• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mongol

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The Sogdian Descendants in Mongol and post-Mongol Central Asia: The Tajiks and Sarts

  • LEE, JOO-YUP
    • Acta Via Serica
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.187-198
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    • 2020
  • This paper is devoted to the examination of the identity of the Sogdian descendants and their historical role in the second millennium CE. More specifically, it discusses the Sogdian connection to the later Iranic-speaking peoples of Central Asia, namely, the Sarts and the Tajiks. It then discusses the symbiotic relationship between the Sogdian descendants and the Mongols and the Mongol descendants (Chaghatays and Uzbeks) in Central Asia. In sum, this paper argues that the Sogdians did not perish after the Arab conquest of Central Asia in the eighth century CE. They survived under new exonyms Sart and Tajik. Like the Sogdians in pre-Islamic Central Asia, the Tajiks or Sarts played important historical roles in the Mongol and post-Mongol states of Central Asia, maintaining a symbiotic relationship with the nomad elites.

A study on Mongol women's imported apparel selection behavior according to their conspicuous consumption orientation (몽골 여성들의 과시적 소비성향에 따른 수입의류 선택행동)

  • Munkhtuya, Bavuudorj;Kim, Yongsook
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.811-825
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to identify imported apparel selection behavior according to Mongol women's conspicuous consumption orientation. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. First, factors of conspicuous consumption orientation were high price and luxury brand, fashion style, altruism, prestige, and brand. Mongol women were segmented into the price and prestige pursuit group, the fashion and brand pursuit group, the altruism pursuit group, and the conspicuous consumption retard group. Second, factors of motivating the selection of imported apparel were value, symbolism, and aesthetics, and Mongol women considered the aesthetics of imported apparel important. Married Mongol women in their 30's chose imported apparel because of its symbolism. More married women selected imported apparel because of its value and more educated women selected imported apparel because of its aesthetics. Women with higher apparel expenditure selected imported apparel because of its value and symbolism. Quality, diversity, and the fit of imported apparel were the selection criteria for Mongol women and they were satisfied with the quality, diversity, and fit of the imported apparel. Brand awareness was very important when selecting imported apparel but the women's satisfaction level was significantly low. Third, more women in their 30's, unmarried, or with a lower educational level were found in the price and the prestige pursuit group, and the price and prestige pursuit group and the altruism pursuit group selected imported apparel for its aesthetics. More unmarried women in their 30's with a higher educational level were found in the fashion and brand pursuit group and selected imported apparel for its value, symbolism, and aesthetics. More unmarried women in their 20's with a higher educational level were found in the altruism pursuit group, but unmarried women in their 20's with a lower educational level were found in the conspicuous consumption retard group.

A Study on the Design of Historical Costume for Making Movie & Multimedia -Focused on Rich Women's Costume of Goryeo-Yang and Mongol-Pung in the 13th to 14th Century- (영상물 제작을 위반 고증 의상 디자인 연구 -13-14세기의 고려양과 몽골풍의 귀부녀 복식을 중심으로-)

  • Choi, Hai-Yaul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.176-186
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to reconstruct upper class women's costume of 'Mongol-pung' and 'Goryeo-yang' in a civilization-exchanged period between Mongolia and Korea, for making movie or soap opera costume and historical animation. 'Mongol-pung' was a cultural influence from Mogolia to Korea. For example, sleeveless bi-gap(比甲) and half-sleeved dap-ho(搭忽) were put on by many women at that time. On the basis of old literature, I suggest a 'Mongol-pung' costume as a set of seeran-chulrik(膝欄 terlig), em-broidered bigap, dapho of meat-red color for women. 'Goryeo-yang' was a cultural influence from Korea to Mongolia. Due to old poem of Yuan, 'Short outer Jacket with square neckline, half sleeves, and clear color(方領過腰半臂)' was a representative of 'Goryeo-yang' in Mongolian royal women's costumes. Many women were dressed in it with short inner jacket and wide skirt. In the case of making soap opera costume, the budget of broadcasting station, appearence of nowaday's actor and actress, similarity between old fabric and modern fabric must be considered altogether.

A Comparative Study on the Differences of Arbitration Systems between Mongol and Korea (몽골 중재제도의 주요특징과 유의사항에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Suk-Chul
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.55-76
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    • 2013
  • This study aims to analyze the main features of Mongolian arbitration system compared with Korean Arbitration Law which was revised under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Model Law. On the basis of this comparative study, certain differences are suggested: First, the environment of Mongolian arbitration is still insufficient in terms of its operation and usage at the international level. Second, the Mongol National Arbitration Court has established Ad-hoc Arbitration Rules and has promoted Ad-hoc Arbitration although it is an institutional arbitration organization. Third, the arbitration objects are defined as the types of tangible and intangible assets in Mongolia which are different from those of the Korean Arbitration Law. Accordingly, court and officer disputes, family disputes, labor-management relations, and criminal matters are covered by the arbitration objects. Fourth, Mongol Arbitration Law specifies the following persons disqualified for arbitrator appointment: the member of the Constitutional Court, judge, procurator, inquiry officer, investigator, court decision enforcement officer, attorney, or notary who has previously rendered legal service to any party of the disputes, and any officials who are prohibited by laws to be engaged in positions above the scope of their duties. Fifth, the arbitrator selection and appointment criteria should be documented, and the arbitrator should have the ability to resolve the disputes independently and fairly and achieve concord from both parties. Sixth, if there is no agreement between the parties, the arbitration language should be Mongolian, and the arbitral tribunal has no power to decide on it. Seventh, despite the agreement for a documentary hearing between the parties, there should be provided opportunities for an oral hearing if either of the parties requires it. Eighth, if the parties do not understand the language of the arbitration, the parties can directly ask the translation service. They should also keep secrets in the process of arbitration. Ninth, the cancellation of arbitral award is allowed by the application of the parties, not by the authority of the court. Except for the nine differences above, the Mongolian arbitration system is similar to that of the Korean Arbitration Law. This paper serves to contribute to the furtherance in trade relationship between Mongolia and Korea after the rapid and efficient resolution of disputes.

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A Study on the Ethnic Style Designs which is Expressed in 21th Century Fashion - Focused on the Fashion Design Applying the Mongol Noin-ula′s Textile Pattern- (21세기 복식에 표현된 에스닉 스타일 디자인 연구 - 몽고 노인우라의 직물 문양을 응용한 작품을 중심으로-)

  • 안소영;유송옥
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.53 no.8
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    • pp.137-148
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    • 2003
  • The culture interest regarding the new area causes an effect even in change of fashion and that result Mongol area where it is area other than Japan, China and India and it is having compromised beauty raised it's head. Mongol is in Noin-ula area which is a it's former self of the Hun's. There is to a textile pattern which was used not only the textile pattern which has the feature of Scythian system but also the textile pattern which has the feature of China was used. The feature of Noin-ula's the textile pattern is as follows. Noin-ula's textiles used Scythian system of animal pattern, vine pattern, palmette pattern, thunder pattern, spiral pattern, shape of diamond pattern. Scythian system of animal pattern and vine pattern proves the interchange with the countries to the west of China. Noin-ula's textile pattern is applied to the designer's work of art. The designers are John Galliano, Etro, Chloe, Emmanuel Ungaro and so on, who express the modern ethnic style design. Because the more developed the modern society is the more embossed feature of intention for the race and the fork art, I think that Ethnic style design is applied to modern sensitive and ethnic style in the future.

Reproduction Strategies of Clonal Plants of Potentilla conferta in Uzbekistan and Mongol

  • Huh, Man-Kyu;Lee, Byeong-Ryong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1297-1305
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    • 2012
  • Clonal plants combine sexual and clonal reproduction, which contribute differently to plant fitness. Reproductive analyses have highlighted the importance of clonal growth in shaping the spatial genetic structure in Potentilla conferta Bunge, a herbaceous rhizomatic clonal distributed in hot sand dunes. We investigated the reproduction system of P. conferta at two populations in Mongol and three natural populations in Uzbekistan. The measurements of 19 quantitative or qualitative morphological characters were taken on each of total individuals directly from their natural habitats. Some morphological characteristics between Mongolia and Uzbekistan populations showed a slight heterogeneity of variance. Especially, the length of internodes (LFI and LSI) and characteristics of root (LLR and NOR) were shown a significant difference between two countries (P<0.05). P. conferta of Uzbekistan has most ramets at short distance intervals 30~100 cm. In light conditions, P. conferta of Uzbekistan was significantly less resilience than P. conferta of Mogol. In drought conditions, although there was not shown significant difference, P. conferta in Uzbekistan was less resilience than that in Mogol. The core analysis indicates that P. conferta in Uzbekistan is the more resistant than that of Mongol and seems to do by sexual reproduction strategy during several strong environmental disadvantages such as drought events.

A Study on the Go-go-kwan(姑姑冠) -With a Special Reference to "Jip-sa(集史)"- (고고관(姑姑冠)에 관한 연구 - "집사(集史)"를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Mi-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.58 no.3
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    • pp.105-115
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    • 2008
  • A Go-go-kwan is a particular hat which has worn by married woman in Mongol and Yuan dynasty in China. It is also widely called as a Boktak in Mongol. The Go-go-kwan, recorded in jip-sa and in the miniature painting of 14th century is the early type of go-go-kwan. Later type can be seen from the relic collections of Gyeonggi Provincial Museum in Korea. The Go-go-kwan is composed with three parts ; feather part, tube part and hat part. Among the feathers, the largest one is as long as four times of the length of the tube and the shortest one is half the length of the tube. The tube is made of light weight wood such as white birch or bamboo, and covered with silk. Some of the hats were made exactly to fit on the head whereas others were designed to wear on the head as like jobawi.

Tabriz on the Silk Roads: Thirteenth-Century Eurasian Cultural Connections

  • Prazniak, Roxann
    • Asian review of World Histories
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.169-188
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    • 2013
  • Tabriz under Mongol Ilkhanate rule commanded a global reach in the thirteenth-century Afro-Eurasian world. Tabriz functioned during this period not only as a commercial emporium and diplomatic center but as a seat of innovative artistic and intellectual activity. Consideration of Tabriz as a world historical city offers insight into the economic and social dynamics that shaped a critical passage in Eurasia's history including regions of the Mediterranean and East Asian zones.

Currents in Mongolian Medicine (몽의학의 학파와 특징)

  • Hong, Sae-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Medical History
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 2014
  • Traditional medicine in Asian countries show similarity according to geography, building up their own medical tradition upon indigenous cultural background. Mongolian medicine, in particular, displays district fusion of several medical systems accepted from neighboring countries adding to their traditional system. Those are Mongol Dhom medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion medicine, medicine of "Four Medical Tantras (四部醫典)", and combined system of Mongolian and biomedicine. Compared to East asian medicine, this is a different kind of diversity or hybridity resulting from idiosyncrasy of nomadic culture. Each current of Mongolian medical tradition has its own origin of historical backdrop. Mongol Dhom originated from ancient nomadic life, and medicine of "Four Medical Tantras (四部醫典)" was formed along with transmission of Tibetan Buddhism. Acupuncture and moxibustion is directly related to Chinese medical tradition, however, moxibustion is also referred to be regional origination. Lastly, biomedicine was transplanted during the modernization era, encouraging scientific approach toward Mongolian traditional medicine and producing combined medical practice. It is effective to derive each particular aspects of Mongolian medicine and analyze its specificity, in order to properly understand current Mongolian medical system. This paper aims at discovering socio-cultural meanings of each current and their nomadic feature beneath the diversity.

THE SILK TRADE FROM ILKHANIDS TO AQQOYUNLU

  • MUSTAFAYEV, SHAHIN
    • Acta Via Serica
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.119-135
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    • 2016
  • The initial phase of the Mongol invasion resulted in the establishment of relative political stability in the vast expanses of Eurasia, which came under the control of a single political entity - the Mongol realm. This contributed to a fairly rapid restoration of the commercial links and trade routes between the East and the West. During this period, Chinese silk again became available in large quantities in the Western markets. At the same time, the beginning of silk production and manufacturing of silk fabrics in Italy and the fashion flash for these goods in Western countries affected trade between Europe and the Muslim world. The centers of silk production in the Ilkhanid Empire were some provinces of Azerbaijan and Persia, where from it was exported in large numbers along the trade routes of Anatolia and Syria to the Mediterranean ports and further to the west. There are numerous testimonies of European travelers, and Muslim authors related the international silk trade in 13th-15th centuries, ie in the era from the Mongol Ilkhanid Empire till the reign of the Turkman Aqqoyunlu dynasty. One of the most informative documentary sources on this issue are the legislative codes (kanuname) of sultan Uzun Hasan from the Aqqoyunlu dynasty regarding the eastern provinces of the Asia Minor. This article presents and analyzes the information from these documents concerning the whole range of goods related to silk and silk fabrics trade in the period under the consideration.