• Title, Summary, Keyword: Monascus koji

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Antioxidant Effect of Monascus koji in Sausage Mixture

  • Rhyu, Mee-Ra
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.320-322
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    • 2002
  • The antioxidative capacity of Monascus koji was studied in raw bologna-type sausage by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values (POV) during storage at $25^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. The addition of 2% Monascus koji effectively inhibited lipid oxidation in the mixture without vitamin C and NaNO$_2$, evidenced by its prevention of an increase in TBARS and a significantly reduction in increases in POV. Monascus koji in raw minced processed meat significantly improved the shelf life of the food.

Effect of Monascus Koji on the Fermentation and Quality of Kimchi (김치의 숙성과 품질에 미치는 홍국의 첨가효과)

  • 김순동;김일두;박미자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.826-833
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    • 2001
  • The effects of Monascus koji on the fermentation and quality of mul-kimchi (CCK) were investigated. Monascus koji at a final concentration of 1% against total amounts of saline and salted Chinese was added to MK and CCK, respectively, and fermented at 1$0^{\circ}C$. The koji of MK and CCK had a little effect on pH and acidity. Antimicrobial effect of water extracts from Monascus koji showed at the concentration of 3% for L. brevis and 5% for L. acidophilus and L. bulgaricus, respectively. Whereas no effect was founded in the strains of L. plantrum, L. GG and Leuc. mesenteroides. It was possible to control the color of kimchi by using Monascus koji instead of red pepper. Especially, color acceptability of MK added the koji was greatly improved. The content of reducing sugar and the score of sweet taste were slightly increased in the kimchi added the koji, whereas no great difference in the crispness was found. Overall acceptability of CCK was not apparent, but that of MK was greatly enhanced. It is apparent that the inhibitions of HMG-CoA reductase in MK and CCK added 1% Monascus koji were 10~20 and 7~16%, respectively.

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The Chemical Properties of Doenjang Prepared by Monascus Koji (홍국첨가가 된장의 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Rhyu, Mee-Ra
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.1114-1121
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    • 2000
  • Monascus koji have been used as a natural food colorant and preservative in Asia countries for centuries. This study was investigated to the chemical properties of Doenjang prepared with Monascus koji. Four kinds of Doenjang were fermented with Aspergillus koji only and Aspergillus koji plus 10%, 20% and 30% Monascus koji of its amount, respectively, and the changes of characteristics were investigated during fermentation. All the Monascus koji substituted Doenjang showed lower protease activities than Aspergillus koji Doenjang over all periods of fermentation. No differences of amino nitrogen and free amino acids were found after 30 days of fermentation and reducing sugars and peptides were found during over all periods of fermentation in each other. The Monascus koji gave higher a-, L- and C-values and lower h-values than Aspergillus koji. Sensory profiles of color, flavor, taste and overall quality on the final products which fermented during 60 days, indicated that there were no differences each other. From these results Monascus koji suggested as 30% substitutes for Aspergillus koji in Doenjang preparation.

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Antimicrobial activities of Monascus koji extracts (식품유해균에 대한 홍국 추출물의 항균활성)

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Rhyu, Mee-Ra
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.76-81
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    • 2008
  • Currently, natural food colorants and preservatives are being used for their general health benefits. Monascus koji, the product of certain fungi that grow on rice grains, has been added to many foods for coloring and preservation. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of Monascus koji ethanol extracts were investigated. Six Monascus strains (M. araneosus KFRI 00371, M. kaoliang ATCC 46597, M. pilosus IFO 4520, M. purpureus IFO 4482, M. ruber IFO 32318 and M. sp. ATCC 16437) were selected based on their relative intensity of red pigment. Two Monascus extracts, M. kaoliang ATCC 46597 and M. purpureus IFO 4482, displayed antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium in concentration-dependent manners. The two extracts showed their strongest antimicrobial activity against S. typhimurium, a cause of food poisoning. Therefore, these results suggest that Monascus koji could be used as a natural food colorant and preservative.

Effect of Monascus Koji on the Quality Characteristics of Bologna-Type Sausage (홍국 첨가가 소시지 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Rhyu, Mee-Ra;Kim, Eun-Young;Chung, Kyung-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2003
  • Effects of Monascus koji on color, peroxide value, textural properties, microbial stability, and sensory characteristics of bologna-type sausage during storage at $4^{\circ}C$ for 22 days were studied. Addition of 2% Monascus koji resulted in attractive color and distinctly improved color retention. Lipid oxidation was effectively inhibited by lowering the level of peroxide value. Textural properties and microbial stability of the samples were not affected, whereas color was improved by the addition of Monascus koji. Utilization of Monascus koji in meat product could reduce the use of nitrite and inhibit lipid peroxidation during storage.

The Optimal Condition for the Production and Extraction of Monacolin K from Red-Koji (홍국으로부터의 monacolin K 생성 및 추출 최적화)

  • Kwak, Eun-Jung;Cha, Seong-Kwan;Lim, Seong-Il
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.830-834
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    • 2003
  • The optimal condition for the production and extraction of monacolin K was reported. HPLC was used to determine monacolin K a kind of metabolite of Monascus from red-koji made of Monascus purpureus CBS 281.34. After culturing Monascus in solid and liquid media at $30^{\circ}C$ for 10 days, each of these were inoculated with soybean, wheat, barley, waxy rice, and rice and cultivated at $30^{\circ}C$ for 11 days. The production of monacolin K was the highest(0.35g/100g) when cultured with rice. The yield of monacolin K in red-koji increased with drying temperature and time according to the removal of water. Considering monacolin K content and the degree of death of Monascus, red-koji was dried at $80^{\circ}C$ for 60 min. Although monacolin K in red-koji was mostly extracted by 80% ethanol, there was no difference in monacolin K between shaking for 1 min and extraction for $0{\sim}24$ hr after sonication for 7 min. The extracted yield of monacolin K was the highest when the ratio of red-koji and 80% ethanol was 1:9. Moreover, the production of monacolin K appeared to be parallel with that of the pigment.

The Relations Between Antihypertensive Effect and ${\gamma}-Aminobutyric$ acid, Mycelial Weight and Pigment of Monascus (홍국의 혈압강하효과와 ${\gamma}-aminobutyric$ acid, 균체량 및 색도의 영향)

  • Rhyu, Mee-Ra;Kim, Eun-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.737-740
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    • 2002
  • To determine the relations between antihypertensive effect and ${\gamma}-aminobutyric$ acid, mycelial weight and pigment of Monascus, ethanol koji extracts were prepared from Monascus koji and each of three grade was classified based on ${\gamma}-aminobutyric$ acid content, glucosamine content and hue angle value, respectively. Each extract was orally administrated on male spontaneously hypertensive rats and its antihypertensive effect was compared. Most of koji extracts showed antihypertensive activity regardless of their ${\gamma}-aminobutyric$ acid content, glucosamine content or hue angle value. Therefore, hypotensive activity of koji extract was not dependent on above three components.

Effect of Monascus koji on Blood Pressure and Serum Cholesterol Composition of SHR by Chronic Dietary Administration (홍국 장기투여가 SHR의 혈압 및 혈중 콜레스테롤 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 류미라;김은영;한진수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.464-468
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    • 2003
  • The antihypertensive and cholesterol- lowering effects of Monascus koji (M. koji) prepared with Monascus ruber IFO32318 were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Control was fed a normal diet and groups I, II or III were fed diets containing 0.03%, 0.1% or 0.3% M. koji for 8 weeks, respectively. After 8 weeks, all animals were fed normal diets in the following 2 weeks. The blood pressure of rats fed M. koji added diets were significantly attenuated as compared with control and the diet containing high concentration of M. koji had a tendency of stronger antihypertensive effect. These differences lasted throughout the experimental period when they were fed experimental diet. For 2 weeks after the 8 weeks of experimental diet all groups were fed the same normal diet and the differences of blood pressure caused by M. koji disappeared. In rats fed the M. koji added diet, the serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) were not differed compared with control, but VLDL cholesterol (VLDL-C) was significantly lowered. M koji also significantly decreased serum risk factors, both TC/HDL-C ratio and non HDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Consequently, it is suggested that M. koji may play an important role to attenuate hypertension and to improve serum lipid Profiles.

Characteristics of Kochujang Prepared by Monascus anka koji (홍국 코오지를 이용한 고추장의 특성)

  • 서형주;정수현;홍재훈;이효구;조원대
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to improve the palatability of kochujang. The activities of liquefying amylase and saccharogenic amylase in Monacus anka koji were lower than those in Asp. oryzae koji. The acid protease activity(1.4 units/g) in M. anka koji was also lower than that(1.6 units/g) in Asp. oryzae koji. Glucosamine amount in Asp. oryzae koji was 1075 g, and that in M. anka koji was 318 g. Four kinds of Kochujang were prepared with Asp. oryzae koji(A), M. anka koji(M), mixed koji of Asp. oryzae and M. anka(A+M), and mixture of M. anka koji and malt(M+M). The pH of four kinds of kochujang was 5.1 in the beginning and was between 4.70~4.83 after 120 days of fermentation. Reducing sugar of kochujang was between 16.3~20.7% after fermentation and kochujang prepared with M+M showed the highest reducing sugar content. Amino nitrogen of kochujang was between 182 mg%~230 mg% after fermentation and the highest amino nitrogen content was observed at kochujang prepared with A+M. Kochujang prepared with M and M+M showed higher a value than kochujang prepared with A and A+M.

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Preparation of Chocolate Added with Monascus Barley Koji Powder and Quality Characteristics (홍맥 파우더를 첨가한 기능성 초콜릿의 제조 및 특성)

  • 이진영;서정숙;방병호;정은자;김관필
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.116-122
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Monascus barley koji powder addition on the preparation of chocolate(milk, white). The viscosity, moisture contents, color, rancidity and sensory evaluation were observed. When the ratio(0, 2, 4, 6%) of Monascus barley koji powder were varied on the preparation of chocolate, the milk chocolate was not changed respect to viscosity, moisture contents, color and rancidity. Under the same condition, the white chocolate was observed as follows, viscosity was increased a little bit, moisture contents were decreased. In color, L(lightness) and a(redness) value were increased obviously but the b value(yellowness) was decreased. And there are no changed in rancidity. In sensory evaluation, the milk chocolate with Monascus barley koji powder(0∼6%) addition did not make a significant difference in color, taste and flavor but texture and acceptability. The white chocolate with Monascus barley koji powder(0∼2%) addition was observed no significant difference in taste, smell, texture and acceptability except for color.