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Study on Estimate of Thermal Resistance of PVC Frame Window Due to Material Composition (PVC 창호의 구성에 따른 단열성능 예측에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, Uk-Joo;Lee, Jin-Sung;Cho, Soo;Jang, Cheol-Yong;Paek, Sang-Hun;Song, Kyoo-Dong
    • Proceedings of the SAREK Conference
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    • pp.1075-1080
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    • 2006
  • Purpose of this study is proposal of estimating method about window thermal performance that based on KS F 2278 'Test method of thermal resistance for windows and doors' due to material composition of PVC frame window. First step of this study is research of present state about material composition of PVC frame window. Second is selection of main effective elements about window thermal resistance. For example, composition of Glazing, Frame area ratio of total window area, frame width, opening type, area of heat transfer and so on. Third is multiple regression analysis about thermal performance of PVC frame window due to main effective elements. It produces equations of multiple regression analysis due to opening type. Case of sliding window is $Y=0.149+0.034X_g+0.248X_{far}$, 4track sliding is $Y=0.584+0.175X_g+1.355X_{far}-0.008X_{fw}$, Tilt & Turn window is $Y=-0.161+0.076X_g+0.576X_{far}+0.0008X_{fw}$.

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Nonlinear bending of functionally graded porous nanobeam subjected to multiple physical load based on nonlocal strain gradient theory

  • Gao, Yang;Xiao, Wan-shen;Zhu, Haiping
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.469-488
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    • 2019
  • We in this paper study nonlinear bending of a functionally graded porous nanobeam subjected to multiple physical load based on the nonlocal strain gradient theory. For more reasonable analysis of nanobeams made of porous functionally graded magneto-thermo-electro-elastic materials (PFGMTEEMs), both constituent materials and the porosity appear gradient distribution in the present expression of effective material properties, which is much more suitable to the actual compared with the conventional expression of effective material properties. Besides the displacement function regarding physical neutral surface is introduced to analyze mechanical behaviors of beams made of FGMs. Then we derive nonlinear governing equations of PFGMTEEMs beams using the principle of Hamilton. To obtain analytical solutions, a two-step perturbation method is developed in nonuniform electric field and magnetic field, and then we use it to solve nonlinear equations. Finally, the analytical solutions are utilized to perform a parametric analysis, where the effect of various physical parameters on static bending deformation of nanobeams are studied in detail, such as the nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, the ratio of nonlocal parameter to strain gradient parameter, porosity volume fraction, material volume fraction index, temperature, initial magnetic potentials and external electric potentials.

The Material Values, Attitudes toward Money, and Money Use Behavior of Female Collegians (여자대학생의 물질주의 가치성향과 화폐에 대한 태도 및 금전사용행동)

  • 홍은실;황덕순;한경미
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.143-158
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of the material values, attitudes toward money, and the background variables to the money use behavior of female collegians. The samples were selected from 541 female collegians. Cronbach$\alpha$, One-way ANOVA, Duncan test, Multiple regression, Path analysis were used as statistical analysis. The results were summarized as follows : Resulting from multiple regression analysis, the money use behavior of female collegians had the positive linear relationships with the variables such as mothers level of education, material values, and 3 money attitude - the means of security, the symbol of anxiety, the means of pleasure - in five money attitude dimensions. The most influential variable was money attitude of the means of security.

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Nonlinear forced vibration of sandwich plate with considering FG core and CNTs reinforced nano-composite face sheets

  • Rostami, Rasoul;Rahaghi, Mohsen Irani;Mohammadimehr, Mehdi
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.185-193
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    • 2020
  • Nonlinear vibration of sandwich plate with functionally graded material (FGM) core and carbon nano tubes reinforced (CNTs) nano-composite layers by considering temperature-dependent material properties are studied in this paper. Base on Classical plate theory (CPT), the governing partial differential equations of motion for sandwich plate are derived using Hamilton principle. The Galerkin procedure and multiple scales perturbation method are used to find relation between nonlinear frequency and amplitude of vibration response. The dynamic responses of the sandwich plate are also investigated in both time and frequency domains. Then, the effects of nonlinearity, excitation, power law index of FG core, volume fraction of carbon nanotube, the function of material variations of FG core, temperature changes, scale transformation parameter and damping factor on the frequency responses are investigated.

Pulverizer Development for multiple cracking of polymer materials (고분자재료의 다중파쇄 분쇄기 개발)

  • Jung H.S.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.1668-1671
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    • 2005
  • Vulcanized natural rubber was pulverized using a single screw extruder in a non-cryogenic Solid Shear Extrusion process where rubber granulates were subjected to high compressive and shear stresses. The producted particles had diameters ranging from 40 to 1200$\{mu}m$. A principle used in this paper was developed in Russia. The development method for producing a polymeric material powder consists in compressing said material by shearing the material during a pressure increase and cooling. Consecutive breakdown is carried out by shearing the material during the pressure decrease and cooling.

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Optimal Design of Multiperiod Process-Inventory Network Considering Transportation Processes (수송공정을 고려한 다분기 공정-저장조 망구조의 최적설계)

  • Suh, Kuen-Hack;Yi, Gyeong-Beom
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.854-862
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    • 2012
  • The optimal design of batch-storage network by using periodic square wave model provides analytical lot sizing equations for a complex supply chain network characterized as multi-supplier, multi-product, multi-stage, non-serial, multi-customer, cyclic system including recycling and/or remanufacturing. The network structure includes multiple currency flows as well as material flows. The processes are represented by multiple feedstock/product materials with fixed composition which are very suitable for production processes. In this study, transportation processes that carry multiple materials with unknown composition are added and the time frame is changed from single period into multiple periods in order to represent nonperiodic parameter variations. The objective function of the optimization involves minimizing the opportunity costs of annualized capital investments and currency/material inventories minus the benefit to stockholders in the numeraire currency. The expressions for the Kuhn-Tucker conditions of the optimization problem are reduced to a multiperiod subproblem for average flow rates and analytical lot-sizing equations. The multiperiod lot sizing equations are different from single period ones. The effects of corporate income taxes, interest rates and exchange rates are incorporated.

Evolutionary Algorithm for Process Plan Selection with Multiple Objectives

  • MOON, Chiung;LEE, Younghae;GEN, Mitsuo
    • Industrial Engineering and Management Systems
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.116-122
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    • 2004
  • This paper presents a process plan selection model with multiple objectives. The process plans for all parts should be selected under multiple objective environment as follows: (1) minimizing the sum of machine processing and material handling time of all the parts considering realistic shop factors such as production volume, processing time, machine capacity, and capacity of transfer device. (2) balancing the load between machines. A multiple objective mathematical model is proposed and an evolutionary algorithm with the adaptive recombination strategy is developed to solve the model. To illustrate the efficiency of proposed approach, numerical examples are presented. The proposed approach is found to be effective in offering a set of satisfactory Pareto solutions within a satisfactory CPU time in a multiple objective environment.

An Integrated Inventory Model for a Three-Layer Supply Chain with Multiple Items (3단계 공급사슬에서 다완제품의 통합재고모형에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dae-Hong
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.116-125
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, we investigate an inventory and production system in a three-layer supply chain system involving a single supplier, single manufacturer and multiple retailers. Earlier study in this type of supply chain only consider a single raw material in order to produce single item, but we consider raw materials in order to produce multiple items. It is assumed that the cycle time at each stage is an integer multiple of the adjacent downstream stage. We develop an iterative solution procedure to find the order quantity for the multiple items and raw materials that minimizes the supply chain-wide total cost per unit time of the supplier and manufacturer's raw materials ordering and holding, setup and finished items holding, the retailer's ordering and inventory holding. Numerical examples are presented to show that the proposed heuristic gives good performance.