• Title, Summary, Keyword: Musk Production

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Quantified Analyses of Musk Deer Farming in China: A Tool for Sustainable Musk Production and Ex situ Conservation

  • Meng, Xiuxiang;Gong, Baocao;Ma, Guang;Xiang, Leilei
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1473-1482
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    • 2011
  • Adult male musk deer (Moschus spp.) secrete musk, a widely used ingredient in traditional Asian medicine and the international perfume industry. Musk deer are endangered due to historic over-utilization of musk and habitat loss. Musk deer farming, provides an important way of conserving musk deer and ensuring a sustainable musk supply. For over 50 years musk deer farming has been conducted in China with the endangered Alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) the predominant farmed musk deer species. To date, few studies have examined the musk production of captive musk deer. This study analyzed musk-extraction data collected from 1997 to 2009 at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, Gansu, China. The musk-extraction ratio (MER) of captive male musk deer was 90.30% (n = 732), while the annual average musk extraction (AME) per animal was $7.90{\pm}0.17\;g$ with the range from 0.00 g to 34.20 g (n = 732). The origin of the deer had an influence on AME and MER production, with male wild-captured (WC) individuals recording higher values (AME, $8.76{\pm}0.27\;g$, n = 272; MER, 93.75%, n = 272) than those of captive breeding (CB) males (AME: $7.39{\pm}0.22\;g$, n = 460; MER: 88.26%, n = 460). The origin of an individual's parents, however, did not influence AME and MER. Age also influenced musk production with the MER of 1.5-year-old males being 87.5% with an average musk production of $8.27{\pm}0.47\;g$ (n = 96). The peak period for musk production was from 1.5 to 8.5 years of age. The results of our study demonstrate musk deer farming could work as an effective measure to protect musk deer and provide sustainable musk resources, however, the musk production including MER and AME could be improved through optimizing the managing and breeding system in endangered musk deer farming.

Effects of the water soluble fraction of the musk on the activities of murine peritoneal macrophages (사향(麝香)의 수용성분(水容性分)이 생쥐 복강내(腹腔內) 거식세포(巨食細胞)의 활성(活性)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lim Seok-Rhin
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.147-155
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    • 2002
  • The musk has been reported to have significant anti-inflammatory activities in clinical use and several animal models and we examined the effects of water soluble fraction(WSF) of the musk on murine peritoneal macrophages. WSF decreased the production of nitric oxide from the lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-treated murine peritoneal macrophages and also reduced the phagocytic activity of macrophages on the opsonized sheep red blood cells(SRBC). Transcriptional expression level of the inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) was also decreased and the viability of the treated macrophages was not affected by WSF, suggesting that the effects could be partly explained by transcriptional regulation. Contrary to down-regulating iNOS expression, WSF slightly increased the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha$(TNF-{\alpha})$, which implied its selective action on cellular pathways activated by LPS. Our results showed that anti-inflammatory activities of the musk could be partly explained by the inhibitory effects of the water soluble fraction on the macrophageal activation.

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Behavioral Aspects of Captive Alpine Musk Deer during Non-mating Season: Gender Differences and Monthly Patterns

  • Meng, Xiuxiang;Zhao, Changjie;Hui, Cenyi;Luan, Xiaofeng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.707-712
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    • 2011
  • The objective of the present study was to determine gender-related and month-related behavioral differences in captive alpine musk deer. The study was conducted at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF) of Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve in Gansu Province of western China. The integrated method of focal sampling and all occurrence recording was utilized to quantify the behavioural patterns of 45 captive alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) during non-mating season (from August $1^{st}$ to October $25^{th}$), and the behavioural durations of 12 behavioural patterns such as standing-gazing were recorded. The behavioural modes were compared to explore the potential differences between females and males, and the monthly behavioural modes for males and females were analyzed. Our results showed that the captive female deer in XMDF could compensate the energy lost in pregnancy, parturition and lactation through improving its ingestive efficiency. In order to be more sensitive to the changing environment, females expressed more standing-gazing (SG: $67.38{\pm}12.69\;s$) and moving (MO; $27.41{\pm}5.02\;s$), but less bedding (BE: $42.32{\pm}11.35\;s$) than male deer (SG: $56.43{\pm}9.19\;s$; MO: $19.23{\pm}4.64\;s$; BE: $96.14{\pm}15.71\;s$). Furthermore, females perform more affinitive interaction (AI: $7.89{\pm}4.81\;s$) but less ano-genital sniffing (AS: $0.24{\pm}0.13\;s$) and agonistic behaviour (CI: $0.57{\pm}0.26\;s$) than males (AI: $1.45{\pm}1.09\;s$; AS: $0.45{\pm}0.29\;s$; CI: $1.42{\pm}0.67\;s$). The females expressed ingestion more in October ($132.31{\pm}27.47\;s$) than in August ($28.80{\pm}18.44\;s$) and September ($45.1{\pm}10.84\;s$), and the males performed Ano-genital sniffing (AS: $1.79{\pm}1.14\;s$) and self-directed behaviour (SD: $12.61{\pm}5.03\;s$) significantly more in October than in August (AS: 0 s; SD: $0.62{\pm}0.17\;s$) and September (AS: $0.02{\pm}0.01\;s$; SD: $0.17{\pm}0.15\;s$). Moreover, male musk deer increased the intension of ano-genital sniffing, agonistic behaviour and tail rubbing behaviour, which were related to sexual activities.

The influence of individual factors on the number of reindeer (Cervidae) in the Baikal region

  • Vashukevich, Yury Evgenjevich;Zhovtyuk, Pavel Ivanovich;Shvetsova, Svetlana Viktorovna;Bogdanov, Alexandr Sergeevich
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.35-38
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    • 2014
  • The article considers the influence of hunting (legitimate and uncontrolled) on the population of the Siberian roe deer, musk deer, elk, red and northern deer in Pribaikalje. The data on the forms and methods of hunting, the dynamics of the number of animals and the results of their production are given. For comparison, the acts of such a limiting factor as predators are specified. Reasons for the low number of wild ungulates are determined and main problems are formulated.

Economic Analysis on Desalination Technology for Saline Agricultural Land on the Basis of Crop Production (염류집적 농경지 제염기술에 대한 경제성분석 - 작물생산량을 기준으로)

  • Kim, Do-Hyung;Choi, Jeong-Hee;Kim, Lee-Yul;Nam, Chang-Mo;Baek, Ki-Tae
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.40-48
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    • 2012
  • In this study, economic analysis of five desalination technologies for saline agricultural land was carried out. The analysis was comprehensively evaluated by calculating changes in crop production and benefit/cost (B/C) ratio. The analysis of crop production was in the order of tomato > cucumber > a (musk) melon > watermelon > cabbage, and economical efficiency for desalination technology was in the order of soil exchange > soil addition > electrokinetics > under-drainage > subsoil reversal. In cost benefit analysis, B/C ratio was in the order of under-drainage > soil exchange > electrokinetics > soil addition > subsoil reversal, and all desalination technologies used in this study have the ratio higher than 1, which means economical efficiency was high. Based on the net production considering B/C ratio, the general economic analysis was exactly order from that of crop production analysis. As a result, economical efficiency of soil exchange was highest, and economical efficiency of soil addition and electrokinetic was relatively higher than others.