whilst many genes have been linked to a trait, both their individual and combined effects are small and unable to explain earlier estimates of heritability. Given the rapid changes in disease incidence that cannot be accounted for by changes in diagnostic practises, there is need to have well characterized exposure information in addition to genomic data for the study of gene-environment interactions. The case-control and cohort study designs are most suited for studying associations between risk factors and occurrence of an outcome. However, the case control study design is subject to several biases and hence the preferred choice of the prospective cohort study design in investigating geneenvironment interactions. A major limitation of utilising the prospective cohort study design is the long duration of follow-up of participants to accumulate adequate outcome data. The GWAS paradigm is a timely reminder for traditional epidemiologists who often perform one- or few-at-a-time hypothesis-testing studies with the main hallmarks of GWAS being the agnostic approach and the massive dataset derived through large-scale international collaborations.

Latest Comprehensive Knowledge of the Crosstalk between TLR Signaling and Mycobacteria and the Antigens Driving the Process

  • Kim, Jae-Sung;Kim, Ye-Ram;Yang, Chul-Su
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1506-1521
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    • 2019
  • Tuberculosis, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is among the most pressing worldwide problems. Mtb uniquely interacts with innate immune cells through various pattern recognition receptors. These interactions initiate several inflammatory pathways that play essential roles in controlling Mtb pathogenesis. Although the TLR signaling pathways have essential roles in numerous host's immune defense responses, the role of TLR signaling in the response to Mtb infection is still unclear. This review presents discussions on host-Mtb interactions in terms of Mtb-mediated TLR signaling. In addition, we highlight recent discoveries pertaining to these pathways that may help in new immunotherapeutic opportunities.

A study on the stamp-resist interaction mechanism and atomic distribution in thermal NIL process by molecular dynamics simulation (분자동역학 전산모사를 이용한 나노임프린트 리소그래피 공정에서의 스탬프-레지스트 간의 상호작용 및 원자분포에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Seung-Hwa;Cho, Maeg-Hyo
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.343-348
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    • 2007
  • Molecular dynamics study of thermal NIL (Nano Imprint Lithography) process is performed to examine stamp-resist interactions. A layered structure consists of Ni stamp, poly-(methylmethacrylate) thin film resist and Si substrate was constructed for isothermal ensemble simulations. Imposing confined periodicity to the layered unit-cell, sequential movement of stamp followed by NVT simulation was implemented in accordance with the real NIL process. Both vdW and electrostatic potentials were considered in all non-bond interactions and resultant interaction energy between stamp and PMMA resist was monitored during stamping and releasing procedures. As a result, the stamp-resist interaction energy shows repulsive and adhesive characteristics in indentation and release respectively and irregular atomic concentration near the patterned layer were observed. Also, the spring back and rearrangement of PMMA molecules were analyzed in releasing process.

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Flavonoids can be Potent Inhibitors of Human Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase (hPNMT)

  • Lee, Jee-Young;Jeong, Ki-Woong;Kim, Yang-Mee
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1835-1838
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    • 2009
  • Inhibition of human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (hPNMT) has been proposed as a method for the treatment of several mental processes which related on adrenaline metabolism. We performed in silico screening to identify flavonoid inhibitors of hPNMT using automated docking method and selected 9 inhibitor candidates based on ligand score (LigScore) and binding free energy (${\Delta}G_{bind}$) estimation. Among 9 flavonoid candidates, 7 flavonoids belong to flavones while the rest of them belong to flavanone. All candidates have common chemical features; two hydrogen bond interactions with side chain of Lys75 and backbone carbonyl oxygen of Asn39, and two hydrophobic interactions. One hydrophobic site is formed by Val53, Leu262, and Met258 and the other is made up of Phe182, Ala186, Tyr222, and Val269. This study can be helpful to understand the structural features for inhibition of PNMT and showed flavonoids as promising inhibitor candidates for hPNMT.

Prediction of Elastic Bending Modulus of Multi-layered Graphene Sheets Using Nanoscale Molecular Mechanics (나노스케일 분자역학을 이용한 다층 그래핀의 굽힘 탄성거동 예측)

  • Kim, Dae-Young;Han, Seog-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.421-427
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, a description is given of finite element method (FEM) simulations of the elastic bending modulus of multi-layered graphene sheets that were carried out to investigate the mechanical behavior of graphene sheets with different gap thicknesses through molecular mechanics theory. The interaction forces between layers with various gap thicknesses were considered based on the van der Waals interaction. A finite element (FE) model of a multi-layered rectangular graphene sheet was proposed with beam elements representing bonded interactions and spring elements representing non-bonded interactions between layers and between diagonally adjacent atoms. As a result, the average elastic bending modulus was predicted to be 1.13 TPa in the armchair direction and 1.18 TPa in the zigzag direction. The simulation results from this work are comparable to both experimental tests and numerical studies from the literature.

Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2 is identified as a novel target protein of methotrexate from chemical proteomics

  • Kim, Eui-Kyung;Park, Jong-Bae;Ha, Sang-Hoon;Ryu, Sung-Ho;Suh, Pann-Ghill
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.236-242
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    • 2002
  • Using agarose-coupled methotrexate, we have successfully isolated two proteins, which have strong interactions with methotrexate. The two proteins were analyzed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and identified as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2 and phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, respectively. Interestingly, both of these two proteins are essential key enzymes in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways, like dihydrofolate reductase, a well-known methotrexate target. We confirmed the specificity of their interactions between methotrexate and two target proteins by the methods of competition binding assay, which were followed by western blotting using antibody against carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2 and phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, respectively. Moreover, we could observe that carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2 is overexpressed in methotrexate-resistant MOLT-3 cells comparing with control MOLT-3 cells. This result indicates that carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2 may be a novel target of methotrexate in cancer therapy. We propose that chemical proteomics can be a powerful technique to identify target proteins of a chemical.

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Use of Conformational Space Annealing in Molecular Docking

  • Lee, Kyoung-Rim;Czaplewski, Cezary;Kim, Seung-Yeon;Lee, Joo-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Bioinformatics Conference
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    • pp.221-233
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    • 2004
  • Molecular docking falls into the general category of global optimization problems since its main purpose is to find the most stable complex consisting of a receptor and its ligand. Conformational space annealing (CSA), a powerful global optimization method, is incorporated with the Tinker molecular modeling package to perform molecular docking simulations of six receptor-ligand complexes (3PTB, 1ULB, 2CPP, 1STP, 3CPA and 1PPH) from the Protein Data Bank. In parallel, Monte Carlo with minimization (MCM) method is also incorporated into the Tinker package for comparison. The energy function, consisting of electrostatic interactions, van der Waals interactions and torsional energy terms, is calculated using the AMBER94 all-atom empirical force field. Rigid docking simulations for all six complexes and flexible docking simulations for three complexes (1STP, 3CPA and 1PPH) are carried out using the CSA and the MCM methods. The simulation results show that the docking procedures using the CSA method generally find the most stable complexes as well as the native -like complexes more efficiently and accurately than those using the MCM, demonstrating that CSA is a promising search method for molecular docking problems.

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Flavonoids as Substrates of Bacillus halodurans O-Methyltransferase

  • Jeong, Ki-Woong;Lee, Jee-Young;Kang, Dong-Il;Lee, Ju-Un;Hwang, Yong-Sic;Kim, Yang-Mee
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.1311-1314
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    • 2008
  • Bacillus halodurans O-methyltransferase (BhOMT) is an S-adenosylmethionine dependent methyltransferase. In our previous study, three dimensional structure of the BhOMT has been determined by comparative homology modeling and automated docking study showed that two hydroxyl groups at 3'- and 4'-position in Bring and structural rigidity of C-ring resulting from the double bond characters between C2 and C3 of flavonoid, were key factors for interaction with BhOMT. In the present study, BhOMT was cloned and expressed. Binding assay was performed on purified BhOMT using fluorescence experiments and binding affinity of luteolin, quercetin, fisetin, and myricetin were measured in the range of $10^7$. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicated that divalent cation plays a critical role on the metal-mediated electrostatic interactions between flavonoid and substrate binding site of BhOMT. Fluorescence study confirmed successfully the data obtained from the docking study and these results imply that hydroxyl group at 7-position of luteolin, quercetin, fisetin, and myricetin forms a stable hydrogen bonding with K211 and carboxyl oxygen of C-ring forms a stable hydrogen bonding with R170. Hydroxyl group at 3'-and 4'-position in the B-ring also has strong $Ca^{2+}$ mediated electrostatic interactions with BhOMT.

The Molecular Modeling of Novel Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Based on Catechol by MD and MM-GB (PB)/SA Calculations

  • Kocakaya, Safak Ozhan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.1769-1776
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    • 2014
  • Binding modes of a series of catechol derivatives such as protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors were identified by molecular modeling techniques. Docking, molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations were employed to determine the modes of these new inhibitors. Binding free energies were calculated by involving different energy components using the Molecular Mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area and Generalized Born Surface Area methods. Relatively larger binding energies were obtained for the catechol derivatives compared to one of the PTP1B inhibitors already in use. The Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) free energy decomposition analysis indicated that the hydroxyl functional groups and biphenyl ring system had favorable interactions with Met258, Tyr46, Gln262 and Phe182 residues of PTP1B. The results of hydrogen bound analysis indicated that catechol derivatives, in addition to hydrogen bonding interactions, Val49, Ile219, Gln266, Asp181 and amino acid residues of PTP1B are responsible for governing the inhibitor potency of the compounds. The information generated from the present study should be useful for the design of more potent PTP1B inhibitors as anti-diabetic agents.

Optimization and Elucidation of Interactions between Ammonium, Nitrate and Phosphate in Centella asiatica Cell Culture Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Omar Rozita;Abdullah M. A.;Hasan M. A.;Marziah M.;Mazlina M.K.Siti
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.192-197
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    • 2005
  • The effects of macronutrients $(NO_3^-,\; NH_4^+\;and\;PO_4^{3-})$ on cell growth and triterpenoids production in Centella asiatica cell suspension cultures were analyzed using the Box­Behnken response surface model experimental design. In screening and optimization experiments, $PO_4^{3-}$ as a single factor significantly influenced cell growth where increasing the phosphate level from 0.1 to 2.4 or 2.6 mM, elevated cell growth from 3.9 to $14\~16g/L$. The optimum values predicted from the response surface model are 5.05mM $NH_4^+$, 15.0mM $NO_3^-$ and 2.6mM $PO_4^{3-}$, yielding 16.0g/L cell dry weight with $99\%$ fitness to the experimental data. While the $NH_4^+-NO_3^-$ interaction influenced cell growth positively in the optimization experiment, $NH_4^+$ and $NO_3^-$ as single factors; and interactions of $NO_3^--PO_4^{3-},\;NH_4^+-PO_4^{3-}$ and $NH_4^+-NO_3^-$ were all negative in the screening experiment. Cell growth and the final pH level were positively affected by $PO_4^{3-}$, but negatively affected by $NH_4^+\;and\;NH_4^+-PO_4^{3-}$ interactions. The different effects of factors and their interactions on cell growth and final pH are influenced by a broad or narrow range of macronutrient concentrations. The productions of triterpenoids however were lower than 4mg/g cell dry weight.