• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mutliple contact

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Conditions for manipulation of object with multiple contacts by intelligent Jig system

  • Yashima, Masahito;Kimura, Hiroshi
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.522-525
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    • 1995
  • A manipulation of a multiple contacted object by a Rotational Base and Single-jointed Finger mechanism(RBSF mechanism) is discussed. The manipulation is characterized by multiple contacts on an object and large motions of the object with sliding contacts. The kinematics and dynamics allowing sliding at multiple contacts are explored. The conditions for manipulation of an object at multiple contacts by the RBSF mechanism, which cannot exert arbitrary contact forces because it has a fewer number of joints than is required for active control, is presented.

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Drug Resistance Patterns of the Bacterial Strains Isolated from Rural Areas and an Urban General Hospital (무의촌균주(無醫村菌株) 및 병원균주(病院菌株)의 항균제(抗菌劑) 내성(耐性) 양상(樣相)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Rhee, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Ik-Sang;Shin, Hee-Sup;Cha, Chang-Yong;Lee, Seung-Hoon;Chang, Woo-Hyun;Lim, Jung-Kyoo
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.19-32
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    • 1980
  • Besides the benefits of antimicrobial agents in the control of various infectious diseases, widespread and prolonged use of particular antimicrobial agents has brought about the increase of drug-resistant strains in a community and the profound changes in the pattern of infectious diseases. In Korea, there are some remote villages where no clinics and drug stores are available and the residents in those areas are assumed to have fewer chances to contact with antimicrobial agents. In the present study, the differences in susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobial agents between the isolates from rural areas(R) and Seoul National University Hospital(SNUH, H) were studied. The isolates and their numbers were Staphylococcus aureus, R;55, H;68), Enterococci(R;28, H;30), Escherichia coli(R;40, H;40), Enterobacter aerogenes(R;25, H;21) and Klebsiella pneunoniae(R;58, H;67). Minimal inhibitory concentrations(MIC's) of penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, oxytetracyline, doxycycline, minocycline, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, troleandomycin and co-trimoxazole were determined by agar dilution method. I. Comparison of MIC's and resistant strain proportions between isolates from SNUH and rural areas. MIC's and/or resistant strain proportions of the isolates from SNUH were significantly higher than those of the isolates from rural areas in the cases of 1. S. aureus to doxycycline, streptomycin and kanamycin. 2. E. coli to penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, streptomycin, kanamycin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole. 3. E. aerogences to carbenicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, streptomycin, kanamycin, genaamicin and co-trimoxazole. 4. K pneunoniae to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, monocycline, streptomycin, kanamycine, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole. However, the mean MIC and resistant strain proportion of S. aureus to tetracycline were higher in isolates from rural areas than in those from SNUH and Enterococci showed no differences in susceptibilities to the antimicrobial agents between isolates from rural areas and from SNUH. Therefore, in general, differenes in susceptibility to these antimicrobial agents between the isolates from rural areas and SNUH were remarkably greater and broader in gram negative enteric bacteria. II. Multiple drug resistance pattern. Patterns and incidences of multiple drug resistance were studied with penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalexin, gentamicin, streptomcin, kanamycin and co-trimoxazole in Enterococci, E. coli, E. aeroges and K. pneumoniae. There appeared significant differences in the incidence of multiply drug-resistant strains and multiple drug resistance patterns between the isolates from SNUH and rural areas in Enterococci, E. coli, E. aerogenes and K. pneumoniae. However, there was no difference in the incidence of multiply drug-resistant strains between isolates of S. aureus from SNUH and rural areas but the pattern of multiple resistance of the SNUH strains of S. aureus was diverse, while that of the rural strains was predominantly confined to penicillin-tetracycline combination. The incidence of multigly drug-resistant strains and diversity of their patterns were the highest in E. coli strains isolated from SNUH and there were no multiply drug resistant strrains in Enterococci and K. pneumoniae strains isolated from rural areas. The number of drug-resistance determinants was also different between the isolates from rural areas and SNUH. Most of the multiply drug-resistant strains of E. coli, E. aerogenes and K. pneumoniae isolated from SNUH were resistant to more than 3 kinds of antimicrobial agents, most frequently to ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin, while multiply drug-resistant strains from rural areas were resistant to 2 kinds of antimicrobial agents among ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin. With drug-resistant E. coli strains, resistance to tetracycline which was used most widely since 1951 was most frequently involved as a part of mutliple drug-resistance, followed by resistance to ampicillin and streptomycin. This strongly suggests that emergence of drug-restant strains in a community is directly dependent on the selective pressure exerted by the antimicrobial agent used. III. Cross resistance. Cross resistance of bacteria was studied among tetracycline penicillin, aminoglycoside and macrolide derivatives by analyzing correlation coefficients of sucseptibilities using the least square method. In this study, there were high correlations among the susceptibilities to related derivatives. It appears that the relatively low correlations in susceptibilities present in some cases are due to intrinsic resistance of E. aerogenes to penicillin, Enterococci to aminoglycoside and E. coli E. aerogenes and K. pneumoniae to macrolide derivatives.

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