• Title, Summary, Keyword: Myocardial Ischemia(MI)

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Supplementation with psyllium seed husk reduces myocardial damage in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion

  • Lim, Sun Ha;Lee, Jongwon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.205-213
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Myocardial infarction (MI) is caused by extensive myocardial damage attributed to the occlusion of coronary arteries. Our previous study in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) demonstrated that administration of arabinoxylan (AX), comprising arabinose and xylose, protects against myocardial injury. In this study, we undertook to investigate whether psyllium seed husk (PSH), a safe dietary fiber containing a high level of AX (> 50%), also imparts protection against myocardial injury in the same rat model. MATERIALS/METHODS: Rats were fed diets supplemented with PSH (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/d) for 3 d. The rats were then subjected to 30 min ischemia through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by 3 h reperfusion through release of the ligation. The hearts were harvested and cut into four slices. To assess infarct size (IS), an index representing heart damage, the slices were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). To elucidate underlying mechanisms, Western blotting was performed for the slices. RESULTS: Supplementation with 10 or 100 mg/kg/d of PSH significantly reduces the IS. PSH supplementation (100 mg/kg/d) tends to reduce caspase-3 generation and increase BCL-2/BAX ratio. PSH supplementation also upregulates the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and its target genes including antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). PSH supplementation upregulates some sirtuins ($NAD^+$-dependent deacetylases) including SIRT5 (a mitochondrial sirtuin) and SIRT6 and SIRT7 (nuclear sirtuins). Finally, PSH supplementation upregulates the expression of protein kinase A (PKA), and increases phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (pCREB), a target protein of PKA. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study indicate that PSH consumption reduces myocardial I/R injury in rats by inhibiting the apoptotic cascades through modulation of gene expression of several genes located upstream of apoptosis. Therefore, we believe that PSH can be developed as a functional food that would be beneficial in the prevention of MI.

Comparison of HRV Time and Frequency Domain Features for Myocardial Ischemia Detection (심근허혈검출을 위한 심박변이도의 시간과 주파수 영역에서의 특징 비교)

  • Tian, Xue-Wei;Zhang, Zhen-Xing;Lee, Sang-Hong;Lim, Joon-S.
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.271-280
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    • 2011
  • Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis is a convenient tool to assess Myocardial Ischemia (MI). The analysis methods of HRV can be divided into time domain and frequency domain analysis. This paper uses wavelet transform as frequency domain analysis in contrast to time domain analysis in short term HRV analysis. ST-T and normal episodes are collected from the European ST-T database and the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm database, respectively. An episode can be divided into several segments, each of which is formed by 32 successive RR intervals. Eighteen HRV features are extracted from each segment by the time and frequency domain analysis. To diagnose MI, the Neural Network with Weighted Fuzzy Membership functions (NEWFM) is used with the extracted 18 features. The results show that the average accuracy from time and frequency domain features is 75.29% and 80.93%, respectively.

Alterations of Proteins in Artificially Induced Chronic Myocardial Infarction in Rats

  • Lee, Mi-Jin;Tae, Hyun-Jin;Yu, Do-Hyeon;Li, Ying-Hua;Lee, Jong-Hyun;Yoon, Ji-Seon;Lee, Seok-Won;Kim, In-Shik;Park, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.152-158
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    • 2008
  • We investigated the changes of protein in chronic MI which was occurred with long-term ischemia, without reperfusion. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into the sham group and the experimental groups (MI groups). The sham group was treated only thoracotomy without ligation for left main descending artery (LMDA) of left coronary artery (LCA), and the experimental groups (MI7d, ligation of LMDA for 7 days and MI30d, ligation of LMDA for 30 days) were conducted an artificial chronic MI. The change of proteins according to passage of times was compared and analyzed on first and second dimension (1 and 2D) sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Among total 46 spots expressed differentially in the sham group versus MI7d and MI30d groups on 2D gel, we selected proteins that the volume of spot was increased in the MI7d and MI30d groups compared with the sham group. After that, the proteins were identified through liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In result, we could obtain many proteins as follows; albumin, glucose regulated protein 58 KDa, similar to tripartite motif protein 50, ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein II, sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase, ATP synthetase alpha chain (mitochondrial precursor) and creatine kinase. In conclusion, we suggest many changed proteins shown at chronic ischemia after artificial MI and consider that these proteins play an important role in the function of heart after MI.

Hypothermia Improves Outcomes of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation After Cardiac Arrest In a Rat Model of Myocardial Infarction (심근경색에 의한 심정지 후 치료적 저체온증으로 호전된 쥐의 심폐소생술 모델)

  • Roh, Sang-Gyun;Kim, Jee-Hee;Moon, Tae-Young;Park, Jeong-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the KAIS Fall Conference
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    • pp.170-173
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    • 2011
  • Therapeutic hypothermia(TH) improves neurological outcomes and reduces mortality among survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Animal and human studies have shown that TH results in improved salvage of the myocardium, reduced infarct size, reduced left ventricular remodeling and better long-term left ventricular function in settings of regional myocardial ischemia. This study is to investigate the effect of TH on post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction and survival time after cardiac arrest and resuscitation in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Thoracotomies were performed in 10 Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 450-550 g. MI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Ninety min after LAD ligation, ventricular fibrillation induction and subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed before defibrillation attempts. Animals were randomized to two groups: a) Acute MI-Normothermia b) Acute MI-Hypothermia ($32^{\circ}C$ for 4 h). Myocardial functions, including cardiac output, left ventricular ejection fraction, and myocardial performance index were measured echocardiographically together with duration of survival. Ejection fraction, cardiac output and myocardial performance index were $54.74{\pm}9.16$, $89.00{\pm}8.89$, $1.30{\pm}0.09$ respectively and significantly better in the TH group than those of the normothermic group at the first 4 h after resuscitation($32.20{\pm}1.85$,$41.60{\pm}8.62$,$1.77{\pm}0.19$)(p=0.00). The survival time of the hypothermic group ($31.8{\pm}14.8$ h) was greater than that of the normothermic group($12.3{\pm}6.5$ h, p<0.05). This study suggested that TH attenuated post resuscitation myocardial dysfunction in acute MI and would be a potential strategy in post resuscitation care.

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Myocardial Protection by Recombinant Soluble P-selectin Glyco-protein Ligand-1: Suppression of Neutrophil and Platelet Interaction Following Ischemia and Reperfusion

  • Ham, Sang-Soo;Jang, Yoon-Young;Song, Jin-Ho;Lee, Hyang-Mi;Kim, Kwang-Joon;Hong, Jun-Sik;Shin, Yong-Kyoo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.4 no.6
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    • pp.515-523
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    • 2000
  • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) play an important role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Moreover, platelets are also important blood cells that can aggravate myocardial ischemic injury. This study was designed to test the effects of PMNs and platelets separately and together in provoking cardiac dysfunction in isolated perfused rat hearts following ischemia and reperfusion. Additional control rat hearts were perfused with $75{\times}10^6$ PMNs, with $75{\times}10^6$ platelets, or with $75{\times}10^6\;PMNs+75{\times}10^6$ platelets over a five minute perfusion followed by a 75 min observation period. No significant reduction in coronary flow (CF), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), or the first derivative of LVDP (dP/dt max) was observed at the end of the observation period in any non-ischemic group. Similarly, global ischemia (I) for 20 min followed by 45 minutes of reperfusion (R) produced no sustained effects on the final recovery of any of these parameters in any group of hearts perfused in the absence of blood cells. However, I/R hearts perfused with either PMNs or platelets alone exhibited decreases in these variables of $5{\sim}10%$ (p<0.05 from control). Furthermore, I/R hearts perfused with both PMNs and platelets exhibited decreases of 50 to 60% in all measurements of cardiac function (p<0.01). These dual cell perfused I/R hearts also exhibited marked increases in cardiac myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity indicating a significant PMN infiltration, and enhanced P-selectin expression on the coronary microvascular endothelium. All cardiaodynamic effects as well as PMN accumulation and P-selectin expression were markedly attenuated by a recombinant soluble PSGL-1 which inhibits selectin mediated cell adhesion. These results provide evidence that platelets and PMNs act synergistically in provoking post-reperfusion cardiac dysfunction, and that this may be largely due to cell to cell interactions mediated by P-selectin. These results also demonstrate that a recombinant soluble PSGL-1 reduces myocardial reperfusion injury by platelet and PMNs interaction.

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Apple pectin, a dietary fiber, ameliorates myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion

  • Lim, Sun Ha;Kim, Mi Young;Lee, Jongwon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.391-397
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Myocardial cell death due to occlusion of the coronary arteries leads to myocardial infarction, a subset of coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary fiber is known to be associated with a reduced risk of CHD, the underlying mechanisms of which were suggested to delay the onset of occlusion by ameliorating risk factors. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that a beneficial role of dietary fiber could arise from protection of myocardial cells against ischemic injury, manifested after occlusion of the arteries. MATERIALS/METHODS: Three days after rats were fed apple pectin (AP) (with 10, 40, 100, and 400 mg/kg/day), myocardial ischemic injury was induced by 30 min-ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by 3 hr-reperfusion. The area at risk and infarct area were evaluated using Evans blue dye and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, respectively. DNA nicks reflecting the extent of myocardial apoptosis were assessed by TUNEL assay. Levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax were assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Supplementation of AP (with 100 and 400 mg/kg/day) resulted in significantly attenuated infarct size (IS) (ratio of infarct area to area at risk) by 21.9 and 22.4%, respectively, in the AP-treated group, compared with that in the control group. This attenuation in IS showed correlation with improvement in biomarkers involved in the apoptotic cascades: reduction of apoptotic cells, inhibition of conversion of procaspase-3 to caspase-3, and increase of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, a determinant of cell fate. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that supplementation of AP results in amelioration of myocardial infarction by inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, the current study suggests that intake of dietary fiber reduces the risk of CHD, not only by blocking steps leading to occlusion, but also by protecting against ischemic injury caused by occlusion of the arteries.

KR-32158 protects heart-derived H9c2 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death

  • Kim, Mi-Jeong;Jung, Yi-Sook;Kim, Sun-Ok;Lee, Dong-Ha;Lim, Hong;Yi, Kyu-Yang;Yoo, Sung-Eun;Lee, Soo-Hwan;Baik, Eun-Joo
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.131-131
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    • 2003
  • A benzopyranyl derivative, KR32158, synthesized as a plausible KATP opener, has been shown to exert cardioprotective effect in vivo myocardial infarction model. Myocardial ischemia, induced by oxidative stress, mental stress and fever, result in artheroscleosis, myocardial infarction and hypertrophy. In this study, we investigated in vitro effect of KR32158 by determining whether KR32158 produce cardioprotective effect against oxidative stress-induced death in heart-derived H9c2 cells. (omitted)

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miR-23a Regulates Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis by Targeting Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

  • Long, Bo;Gan, Tian-Yi;Zhang, Rong-Cheng;Zhang, Yu-Hui
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.542-549
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    • 2017
  • Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is initiated by various cellular insults and accumulated cardiomyocyte apoptosis leads to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) provoke apoptotic cascades. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is an important antioxidant enzyme that converts cellular ROS into harmless products. In this study, we demonstrate that MnSOD is down-regulated upon hydrogen peroxide treatment or ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Enhanced expression of MnSOD attenuates cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial infarction induced by I/R injury. Further, we show that miR-23a directly regulates the expression of MnSOD. miR-23a regulates cardiomyocyte apoptosis by suppressing the expression of MnSOD. Our study reveals a novel model regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis which is composed of miR-23a and MnSOD. Our study provides a new method to tackling apoptosis related cardiac diseases.

The Effects of Gamigunshimtang on the Ischemic Heart Disease & Heart cell in Rats (허혈성심장(虛血性心臟) 및 심장세포(心臟細胞)에 대(對)한 가미건심탕(加味健心湯)의 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Jung-Mi;Moon, Sang-Kwan;Go, Chang-Nam;Cho, Gi-Ho;Kim, Kyung-Suk;Bae, Hyung-Sup;Lee, Kyung-Sup
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.251-270
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    • 1998
  • The effects of Gamigunshimtang on the isolated perfused ischemic heart in rats, heart rates, left ventricular pressure, cardiac blood flow and cardiotoxicity were stu.died in H9C2 myoblast cell, myocardial slice culture The results were as follows: 1. The administration of Gamigunshimtang to the rat recovered effectively heart rate, left ventricular pressure and flow rate from the experimental ischemia in perfused rat heart. The release of lactic dehydrogenase after the ischemia also decreased compared to the control group. 2. The administration of Gamigunshimtang to H9C2 myoblast culture enhanced the cell proliferation and protected against doxorubicin and allylamine induced release of the lactic dehydrogenase into the culture medium. It also protected effectively against doxorubicin and allylamine induced decrease of Ca ATPase activity and the increase of NADPH-cytochrome C reductase activity in the microsome. 3. The administration of Gamigunshimtang to the rat myocardial slice culture protected effectively against doxorubicin and allylamine induced decreases of protein synthesis and ATP content, and increases of cvtosolic enzyme, creatin kinase into the medium and lipid peroxidation.

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The Resting Electrocardiographic ST Segment Depression and Related Factors at a Rural Adult Community, Korea (한 농촌 지역 일반 성인의 휴지기 심전도 상 ST 분절 하강과 관련 요인)

  • Kim, Yu-Mi;Kim, Mi-Kyung;Shin, Jin-Ho;Lim, Heon-Kil;Paek, Do-Myung;Choi, Bo-Youl
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.485-492
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : To measure the distribution of electrocardiographic ST segment depression, and evaluate its relationships with cardiovascular risk factors based on the cross-sectional studies within a rural Korean community Methods : This study analyzed 1,343 persons, over 40 years old, who participated in a baseline survey during 2002-2005; the exclusion criteria included: a past history of myocardial infarction and angina pectoris, and specific conduction abnormalities. A Standard 12 leads ECG was recorded using an FCP-2101 (Fukuda Denshi Co.). The ST segment depression was retrospectively measured by a physician, according to the Minnesota code classification. Results : ST segment depression was found in 3.6 and 6.4% of male and female participants, respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking, physical activity and obesity differences, high blood pressure showed significant relations with ST depression in females (male ORs=2.67, 95% CI=0.85-8.50; female ORs=2.62, 95% CI=1.29-5.32) Conclusions : As an ischemic ECG sign, ST depression was related to hypertension in female participants. This relationship remained significant, even after cases with left ventricular hypertrophy were removed.