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Producing Technique and the Transition of Wan(Bowl) of Hanseong Baekje Period - Focus in Seoul·Gyeonggi Area - (한성백제기(漢城百濟期) 완(盌)의 제작기법(製作技法)과 그 변천(變遷) - 서울경기권 출토유물을 중심으로 -)

  • Han, Ji Sun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.86-111
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    • 2011
  • Wan is a tableware in which boiled rice or soup, side dish are put, and it is a representative model which shows the development of personal tableware. From the establishing period of Hanseong Baekje, the form of wan which is Jung-do Style(中島式) Plain Pottery of previous period Proto-Three Kingdoms Period was succeeded to, but wan is produced and used as a wan baked in the kiln, which is far development of the producing technique including hardness and clay. By and large, the size of $0.3{\sim}0.4{\ell}$ was the majority and the production technique of wan which used carefully selected soft quality clay are largely confirmed to be two methods which are, first, basic method by which on a clay tablet on the rotating table, clay band is accumulated and moulding is finished, and second, the new method which had the same basic moulding as that of basic method but in the last stage takes wan off the rotating table and reverse it to trim the bottom and remove the angle of flat bottom. The former, basic production method is the classical production method since wan of Jung-do Style Plain Pottery and wan was produced and used for all periods of Hanseong Baekje. On the other hand, the latter is the production method obtained through form imitation of China made porcelain flowed into through interchange between Baekje and China, and through comparison with Chinese chronogram material it is estimated to have been produced and used after middle of 4th century. Therefore it can be known that the Baekje people's demand for China made articles was big and imitation pottery was produced and used with Baekje pottery. In addition, bowl with outward mouth are confirmed in multiple number in Lakrang(樂浪) pottery wan and it is assumed that wan was the form produced under the influence.

A Study on the Sketch of Trikaya Banner Painting in the Suta-sa Temple (수타사 삼신불괘불도(三身佛掛佛圖) 초본(草本) 연구)

  • Kim, Chang Kyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.112-131
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    • 2009
  • The Trikaya Banner Painting in the Suta-sa Temple at Hongcheon-gun, Gangwon-do draws attention as it was painted not on flax but on paper, and used the water color painting technique on the sketch rather than the deep color painting technique, which is most common in Buddhist paintings created during the Chosun Dynasty. Nevertheless, there is not any information on the creation of the Trikaya Banner Painting in the painting record on the painting, in Sutasasajeok(壽陀寺史蹟), or in Sutasagogirok(壽陀寺古記錄), so it is uncertain when the painting was created. Furthermore, because it was not drawn by the deep color painting technique, it has been difficult to compare it with other banner paintings. For these reasons, the Trikaya Banner Painting has been studied little except brief introduction. In recent preservation treatment that removed multiple-layered paper from the back of the painting, however, an inked inscription written on Korean paper 118cm high and 87.5cm wide was discovered on the back. It is a kind of placard notifying a number of acts prohibited in order to follow Buddha's teachings correctly, and was found to have been written on April 15, 1690. The inked inscription is a very valuable material for estimating the creation date of the Suta-sa Trikaya Banner Painting, and provides crucial clues for approaching the contents and nature of the painting more precisely. When the image, form, and style of the Suta-sa Trikaya Banner Painting were examined and its creation date was estimated based on the inked inscription, first, the painting is presumed to have been created in around 1690 as suggested by 'the placard' attached on the back instead of a painting record. Second, the painting is highly likely to be the first standing Trikaya banner painting showing the basic icons of Trikaya banner paintings in the Chosun Dynasty since the Trikaya Banner Painting in the Gap-sa Temple in Gongju (1650). Furthermore, considering the shape of the Trikaya in the painting, screen composition, background treatment, solemn and affectionate facial expression, harmonious and adequate body proportion, etc., the painting is believed to have had a considerable influence not only on Trikaya banner paintings of similar style in the 18thcentury but also on deep-color Trikaya banner paintings in the 19thcentury. Third, although the Suta-sa Trikaya Banner Painting is not acompleted work but a sketch, it exhibits the typical water color painting technique in which the strokes are clearly visible. Thus, it is considered highly valuable in understanding and analyzing stroke styles and in studying the history of Buddhist paintings. As there are not many extant banner paintings of the same style in form and expression technique as the Suta-sa Temple Trikaya Banner Painting, this study could not make thorough comparative analysis of the work, but still it is meaningful in that it laid the ground for research on standing Trikaya banner paintings in the 18thand 19thcenturies in the Chosun Dynasty.

APICAL FITNESS OF NON-STANDARDIZED GUTTA-PERCHA CONES IN SIMULATED ROOT CANALS PREPARED WITH ROTARY ROOT CANAL INSTRUMENTS (전동화일로 형성된 근관에서 비표준화 Gutta-percha Cone의 적합성)

  • Kwon, O-Sang;Kim, Sung-Kyo
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.390-398
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the apical fitness of non-standardized gutta-percha cones in root canals prepared with rotary Ni-Ti root canal instruments of various tapers and apical tip sizes. Simulated sixty curved root canals of plastic blocks were prepared with crown-down technique using rotary root canal instruments of Maillefer ProFile$^{(R)}$ .04 and .06 taper (Maillefer Instrument SA, Switzerland). Specimens were divided into six groups and prepared as follows: Group 1, prepared up to size 25 of .04 taper ; Group 2, prepared up to size 30 of .04 taper ; Group 3, prepared up to size 35 of .04 taper ; Group 4, prepared up to size 25 of .06 taper ; Group 5, prepared up to size 30 of .06 taper ; Group 6 ; prepared up to size 35 of .06 taper. After cutting off the coronal portion of plastic, blocks perpendicular to the long axis of the canal with the use of a diamond saw, apical 5mm of canal space was analyzed. Prepared apical canal spaces were duplicated using rubber base impression material to evaluate two dimensional total area of apical canal space. Various sized gutta-percha cones were applied in the 5mm-apical canal space, which were size 25, size 30 and size 35 standardized gutta-percha cone, Diadent Dia-Pro ISO-.04$^{TM}$ and .06$^{TM}$(Diadent, Korea), and medium-fine (MF), fine (F), fine-medium (FM) and medium (M) sized non-standardized gutta-percha cones (Diadent, Korea). Coronal excess gutta-percha were cut off with a sharp blade. Photographs of impressed apical canal spaces and gutta-percha cones were taken with a CCD camera under a stereomicroscope and stored in a computer. Areas of the total canal space and gutta-percha cones were calculated using a digitalized image analysing program, CompuScope (Sungjin Multimedia Co., Korea). Ratio of apical fitness was obtained by calculating the area of gutta-percha cone to the total area of the canal space. The data were analysed statistically using One-way Analysis of Variance and Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results were as follows: 1. In canals prepared up to size 25 ProFile$^{(R)}$ of .04 taper, non-standardized MF and F cones occupied significantly more canal space than Dia-Pro ISO-.04$^{TM}$ or size 25 standardized ones (p<0.05). 2. In canals prepared up to size 30 ProFile$^{(R)}$ of .04 taper, non-standardized F cones occupied significantly more canal space than Dia-Pro ISO-.04$^{TM}$ or size 30 standardized ones (p<0.05), and non-standardized MF cones occupied more canal space than size 30 standardized ones (p<0.05). 3. In canals prepared up to size 35 ProFile$^{(R)}$ of .04 taper, there was no significant difference in canal space occupation among non-standardized MF and F, size 35 standardized, and Dia-Pro ISO-.04$^{TM}$ cones (p>0.05). 4. In canals prepared up to size 25 ProFile$^{(R)}$ of .06 taper, non-standardized MF and F cones occupied significantly more canal space than Dia-Pro ISO-.06$^{TM}$, or size 25 standardized ones (p<0.05), and Dia-Pro ISO-.06$^{TM}$, cones occupied significantly more space than size 25 standardized ones (p<0.05). 5. In canals prepared up to size 30 ProFile$^{(R)}$ of .06 taper, non-standardized FM cones occupied significantly more canal space than Dia-Pro ISO-.06$^{TM}$ or size 30 standardized ones (p<0.05), and non-standardized F cones occupied significantly more canal space than size 30 standardized ones (p<0.05). 6. In canals prepared up to size 35 ProFile$^{(R)}$ of .06 taper, non-standardized M and FM, Dia-Pro ISO-.06$^{TM}$ occupied significantly more canal space than size 35 standardized ones (p<0.05). In summary, in both canals prepared with .04 or .06 taper ProFile$^{(R)}$, non-standardized cones showed better fitness than Dia-Pro ISO$^{TM}$ or standardized ones, which was more characteristic in smaller canals.

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The Recent Outcomes after Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot Associated with Pulmonary Atresia and Major Aortopulmonary Collateral Arteries (폐동맥폐쇄와 주대동맥폐동맥부행혈관을 동반한 활로씨사징증 교정의 최근 결과)

  • Kim Jin-Hyun;Kim Woong-Han;Kim Dong-Jung;Jung Eui-Suk;Jeon Jae-Hyun;Min Sun-Kyung;Hong Jang-Mee;Lee Jeong-Ryul;Rho Joon-Ryuang;Kim Yong-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.269-274
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    • 2006
  • Background: Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with pulmonary atresia and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAS) is complex lesion with marked heterogeneity of pulmonary blood supply and arborization anomalies. Patients with TOF with PA and MAPCAS have traditionally required multiple staged unifocalization of pulmonary blood supply before undergoing complete repair. In this report, we describe recent change of strategy and the results in our institution. Material and Method: We established surgical stratagies: early correction, central mediastinal approach, initial RV-PA conduit interposition, and aggressive intervention. Between July 1998 and August 2004, 23 patients were surgically treated at our institution. We divided them into 3 groups by initial operation method; group I: one stage total correction, group II: RV-PA conduit and unifocalization, group III: RV-PA conduit interposition only. Result: Mean ages at initial operation in each group were $13.9{\pm}16.0$ months (group 1), $10.4{\pm}15.6$ months (group II), and $7.9{\pm}7.7$ months (group III). True pulmonary arteries were not present in f patient and the pulmonary arteries were confluent in 22 patients. The balloon angioplasty was done in average 1.3 times (range: $1{\sim}6$). There were 4 early deaths relating initial operation, and 1 late death due to incracranial hemorrhage after definitive repair. The operative mortalities of initial procedures in each group were 25.0% (1/4: group I), 20.0% (2/10: group II), and 12.2% (1/9: group III). The causes of operative mortality were hypoxia (2), low cardiac output (1) and sudden cardiac arrest (1). Definitive repair rates in each group were 75% (3/4) in group I, 20% (2/10, fenestration: 2) in group II, and 55.0% (5/9, fenestration: 1) in group III. Conclusion: In patients of TOF with PA and MAPCAS, RV-PA connection as a initial procedure could be performed with relatively low risk, and high rate of definitive repair can be obtained in the help of balloon pulmonary angioplasty. One stage RV-PA connection and unifocalization appeared to be successful in selected patients.

A Study on the Expression of CD44s and CD44v6 in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas (비소세포성 폐암종의 CD44s 및 CD44v6의 발현에 대한 연구 -CD44의 발현에 대한 연구-)

  • Chang, Woon-Ha;Oh, Tae-Yun;Kim, Jung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2006
  • Background: CD44 is a glycoprotein on the cell surface which is involved in the cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interaction. The standard form, CD44s and multiple isoforms are determined by alternative splicing of 10 exons. Recent studies have suggested that CD44 may help invasion and metastasis of various epithelial tumors as well as activation of Iymphocytes and monocytes. The expression pattern of CD44 can be different according to tumor types. The author studied the expression pattern of CD44s and one of its variants, CD44v6 in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) to find their implications on clinicopathologic aspects, including the survival of the patients. Material and Method: A total of 89 primary NSCLSs (48 squamous cell carcinomas, 33 adenocarcinomas, and 8 undifferentiated large cell carcinomas) were retrieved during the years between 1985 to 1994. The immunohisto chemistry was done by using monoclonal antibodies and the CD44 expression for angiogenesis was evaluated by counting the number of tumor microvessels. Result: Seventy-one (79.8$\%$) and 64 (71 .9$\%$) among 89 NSCLSs revealed the expression of CD44s and CD44v6, respectively. The expression of CD44s was well correlated with that of CD44v6 (r=0.710, p < 0.0001). The expression of CD44s and CD44v6 was associated with the histopathologic type of the NSCLCs, and squamous cell carcinoma was the type that showed the highest expression of CD44s and CD44v6 (p < 0.0001). Microvessel count was the highest in adenocarcinomas (113.6$\pm$69.7 on 200-fold magnification and 54.8$\pm$41.1 on 400-fold magnification) and correlated with the tumor size of TNM system (r=0.217, p=0.043) and CD44s expression (r=0.218, p=0.040). In adenocarcinoma, the patients with higher CD44s expression survived shorter than those with lower CD44s expression (p=0.0194) but there was no statistical significance on multivariate analysis(p=0.3298). Conclusion: The expression of both CD44s and CD44v6 may be associated with the squamous differentiation in non-small cell lung carcinomas. The relationship of CD44s expression with micro-vessel density of the tumor suggests an involvement of CD44s in tumor angiogenesis, which in turn would help tumor growth.

Tetralogy of Fallot Associated with Pulmonary Atresia and Major Aortopulmonary Collateral Arteries -Comparison between the different surgical approaches- (폐동맥폐쇄와 주대동맥폐동맥혈관부행지를 동반한 활로씨사징증 -다양한 외과적 치료접근의 비교-)

  • 이정렬;양지혁;김용진;노준량
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.471-479
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    • 1999
  • Background: Patients with tetralogy of Fallot(TOF), pulmonary atresia(PA) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries(MAPCAs) have been managed by heterogenous surgical strategies. We have taken 5 different surgical approaches to this lesion. In this study, relative advantages and disadvantages of each strategy were discussed by analyzing our surgical results. Material and Method: Between January 1986 and June 1998, 50 patients aged 1 to 177(39${\pm}$31) months at a various morphologic spectrum of this lesion were treated at our institution. The groups, which were classified according to the initial approaches, consisted of one-stage unifocalization(A-1, n=9), staged unifocalization(A-2, n=11), right ventricle to pulmonary artery connection(RV-PA)(B-1, n=11), one-stage RV-PA plus unifocalization (B-2, n=11), and one-stage definitive repair(C, n=8). Morphologic charateristics, operative mortalities, and probabilities of definitive repair were compared between the groups and the causes of death, complications and the follow-up results were described. Result: Mean ages at the first operation were 57${\pm}$18(A-1), 42${\pm}$48(A-2), 18${\pm}$14(B-1), 52${\pm}$55(B-2), and 32${\pm}$34(C) months (p<0.05). Mean numbers of MAPCAs were least in group C (A-1=4.3${\pm}$1.0, A-2=4.5${\pm}$1.3, B-1=4.1${\pm}$1.9, B-2=4.1${\pm}$1.6, C=3.4${\pm}$1.8 : p<0.05). The ratios of the direct and the indirect MAPCAs in each group were not different between the grousps (A-1=91%/9%, A-2=78%/22%, B-1=80%/20%, B-2=80%/20%, C=81%/19% : p>0.05). Nineteen patients had more than 1 dependent MAPCAs. True pulmonary arteries were not present 13 patients and they were confluent in 29. A total of 101 operations were performed. Operative mortalities of initial procedures were 33%(3/9, A-1), 18%(2/11, A-2), 0%(0/11, B-1), 36%(5/11, B-2) and 13%(1/8, C) (p<0.05). Percentages of the definitive repair among the patients of each group were 22%(2/9, A-1), 18%(2/11, A-2). 45%(5/11, B-1), 27%(4/11, B-2), and 100%(8/8, C)(p<0.05). Hypoxic respiratory and cardiac failure(6), hypoxic encephalopathy(2) and sepsis(4) were the major causes of death. Phrenic nerve palsy occured in 5 patients. Thirty-one patients among the survivals have been followed up for a mean duration of 74${\pm}$42(3-145) months. One and five year actuarial survival rates were 73% and 73 %. Conclusion: In conclusion, Right ventricle to pulmonary artery connection used in patients with TOF/PA/MAPCA as an inital procedure appeared to be highly successful in enhancing the chance of satisfactory definitive repair without the significant surgical risks. One-stage total repair at an ealier age group could be performed safely with the resonable outcomes. Unifocalization approach, whether it was performed in a single stage or in the multiple stages, resulted in the high operative mortality and the lowest chance of definitive repair, however more tailored selection of the patients and the long follow-up is mandatory to prove the usefulness of this approach.

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Clinical Experiences for Cardiac Myxomas (심장 점액종의 임상적 고찰)

  • Lee, Geun-Dong;Lee, Jae-Won;Jung, Jae-Seung;Jung, Sung-Ho;Je, Hyoung-Gon;Choo, Suk-Jung;Song, Hyun;Chung, Cheol-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.703-709
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    • 2008
  • Background: Diagnosis and treatment are often successful in the setting of cardiac myxomas. However, cardiac myxomas can lead to catastrophic complications, due to intracardiac obstruction and embolism preoperatively, and can recur postoperatively. Material and Method: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics, surgical treatment, and recurrence data of 85 patients who underwent cardiac myxoma surgery at Asan Medical Center between November 1994 and June 2007. We analyzed the morphologic characteristics of 58 patients with left atrial myxomas and determined the development of functional mitral valve stenosis and systemic embolism through reviewing the results of preoperative echo-cardiograms to find potential preoperative risk factors. Result: Twenty-seven (31.8%) patients were men, and 58 (68.2%) were women. The mean patient age was $54.5{\pm}14.3$ years. Preoperative symptoms included obstructive symptoms in 41 (48.2%) patients, signs of embolism in 19 (22.4%), constitutional symptoms in 8 (9.4%), and no symptoms in 19 (20.0%). Among the 58 patients with left atrial myxomas, the mean maximal tumor diameter was $4.3{\pm}1.8$ (range $1.1{\sim}8\;cm$)cm. Twenty-six (44.8%) patients had a prolapsing type, defined as a tumor mobile enough to move down. to the mitral. annular plane during diastole, and 32 (55.2%) had villous type, defined as a tumor consisting of multiple fine villous extensions on the surface. Twelve (20.7%) patients had severe functional mitral valve stenosis, and 15 (25.9%) had systemic embolism preoperatively. The incidence of severe functional mitral valve stenosis was significantly higher in patients with the prolapsing type than in those with the non-prolapsing type (p=0.001). The mean maximal tumor diameter in patients with severe functional mitral valve stenosis was $5.1{\pm}1.0\;cm$, significantly larger than that seen in patients without severe functional mitral valve stenosis (p=0.041). The incidence of systemic embolism was significantly higher in patients with the villous type than in those with the smooth type (p=0.006). Postoperative complications were noted in 6 (7.1%) patients, and early mortality was noted in 1 (1.2%). The mean postoperative follow-up duration was $36.2{\pm}37.5$ months, with recurrence reported in 2(2.4%) patients during the follow-up period. The disease free interval were 48, 12 months, respectively. Conclusion: Surgical treatment for cardiac myxomas was performed safely, and long-term prognosis was good. In patients with left atrial myxoma, close attention should be maintained and surgery should be performed promptly in those of prolapsing type, those with large maximal diameter in order to prevent severe functional mitral valve stenosis, and those of villous type in order to prevent systemic embolism. Echocardiography should be followed serially in order to detect recurrence.

Clinical Results Following Early Tailoring Thoracoplasty in Patients Undergoing Pulmonary Resection (폐의 부분절제수술를 시술받은 환자에서 조기 변형식 흉곽성형수술에 따른 임상결과)

  • Choi, Soon-Ho;Cha, Byung-Ki;Lee, Mi-Kyung;Park, Kwon-Jae;Lee, Sam-Youn;Choi, Jong-Bum
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.485-491
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    • 2007
  • Background: Thoracoplasty has become a rarity in current clinical practice, although it has been widely employed for well over a century as a procedure for reducing the capacity of the thoracic cavity. Yet we have perform tailoring thoracoplasty following or concomitant with pulmonary resection in 20 patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the early and late clinical results and also the significance of tailoring thoracoplasty. Material and Method: From March 1995 to June 2005, modified thoracoplasty following or concomitant with pulmonary resection was performed in 20 patients out of a total of 298 pulmonary resections for closing air leaks and for treating persistent pleural space following pulmonary resections, and to tailor the thoracic cavity to accept a diminished lung volume. Of the 20 patients, 14 patients had tailoring thoracoplasty performed concomitant with pulmonary resection, and the remaining 6 patients also had tailoring thoracoplasty performed following pulmonary resection. The subjects ages ranged from 24 to 77 (mean $59.1{\pm}6.4$) and a male preponderance was noted (17 : 3); the number of left and right surgeries was equal. The preoperative primary underlying diseases were lung cancer in 7 patients, pneumothorax with giant bullous change in 6 patients, bronchiectasis in 2 patients, previous pulmonary tuberculosis associated with aspergilloma in 2 patients, empyema with fibrothorax in 2 patients and multiple lung abscesses & destruction due to previous trauma in 1 patient. The operative methods were apicolysis and subperiosteal removal of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th ribs (the costochondral junction to the posterior portions of the ribs) with preservation of the first rib and compression of the anterior chest via cotton bags and elastic bandages. Result: The mean duration of the air leaks after thoracoplasty was $1.6{\pm}0.2$ days (range: $0{\sim}7$ days) and the mean duration of an indwelling chest tube was 7 days (range: $5{\sim}11$ days); the mean duration of hospitalization was $19.2{\pm}2.8$ days (range: $8{\sim}47$ days). The postoperative complications were wound infection (2) and pneumonia (2); reoperation was done due to bleeding (1) in one patient who underwent concomitant thoracoplasty and there was 1 case of wound infection (1) after postresection thoracoplasty. The mortality was 1 patient in the early phase and 4 patients in the late phase. Conclusion: We conclude that tailoring thoracoplasty may be performed to close anticipated persistent pleural spaces and to accommodate the diminished lung volume with acceptable cosmetic results when this procedure is combined with pulmonary resection in selected patients.

The Effects of Environmental Dynamism on Supply Chain Commitment in the High-tech Industry: The Roles of Flexibility and Dependence (첨단산업의 환경동태성이 공급체인의 결속에 미치는 영향: 유연성과 의존성의 역할)

  • Kim, Sang-Deok;Ji, Seong-Goo
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.31-54
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    • 2007
  • The exchange between buyers and sellers in the industrial market is changing from short-term to long-term relationships. Long-term relationships are governed mainly by formal contracts or informal agreements, but many scholars are now asserting that controlling relationship by using formal contracts under environmental dynamism is inappropriate. In this case, partners will depend on each other's flexibility or interdependence. The former, flexibility, provides a general frame of reference, order, and standards against which to guide and assess appropriate behavior in dynamic and ambiguous situations, thus motivating the value-oriented performance goals shared between partners. It is based on social sacrifices, which can potentially minimize any opportunistic behaviors. The later, interdependence, means that each firm possesses a high level of dependence in an dynamic channel relationship. When interdependence is high in magnitude and symmetric, each firm enjoys a high level of power and the bonds between the firms should be reasonably strong. Strong shared power is likely to promote commitment because of the common interests, attention, and support found in such channel relationships. This study deals with environmental dynamism in high-tech industry. Firms in the high-tech industry regard it as a key success factor to successfully cope with environmental changes. However, due to the lack of studies dealing with environmental dynamism and supply chain commitment in the high-tech industry, it is very difficult to find effective strategies to cope with them. This paper presents the results of an empirical study on the relationship between environmental dynamism and supply chain commitment in the high-tech industry. We examined the effects of consumer, competitor, and technological dynamism on supply chain commitment. Additionally, we examined the moderating effects of flexibility and dependence of supply chains. This study was confined to the type of high-tech industry which has the characteristics of rapid technology change and short product lifecycle. Flexibility among the firms of this industry, having the characteristic of hard and fast growth, is more important here than among any other industry. Thus, a variety of environmental dynamism can affect a supply chain relationship. The industries targeted industries were electronic parts, metal product, computer, electric machine, automobile, and medical precision manufacturing industries. Data was collected as follows. During the survey, the researchers managed to obtain the list of parts suppliers of 2 companies, N and L, with an international competitiveness in the mobile phone manufacturing industry; and of the suppliers in a business relationship with S company, a semiconductor manufacturing company. They were asked to respond to the survey via telephone and e-mail. During the two month period of February-April 2006, we were able to collect data from 44 companies. The respondents were restricted to direct dealing authorities and subcontractor company (the supplier) staff with at least three months of dealing experience with a manufacture (an industrial material buyer). The measurement validation procedures included scale reliability; discriminant and convergent validity were used to validate measures. Also, the reliability measurements traditionally employed, such as the Cronbach's alpha, were used. All the reliabilities were greater than.70. A series of exploratory factor analyses was conducted. We conducted confirmatory factor analyses to assess the validity of our measurements. A series of chi-square difference tests were conducted so that the discriminant validity could be ensured. For each pair, we estimated two models-an unconstrained model and a constrained model-and compared the two model fits. All these tests supported discriminant validity. Also, all items loaded significantly on their respective constructs, providing support for convergent validity. We then examined composite reliability and average variance extracted (AVE). The composite reliability of each construct was greater than.70. The AVE of each construct was greater than.50. According to the multiple regression analysis, customer dynamism had a negative effect and competitor dynamism had a positive effect on a supplier's commitment. In addition, flexibility and dependence had significant moderating effects on customer and competitor dynamism. On the other hand, all hypotheses about technological dynamism had no significant effects on commitment. In other words, technological dynamism had no direct effect on supplier's commitment and was not moderated by the flexibility and dependence of the supply chain. This study makes its contribution in the point of view that this is a rare study on environmental dynamism and supply chain commitment in the field of high-tech industry. Especially, this study verified the effects of three sectors of environmental dynamism on supplier's commitment. Also, it empirically tested how the effects were moderated by flexibility and dependence. The results showed that flexibility and interdependence had a role to strengthen supplier's commitment under environmental dynamism in high-tech industry. Thus relationship managers in high-tech industry should make supply chain relationship flexible and interdependent. The limitations of the study are as follows; First, about the research setting, the study was conducted with high-tech industry, in which the direction of the change in the power balance of supply chain dyads is usually determined by manufacturers. So we have a difficulty with generalization. We need to control the power structure between partners in a future study. Secondly, about flexibility, we treated it throughout the paper as positive, but it can also be negative, i.e. violating an agreement or moving, but in the wrong direction, etc. Therefore we need to investigate the multi-dimensionality of flexibility in future research.

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F-18 FDG PET Scan findings in Patients with Pulmonary Involvement in the Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (원발성 과호산구증가 증후군 환자들 중 폐침범을 보이는 환자군의 F-18 FDG PET 소견)

  • Lee, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Tae-Hoon;Yun, Mi-Jin;Hur, Jin;Kim, Tae-Sung;Kim, Sang-Jin;Kim, Hyung-Joong;Pai, Moon-Sun;Ryu, Young-Hoon;Lee, Jong-Doo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.239-245
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is an infiltrative disease of eosinophils affecting multiple organs including the iung. F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) may accumulate at sites of inflammation or injection, making interpretation of whole body PET scan difficult in patients with cancer. This study was to evaluate the PET findings of HES with lung involvement and to find out differential PET features between lung malignancy and HES with lung involvement. Material and Methods: F-18 FDG PET and low dose chest CT scan was performed for screening of lung cancer. light patients who showed ground-glass attenuation (GGA) and consolidation on chest CT scan with peripheral blood eosinophilia werr included in this study. The patients with history of parasite infection, allergy and collagen vascular disease were excluded. CT features and FDG PET findings were meticulously evaluated for the distribution of GGA and consolidation and nodules on CT scan and mean and maximal SUV of abnormalities depicted on F-18 FDG PET scan. In eight patients, follow-up chest CT scan and FDG PET scan were done one or two weeks after initial study. Results: F-18 FDG PET scan identified metabolically active lesions in seven out of eight patients. Maximal SUV was ranged from 2.8 to 10.6 and mean SUV was ranged from 2.2 to 7.2. Remaining one patient had maximal SUV of 1.3. On follow-up FDG PET scan taken on from one to four weeks later showed decreased degree of initially noted FDG uptakes or migration of previously noted abnormal FDG uptakes. Conclusions: Lung involvement in the HES might be identified as abnormal uptake foci on FDG PET scan mimicking lung cancer. Follow-up FDG PET and CT scan for the identification of migration or resolution of abnormalities and decrement of SUV would be of help for the differentiation between lung cancer and HES with lung involvement.