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Onion Beverages Improve Amyloid β Peptide-Induced Cognitive Defects via Up-Regulation of Cholinergic Activity and Neuroprotection (양파(Allium cepa L.) 음료의 콜린성 활성 증가 및 뇌신경세포 보호로 인한 Amyloid β Peptide 유도에 대한 인지장애 개선 효과)

  • Park, Seon Kyeong;Kim, Jong Min;Kang, Jin Yong;Ha, Jeong Su;Lee, Du Sang;Kim, Ah-Na;Choi, Sung-Gil;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.11
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    • pp.1552-1563
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    • 2016
  • To examine the cognitive function of onion (Allium cepa L.) beverages (odourless and fortified), we analyzed in vitro neuronal cell protection against $H_2O_2$-induced cytotoxicity and performed in vivo tests on amyloid beta ($A{\beta}$)-induced cognitive dysfunction. Cellular oxidative stress and cell viability were evaluated by DCF-DA assay and MTT assay. These results show that fortified beverage resulted in better neuronal cell protection than odourless beverage at lower concentration ($0{\sim}100{\mu}g/mL$). Fortified beverage also showed more excellent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity ($IC_{50}$: 4.20 mg/mL) than odourless beverage. The cognitive functions of odourless beverage and fortified beverage in $A{\beta}$-induced neurotoxicity were assessed by Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. The results show improved cognitive function in both groups treated with beverages. After in vivo tests, cholinergic activities were determined based on AChE inhibition and acetylcholine levels, and antioxidant activities were measured as SOD, oxidized glutathione (GSH)/total GSH ratio, and MDA levels in mouse brain tissue. In a Q-TOF UPLC/MS system, main compounds were analyzed as follows: odourless beverage (five types of sugars and three types of phenolics) and fortified beverages (six types of phenolics and two types of steroidal saponins).

Xanthine and Aldehyde Oxidase Inhibitory Activities, and Antihyperuricemic Effects of Fermented Smilax china L. Leaf Extracts and Fractions (발효 청미래덩굴잎 용매 추출물 및 분획물의 xanthine 및 aldehyde oxidase 저해활성과 항고요산혈증 효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Il;Lee, Ye-Kyung;Kim, Soon-Dong;Cheng, Jinhua;Yang, Seung Hwan;Suh, Joo-Won
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2014
  • To evaluate the inhibitory effect of xanthine oxidase (XO) and aldehyde oxidase (AO), and antihyperuricemic effect by Aspergillus oryzae fermented Smilax china L. leaf extracts and fractions, we observed extracted yield by each solvent, the content of total polyphenol and total flavonoid (TF), the activities of XO and AO, and serum uric acid level. Extracted yield (g/kg) by 80% ethanol (EtOH) was 13.56, those of n-hexane, dichloromethane (DICM), ethylacetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol fraction (BuOH) were 1.35-3.33. Furthermore, total polyphenol content (mg/g-extract) of EtOAc fraction, BuOH fraction, DICM fraction and EtOH fraction is 478.07-501.26, 259.49-289.02, 165.03-232.27, 134.02-196.54, respectively. Those of fermented EtOAc and DICM fraction was 4.85 and 40.74% higher than that of non-fermented fraction, respectively, while the other fermented fractions were lower than those of non-fermented fractions. And total flavonoid content (mg/g-extract) of EtOAc fraction was higher than those of other fractions. Additionally, TF of fermented EtOAc and BuOH fraction is 10.56 and 60.17% higher, than that of fermented fraction, respectively, although those of the other fermented fractions was lower than that of non-fermented fractions. On the other hand, XO inhibitory activities of all fermented fractions was significantly higher than that of all non-fermented fraction, while those of fermented EtOAc (75.02%) and BuOH fraction (65.59%) was markedly higher than that of non-fermented fraction (39.42 and 5.34%), respectively. In addition, AO inhibitory activities of DICM and EtOAc fraction was 81.82 and 77.93% higher, respectively, than those of the other fractions, and those of fermented fractions as with XO were significantly higher than that of non-fermented fractions. Meanwhile, serum uric acid level (SU) of hyperuricemic control mice (HC, 6.98 mg/dL) was 1.83 folds higher than that of normal control (NC, 3.82 mg/dL). Furthermore, SU in the group treated with EtOAc fraction decreased in a dose dependent manner compared with the allopurinol control group, although those of fermented fractions were significantly lower than those of non-fermented fractions. This study suggests that fermented Smilax china L. leaf extracts may regulate the XO and AO inhibitory activities and antihyperuricemic effect due to aglycone components from glycoside form flavonoids by fermentation of A. oryzae.

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extracts from Hizikia fusiformis Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages (유산균 종류에 따른 발효톳 추출물의 항염증 활성)

  • Kwon, Myeong Sook;Mun, Ok-Ju;Bae, Min Joo;Lee, Seul-Gi;Kim, Mihyang;Lee, Sang-Hyeon;Yu, Ki Hwan;Kim, Yuck Yong;Kong, Chang-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.1450-1457
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    • 2015
  • The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extracts from Hizikia fusiformis fermented with and without lactic acid bacteria was compared in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. The fermentation was done using Weissella sp. SH-1 and Lactobacillus casei in a mixture of glucose and lactate source at $30^{\circ}C$ for 30 days. As a result, we confirmed that the fermentation of H. fusiformis with lactic acid bacteria inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor ${\alpha}$, and IL-$1{\beta}$ as important inflammatory factors. During a comparison analysis, we found that L. casei fermented groups significantly suppressed NO production by regulating iNOS and COX-2 expression. Also, the effective suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and LPS-induced activation of mitogen- activated protein kinase indicated that the fermentation using Weissella sp. SH-1 and L. casei may provide an increment towards the extraction of active components, which are effective anti-inflammatory agents.

Analysis of domain required for aggregates formation of ALS (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)/FTD (Frontotemporal dementia)-linked FUS in mammalian cells (루게릭병 및 전측두엽성 치매 연관 단백질 Fused in Sarcoma (FUS)의 스트레스 응집체 형성에 관여하는 도메인 분석)

  • Jun, Mi-Hee;Lee, Jin-A
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.331-340
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    • 2015
  • Mutations in Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) have been identified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD). Pathological FUS is mis-localized to cytosol and forms aggregates associated with stress granules (SG), while FUS is normally localized to nucleus. However, it is largely unknown how pathological FUS forms SG-aggregates and which domains are responsible for this process. In this study, we examined cellular localization and aggregation of ALS-linked FUS missense mutants (P525L, R521C, R521H, R521G), analyzed the domains responsible for cytosolic FUS aggregation in HEK293T cells, and confirmed this in cultured mouse neurons. To do this, we firstly generated missense mutants of FUS and then examined their cellular localization. We found that P525L was mostly mis-localized to cytosol and formed FUS-positive SG aggregates while R521C, R521H, or R521G was localized to both nucleus and cytosol. To further characterize the domains required for aggregate formation of cytosolic FUS, we generated different domain-deletion mutants using FUS-∆17 which has a deletion of nuclear localization signal. Interestingly, cytosolic FUS without SYGQ and RGG1 domain or cytosolic FUS without RGG2-ZnF-RGG3 domain did not form FUS-positive SG aggregates, while cytosolic FUS without RRM domain generated more aggregates compared to FUS-∆17. Taken together, these data suggest that SYGQ-RGG1 or RGG2-ZnF-RGG3 domain contributes to formation of cytosolic aggregate, while RRM domain might interfere with FUS aggregation. Therefore, our studies will provide important insight for understanding cellular pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with FUS aggregate as well as finding therapeutic targets for ALS or FTD.

DEU-7 Derived from Ulmus macrocarpa Improved Immune Functions in Cyclophosphamide-treated Mice (면역억제 마우스 모델에서 왕느릅나무 유래 DEU-7의 면역기능 증강)

  • Kang, Kyung-Hwa;Go, Ji Su;Lee, Inhwan;Lee, Sang Ho;Lee, Sung Do;Kim, Deok Won;Lee, Jong-Hwan;Hwang, HyeJin;Hyun, Sook Kyung;KIM, Byoung Woo;Kim, Chul Min;Chung, Kyung Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1156-1163
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    • 2015
  • The present study investigated the immunomodulatory properties of four different medicinal plants in a cyclophosphamide-treated Balb/c mouse model. One of the four plants, Ulmus macrocarpa, showed partial resistance against immune suppression induced by cyclophosphamide. The bark of U. macrocarpa, commonly known as the Chinese elm, has been used as a pharmaceutical material in Korean traditional medicine to treat bacterial inflammation and induce wound healing. In this study, water extract of U. macrocarpa, named DEU-7, was used for its immunomodulating functional activity. DEU-7 increased the weight of the spleen and the number of splenocytes but did not significantly affect the liver, kidney, and thymus in vivo. A splenocyte viability assay confirmed that DEU-7 influenced ex vivo splenocyte survival. DEU-7 also increased the levels of cytokines, such as IL-2 and IL-4, and immunoglobulins, such as IgM, IgG, and IgA. These results indicated that DEU-7 is involved in the activation of T and B lymphocytes. In addition, DEU-7 was able to maintain the production of cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-12, and IFN-γ, in the condition of cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression, suggesting that DEU-7 activated innate immune cells, even under immune suppression. We concluded that DEU-7 aids immunological homeostasis, thereby preventing immune suppression, and aids both innate and adaptive immune response by maintaining the levels of various cytokines and immunoglobulins. Consequently, it is worth investigating the potential of DEU-7 as a supplemental source for immune-enhancing agents.

Effect of Germinated Black Sticky Rice with Giant Embryo on Alcohol Intake in C57BL/6 Mice (흑찰거대배아미 발아현미배아의 섭취가 C57BL/6 생쥐의 알코올 섭취에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Dong-Hun;Kim, Sung-Gon;Kim, Hyeon-Kyeong;Huh, Sung-Young;Byun, Won-Tan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.260-266
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    • 2020
  • Alcohol impacts many central nervous systems, such as dopamine, serotonin, opioids, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), leading to addiction. Many studies have investigated the relationship between GABA and alcoholism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GABA high and low rice intake on the alcohol intake behavior of mice. Black sticky rice with giant embryo (BSRGE), black sticky rice (BSR), giant embryo rice (GER), and rice (Rice) were germinated for 48 hr in brown rice. The embryos were then collected and used in the study. The diets were fed to respective C57BL/6 mouse groups ad libitum for 16 days and investigated for 2 hr alcohol intake, 22 hr water intake, 24 hr feed intake, and body weight. As a result of the repeated measure of ANOVA for the daily change of alcohol intake for 2 hr daily between the BSRGE and BSR groups, there was a significant difference in the number of days of intake (DF = 7, F = 4.812, p = 0.026). A significant daily decrease in alcohol intake was observed in the BSRGE group compared to the BSR group. This reduction was consistent from Day 10 to Day 16. Alcohol consumption also significantly decreased in the GER group compared to the Rice group. This decrease was observed from Day 12 to Day 16. In conclusion, BSRGE and GER resulted in decreased alcohol intake in C57BL/6 mice compared to BSR and rice. This suggests that BSRGE may prevent relapse in patients with alcohol use disorder.

Inhibition of Inflammation by Popillia flavosellata Ethanol Extract in LPSinduced RAW264.7 Macrophages (LPS로 염증 유도된 RAW 264.7세포에 대한 참콩풍뎅이(Popillia flavosellata) 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Yoon, Young-Il;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Kim, Mi-Ae;Ahn, Mi Young;Lee, Young-Bo;Han, Myung Sae;Goo, Tae-Won;Yun, Eun-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.993-999
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    • 2015
  • The beetle Popillia flavosellata has been no reported its functional effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. flavosellata ethanol extract (PFE) on RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the induction of inflammation. First, we examined the cytotoxicity of PFE in the RAW 264.7 cells at a concentration of 2,000 μg/ml or less. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of PFE, we investigated the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, and proinflammatory enzymes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, we examined whether PFE inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 into the nucleus in the LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. We found that the protein levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were decreased in the LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells after the treatment with PFE in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we confirmed that PFE inhibited the translocation of NF-κB p65 into the nucleus, as well as the protein expression levels of iNOS and COX-2. Accordingly, we propose that PFE exerts an anti-inflammatory effect through the down-regulation of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 via the toll like receptor (TLR)-4 inflammatory signaling pathway.

Stem-leaf saponins from Panax notoginseng counteract aberrant autophagy and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons of mice with cognitive impairment induced by sleep deprivation

  • Cao, Yin;Yang, Yingbo;Wu, Hui;Lu, Yi;Wu, Shuang;Liu, Lulu;Wang, Changhong;Huang, Fei;Shi, Hailian;Zhang, Beibei;Wu, Xiaojun;Wang, Zhengtao
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.442-452
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    • 2020
  • Backgroud: Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs learning and memory by inhibiting hippocampal functioning at molecular and cellular levels. Abnormal autophagy and apoptosis are closely associated with neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. This study is aimed to explore the alleviative effect and the underlying molecular mechanism of stem-leaf saponins of Panax notoginseng (SLSP) on the abnormal neuronal autophagy and apoptosis in hippocampus of mice with impaired learning and memory induced by SD. Methods: Mouse spatial learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze test. Neuronal morphological changes were observed by Nissl staining. Autophagosome formation was examined by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescent staining, acridine orange staining, and transient transfection of the tf-LC3 plasmid. Apoptotic event was analyzed by flow cytometry after PI/annexin V staining. The expression or activation of autophagy and apoptosis-related proteins were detected by Western blotting assay. Results: SLSP was shown to improve the spatial learning and memory of mice after SD for 48 h, accomanied with restrained excessive autophage and apoptosis, whereas enhanced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in hippocampal neurons. Meanwhile, it improved the aberrant autophagy and apoptosis induced by rapamycin and re-activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling transduction in HT-22 cells, a hippocampal neuronal cell line. Conclusion: SLSP could alleviate cognitive impairment induced by SD, which was achieved probably through suppressing the abnormal autophagy and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. The findings may contribute to the clinical application of SLSP in the prevention or therapy of neurological disorders associated with SD.

The effect of resistance exercise on β-amyloid metabolism and cognitive function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (저항성 운동이 알츠하이머 형질전환 생쥐 뇌의 베타 아밀로이드 대사와 인지기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Yong-Chul;Koo, Jung-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.418-428
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    • 2020
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance exercise(RE) on beta-amyloid(Aβ) metabolism, neuronal cell death, and cognitive function in the transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease(AD). Fourteen transgenic(tg) mice and fourteen non-transgenic(non-tg) mice were divided into four groups: (1)non-tg-control(NTC, n=7) (2)non-tg-RE(NTRE, n=7) (3)tg-control(TC, n=7), and (4)tg-RE(TRE, n=7). The groups with RE were performed to progressive RE on ladder equipment for 8 weeks. The groups with RE were performed to progressive RE on ladder equipment for 8 weeks. After then, the cognitive function was measured by using the water maze test, and Aβ metabolism-related proteins, neuronal cell death, and SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway were also measured. Here, we found escape latency and time were significantly increased in the TC compared to the NTC group, but it was significantly reduced in the TRE group, indicating RE may ameliorate cognitive dysfunction. Next, we found an increased in Aβ protein of TC compared to NTC, but it was significantly reduced in the TRE group following RE. In neuronal cell death, Bcl-2 was also significantly decreased and Bax was significantly increased in the TC compared to the NTC group, but RE can increase Bcl-2 and reduce Bax, which may elevate the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. We further found a decrease in the level of ADAM10 and RARβ protein was significantly increased whereas increased in ROCK1 and BACE1 expression level was significantly reduced following RE in the TRE compared to the TC group. In addition, the level of SIRT1/PGC-1α proteins was decreased in the TC group compared to NTC group, but, these markers were significantly increased in the TRE group following RE. Therefore, our finding indicated that RE may ameliorate cognitive deficits by reducing Aβ protein and neuronal cell death via regulating SIRT1/PGC-1α, amyloidogenic pathway, and non-amyloidogenic pathway, which may play a role in an effective strategy for AD.

Radioprotective Effects of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor in the Jejunal Mucosa of Mouse (생쥐에서 과립구 집락형성인자(Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor)의 공장점막에 대한 방사선 보호효과)

  • Ryu, Mi-Ryeong;Chung, Su-Mi;Kay, Chul-Seung;Kim, Yeon-Shil;Yoon, Sei-Chul
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Granulocyle-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been widely used to treat neutropenia caused by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The efficacy of recombinant human hematopoietic growth factors in improving oral mucositis after chemotherapy or radiotherapy has been recently demonstrated in some clinical studies. This study was designed to determine whether G-CSF can modify the radiation injury of the intestinal mucosa in mice. Materials and Methods : One hundred and five BALB/c mice weighing 20 grams were divided into nine subgroups including G-CSF alone group $(I:10\;{\mu}g/kg\;or\;II:100\;{\mu}g/kg)$, radiation alone group (7.5 or 12 Gy on the whole body), combination group with G-CSF and radiation (G-CSF I or II plus 7.5 Gy, G-CSF I or II plus 12 Gy), and control group. Radiation was administered with a 6 MV linear accelerator (Mevatron Siemens) with a dose rate of 3 Gy/min on day 0. G-CSF was injected subcutaneously for 3 days, once a day, from day -2 to day 0. Each group was sacrificed on the day 1, day 3, and day 7. The mucosal changes of jejunum were evaluated microscopically by crypt count per circumference, villi length, and histologic damage grading. Results : In both G-CSF I and II groups, crypt counts, villi length, and histologic damage scores were not significantly different from those of the control one (p>0.05). The 7.5 Gy and 12 Gy radiation alone groups showed significantly lower crypt counts and higher histologic damage scores compared with those of control one (p<0.05). The groups exposed to 7.5 Gy radiation plus G-CSF I or II showed significantly higher crypt counts and lower histologic damage scores on the day 3, and lower histologic damage scores on the day 7 compared with those of the 7.5 Gy radiation alone one (p<0.05). The 12 Gy radiation plus G-CSF I or II group did not show significant difference in crypt counts and histologic damage scores compared with those of the 12 Gy radiation alone one (p>0,05). Most of the mice in 12 Gy radiation with or without G-CSF group showed intestinal death within 5 days. Conclusion : These results suggest that G-CSF may protect the jejunal mucosa from the acute radiation damage following within the tolerable ranges of whole body irradiation in mice.

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