• Title, Summary, Keyword: N-end rule

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N-Terminal Acetylation-Targeted N-End Rule Proteolytic System: The Ac/N-End Rule Pathway

  • Lee, Kang-Eun;Heo, Ji-Eun;Kim, Jeong-Mok;Hwang, Cheol-Sang
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 2016
  • Although $N{\alpha}$-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) is a pervasive protein modification in eukaryotes, its general functions in a majority of proteins are poorly understood. In 2010, it was discovered that Nt-acetylation creates a specific protein degradation signal that is targeted by a new class of the N-end rule proteolytic system, called the Ac/N-end rule pathway. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the mechanism and biological functions of the Ac/N-end rule pathway, and its crosstalk with the Arg/N-end rule pathway (the classical N-end rule pathway).

Limitation of Protein Half-life Prediction in Computational Approach Based on N-end Rule (N-end rule 기반 단백질 수명 예측 프로그램의 한계)

  • Ryu, Jea Woon;Kim, Hak Yong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
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    • pp.339-340
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    • 2011
  • 본 연구는 N말단 아미노산 종류에 따라 단백질의 수명(half-life)이 결정된다는 N-end rule을 기반으로 단백질 수명을 예측해주는 프로그램인 protparam의 결과와 bleach-chase를 이용한 실험 데이터를 비교 분석하였다. 단백질 수명을 결정하는 여러 요인들을 고려하지 않고 한 가지 요인만을 반영한 protparam의 결과는 실제 측정값과 현격한 차이를 나타낸다. 특히 실제 단백질은 NME(N-terminal Methionine Excision) 현상이 일어나는데 이를 고려하지 않고 유전체에서 번역한 그대로의 아미노산 서열을 가지고 단백질 수명을 계산하는 한계를 가지고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서 N말단 아미노산을 순차적으로 제거하여 N-end rule을 적용한 결과도 실험 데이터와 일치하지 않는 결과를 보여주고 있음을 확인하였다. 따라서 현재 사용되고 있는 단백질 수명 예측 프로그램은 이런 문제점을 가지고 있기 때문에 새로운 예측 알고리즘의 개발이 요구된다.

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Salinosporamides A and B Inhibit Proteasome Activity and Delay the Degradation of N-end Rule Model Substrates

  • Shin, Seung Kyun;Bang, Dae In;Choi, Won Hoon;Kim, Seong-Hwan;Oh, Dong-Chan;Lee, Min Jae
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.1425-1428
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    • 2013
  • The proteasome, which is highly evolutionarily conserved, is responsible for the degradation of most short-lived proteins in cells. Small-molecule inhibitors targeting the proteasome's degradative activity have been extensively developed as lead compounds for various human diseases. An exemplified molecule is bortezomib, which was approved by FDA in 2003 for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Here, using transiently and stably expressed N-end rule model substrates in mammalian cells, we evaluated and identified that salinosporamide A and salinosporamide B effectively inhibited the proteasomal degradation. Considering that a variety of proteasome substrates are implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, they have the potential to be clinically applicable as therapeutic agents.

Ablation of Arg-tRNA-protein transferases results in defective neural tube development

  • Kim, Eunkyoung;Kim, Seonmu;Lee, Jung Hoon;Kwon, Yong Tae;Lee, Min Jae
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.8
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    • pp.443-448
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    • 2016
  • The arginylation branch of the N-end rule pathway is a ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system in which post-translational conjugation of Arg by ATE1-encoded Arg-tRNA-protein transferase to N-terminal Asp, Glu, or oxidized Cys residues generates essential degradation signals. Here, we characterized the ATE1−/− mice and identified the essential role of N-terminal arginylation in neural tube development. ATE1-null mice showed severe intracerebral hemorrhages and cystic space near the neural tubes. Expression of ATE1 was prominent in the developing brain and spinal cord, and this pattern overlapped with the migration path of neural stem cells. The ATE1−/− brain showed defective G-protein signaling. Finally, we observed reduced mitosis in ATE1−/− neuroepithelium and a significantly higher nitric oxide concentration in the ATE1−/− brain. Our results strongly suggest that the crucial role of ATE1 in neural tube development is directly related to proper turn-over of the RGS4 protein, which participate in the oxygen-sensing mechanism in the cells.

Nomenclature of Pyroxenes

  • Morimoto, N.;Fabries, J.;Ferguson, A.K.;Ginzburg, I.V.;Ross, M.;Seifert, F.A.;Zussman, J.;Aoki, A.;Gottardi, G.
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.131-145
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    • 1988
  • This is the final report on the nomenclature of pyroxenes by the Subcommittee on Pyroxenes established by the Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names of the International Mineralogical Association. The recommendations of the Subcommittee as put forward in this report have been formally accepted by the Commission. Accepted and widely used names have been chemically defined, by combining new and conventional methods, to agree as far as possible with the consensus of present use. Twenty names are formally accepted, among which thirteen are used to represent the end members of definite chemical compositions. In common binary solid-solution series, species names are given to the two end members by the "50% rule." Adjectival modifiers for pyroxene mineral names are defined to indicate unusual amounts of chemical constituents. This report includes a list of 105 previously used pyroxene names that have been formally discarded by the Commission.

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N-terminal formylmethionine as a novel initiator and N-degron of eukaryotic proteins

  • Kim, Jeong-Mok
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.163-164
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    • 2019
  • The ribosomal synthesis of proteins in the eukaryotic cytosol has always been thought to start from the unformylated N-terminal (Nt) methionine (Met). In contrast, in virtually all nascent proteins in bacteria and eukaryotic organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, Nt-formyl-methionine (fMet) is the first building block of ribosomal synthesis. Through extensive approaches, including mass spectrometric analyses of the N-termini of proteins and molecular genetic techniques with an affinity-purified antibody for Nt-formylation, we investigated whether Nt-formylated proteins could also be produced and have their own metabolic fate in the cytosol of a eukaryote, such as yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discovered that Nt-formylated proteins could be generated in the cytosol by yeast mitochondrial formyltransferase (Fmt1). These Nt-formylated proteins were massively upregulated in the stationary phase or upon starvation for specific amino acids and were crucial for the adaptation to specific stresses. The stress-activated kinase Gcn2 was strictly required for the upregulation of Nt-formylated proteins by regulating the activity of Fmt1 and its retention in the cytosol. We also found that the Nt-fMet residues of Nt-formylated proteins could be distinct N-terminal degradation signals, termed fMet/N-degrons, and that Psh1 E3 ubiquitin ligase mediated the selective destruction of Nt-formylated proteins as the recognition component of a novel eukaryotic fMet/N-end rule pathway, termed fMet/N-recognin.

Crosstalk and Interplay between the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Autophagy

  • Ji, Chang Hoon;Kwon, Yong Tae
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.441-449
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    • 2017
  • Proteolysis in eukaryotic cells is mainly mediated by the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosome system (hereafter autophagy). The UPS is a selective proteolytic system in which substrates are recognized and tagged with ubiquitin for processive degradation by the proteasome. Autophagy is a bulk degradative system that uses lysosomal hydrolases to degrade proteins as well as various other cellular constituents. Since the inception of their discoveries, the UPS and autophagy were thought to be independent of each other in components, action mechanisms, and substrate selectivity. Recent studies suggest that cells operate a single proteolytic network comprising of the UPS and autophagy that share notable similarity in many aspects and functionally cooperate with each other to maintain proteostasis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk and interplay between the UPS and autophagy, with an emphasis on substrate selectivity and compensatory regulation under cellular stresses.

A study on the railroad library under the Japanese rule (철도도서관에 관한 고찰 -특히 일제하의 도서관봉사활동을 중심으로-)

  • 김포옥
    • Journal of Korean Library and Information Science Society
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    • v.9
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    • pp.63-83
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    • 1982
  • Among many open libraries under the rule of the Japanese imperialism, only the railroad library as the character of special library under the control of the Japanese Government General is remarkable for having opened its facilities to outsiders as well as the interior users. This study tries a) To look into what were the colonial background, aim and motive of the establishment of the railroad library under the Japanese rule, b) To analyze its activities and the change of its organization, c) And to find out its vestiges an the effects which it has on our country's library circles. The following are the result: A. The railroad library under the rule of the Japanese imperialism functioned as a public library by the outside book's circulation rather than the interior using. B. The outsiders were qualified to use it only when they got the joint guarantee for the city resident, which means that the o n.0, pportunity of the circulation was not free for the Koreans rather than the Japanese. C. From the aspect of collections, technical books such as natural science, and reference ones tended to be collected, and their whole composition was focused on the materials for the Japan-Korea identification scheme and development of the national spirit as the Japanese empire's subjects. D. In the respect of its organization, all the clerical employees, as well as the chief librarian were composed of the Japanese. Although the Koreans were in principle prohibited from working there, a few of them were employed as guard or servant as the China-Japan War was close to the end. E. The area of the outside book's, circulation service was expanded throughout the whole region along the railroad connecting Pusan with Manchuria. Such a service activity which contained several meanings, was tried by means of culture's books, circuit's books, train's books, hotel's books, mind's development books and reader's reading books etc. F. Such matters as the limitation on book circulating and the quantity of circulation book, the paid circulation and the partial restriction on free circulation mean the wartime system under the rule of the Japanese imperialism and also a n.0, ppeared as a factor of hampering the Koreans from getting accustomed to using library, which has affected them until now. G. The noticeable thing in the service activity is shown in attempting the diversified and positive way of service like free circulation in order to solidify the attitude of the Koreans toward war by organizing mind's development books as well as culture's books with the China-Japan War. H. On the other hand, it can not be passed over that the diversified service activity of the railroad library played a role of bridge in turning of today's library circles of ours to the modernization.

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Flow resistance of bottom trawl nets and scale effect in their model experiments (저층 트롤어구의 유수저항 특성 및 모형 실험시의 축척비 영향)

  • Kim, Dae-Jin;Kim, Dae-An;Kim, Tae-Ho;Shin, Hyeong-Ho;Jang, Duck-Jong;Cha, Bong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.281-289
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the flow resistance of the bottom trawl net. The bottom trawl net being used in the training ship of Chonnam National University was selected as a full-scale net, and model nets such as 1/10, 1/25 and 1/50 of the actual net were made. Total resistance of the net part, the height of the net mouth and the flow resistance of components of the net such as wing, bag and cod-end part was measured, converted into full-scale and compared. Additionally, the model rule of Tauti (1934), which has been most frequently used in fishing net modeling experiments, was applied to interpret flow resistance and scale effect of model experiment was investigated. Presumed that the flow resistance R is $R=kS{\upsilon}^2$ against the flow velocity of each net ${\upsilon}$, resistance coefficient k was calculated by substituting R, ${\upsilon}$ and S of the net. From the result, it was found that k decreases exponentially when u increases which makes $k=c{\upsilon}^{-m}$. Whereas m of each net is ranged between 0.13-0.16 and there was not significant difference between nets. c does not show big difference in 1/10 and 1/25 model and the value itself was relatively bigger than in 1/50 model. The height of the net mouth of 1/25 and 1/50 model net h decreases exponentially according as ${\upsilon}$ increases to make $h=d{\upsilon}^{-n}$. Whereas d and n values were almost same in two nets. Additionally, when resistance of cod-end, wing and bag part in 1/25 and 1/50 model nets, both nets showed big resistance in bag part when flow is 1m/s as more than 60%. Wing and cod-end part showed almost same value or wing part had little bit larger value. On the other hand, when reviewing the reasons why both models showed difference in 1/50 model while c value against the resistance coefficient k did not show big difference in 1/10 and 1/25 model, it is inferred that the difference occurred not from material difference but from the difference in net size according to scale. It was judged that they are the scale effects concomitant to the model experiments.

Effect of thermal gradients on stress/strain distributions in a thin circular symmetric plate

  • Aleksandrova, Nelli N.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.627-639
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    • 2016
  • The analysis of thermally induced stresses in engineering structures is a very important and necessary task with respect to design and modeling of pressurized containers, heat exchangers, aircrafts segments, etc. to prevent them from failure and improve working conditions. So, the purpose of this study is to investigate elasto-plastic thermal stresses and deformations in a thin annular plate embedded into rigid container. To this end, analytical research devoted to mathematically and physically rigorous stress/strain analysis is performed. In order to evaluate the effect of logarithmic thermal gradients, commonly applied to structures which incorporate thin plate geometries, different thermal parameters such as temperature mismatch and varying constraint temperature were introduced into the model of elastic perfectly-plastic annular plate obeying the von Mises yield criterion with its associated flow rule. The results obtained may be used in sensitive to temperature differences aircraft structures where the thermal effects on equipment must be kept in mind.